Material Information

Struggle official organ of the Workers Liberation League
Uniform Title:
Struggle (Kingston, Jamaica)
Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers Party of Jamaica
Place of Publication:
The League
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Bimonthly[Mar.-Apr. 1986-]
Biweekly[ FORMER -July 13, 1984]
Monthly[ FORMER Aug. 1984-Feb. 1986]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 41 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Labor movement -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Labor movement ( fast )
Politics and government ( fast )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Newspaper Bio: Struggle was published first as a mimeographed newsletter in 1974 when the Workers Liberation League was formed. It was edited by Rupert Lewis and he continued as editor when Struggle became the organ of the Workers Party of Jamaica in 1978. In the 1980s editors included Elean Thomas, Elaine Wallace and Ben Brodie. The Workers Liberation League grew out of the political initiative of academics - Trevor Munroe, Rupert Lewis as well as Don Robotham, Derek Gordon who studied in the University of Chicago in the early 1970s and were connected to activists in the Black Panther Movement and African-American radicals in the Communist Party of the United States. The latter group formed the Paul Bogle League which brought together academics, working class and community activists who read and discussed Karl Marx's Capital and Lenin's political writings and sought to build on Jamaica's radical traditions in the trade union movement and in the People's National Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. The Paul Bogle League was also involved with the formation of the University and Allied Workers Union in the early 1970s and worked with the Independent Trade Union Action Council. Politically the Workers Liberation League gave critical support to Michael Manley's democratic socialist program in the 1970s.
Issuing Body:
Vols. for -1978 issued by Workers' Liberation League; 1979- by Workers' Party of Jamaica.
General Note:
Description based on surrogate of: Issue no. 28 (June 16, 1977); title from caption.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Apr.-May 1986 (surrogate).

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
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Resource Identifier:
05378247 ( OCLC )
sn 91021299 ( LCCN )
5378247 ( OCLC )

Full Text

The Workers Liberation League, along
with .ll those who have the interest of
the country at heart, absolutely con-
demns the onslaught of political vio-

The supporters of both the PNP and the
JLP must do everything to get the well-
thinking leaders of both parties to kick
out the handful of savage terrorists who
are both in the PNP and in the JLP.

Anyone whose battle cry is "death to all
socialists" is in no way representative
of JLP people but is just a violent
parasite. Anyone calling himself a so-
cialist, a communist or a revolutionary
who turns a blind eye to or encourages
at'rocities against JLP supporters is no
socialist at all but just a violent

None of these savages have the support
of the vast majority of Jamaicans, re-
gardless of our political differences.

The vast majority want this violence to
stop now and want the struggles between
the different political organisations
whether democratic socialist, capitalist
or communist to go forward in a peaceful
democratic manner. Continued terror and
violence harm the working people first
and foremost and are completely against
the interests of the people o' the coun-
try who vitally need a stable political
framework in which progressive changes
beneficial to the people can be intro-

This violence and destabili-ation only
serves the interests of the American
Government and the local reactionary
natics who want ta put a stop to pro-

gressive changes no matter what the 'cal victimisation begun during the JLP
cost. The strategy which these forces, years but continued under the PNP
operating through the CIA, have now hit government.
on is to play upon the political tribal-
ism of the JLP and the PNP. Their plan :In particular the WLL demands that im-
is to have JLP attack PNP and PNP / mediate steps be taken to provide JLP
counter-attack JLP until every Jamaican supporters and those who support neither
is living in fear, until utter chaos is .party with a fair share of housing and a
created, until Manley can no longer gov- fair share of government jobs.
ern the country and can be pushed aside.

This plan of the CIA and the American
Government is based on two factors:
First, the fact that the working people
continue to suffer grave economic hard-
ships notwithstanding some of the pro-
gressive measures of Manley. Because of
these grave hardships people are luke-
warm, and do not appreciate the urgent
need to cone together to defend the
country in the present crisis.

Secondly, the two-party division amongst
the people enccurage- JLI people to pro-
tect JLP terrorists and PNP people to
protect PNP terrorists and blind them-
selves to the harr: that is being done to
our country.

The apsw(:r to this crisis of destabili-
sation is therefore two-fold:

Firstly, the Manlty government must act
now against the loc-l and foreign reac-
tionaries to rueuce the economic hard-
ship of the e.crkinq people, especially
to cut down the high ccst ct living.
This is the only way to rally the people
to defend the country in the present

Secondly, the government and Prime
Minister Manley in particular must take
immediate practical steps to end politi-

JOn the-basis of this practical demon-
1 stration of non-partisar.ship we urge the
people to support the Creation of genui-
nely non-partisan community defense
groups in which all working people re-
gardless of their political views will
participate on an absolutely equal foot-

These ractical measures will help to
heal the divisions between the working
people, isolate the terrorists of both
parties and so undercut the strategy of
the CIA and the American Government.
This strategy is to use the terrorists
Ito create open war between PNP and JLP
supporters. The WLL appeals to all
Jamaicans who wish to see our country
truly independent to give support to
these measures so as to help to restore
Sa stable political climate in which
Changes beneficial to the masses of
Working people can go forward.

Vol.3, No.9, May 27, 1976
Editor: Rupert Lewis

s of at co tries nite!
If^^W~f I^^^^^Iv li ~ i;i '''ij'i~j~l^



ALPART bauxite fer of $4.20 for tions
plant in Nain, St.. the skilled work- the woe
Elizabeth, closed ers. strike
down at the end of squeez
,April, following The last 3-year govern
the refusal'of the labour contract ers ar
Management to budge between the NWU the Pr:
from its original which represents to per
wage offer. the workers and the tervon

The NWU has come
down from its first
negotiating posi-
tion of $8.50 per
hoar for the high-
est paid category
of skilled workers.
It is now asking
$6.50. But the
Management hps not
),udged from its of-

Alpart Management
ran out from as
long age as May
1975. The NWU pre-
sented a nqw claim
in June 1975. o
There is a growing
feeling among the
workers that the
Management is deli-
berately dragging
out the negotia-

the neg
As a re
the wor
cal dem
Prime M

to provoke
rkers to
and so to "
e the Manley
ment. Work'
e calling on
ime Minister
sonally in-
e and to
the Alpart
ment back to
to sign a
able and fair
sult of poor
:al education
:kers are not
any politi-
Rands on the

182-184 ORANGE STREET: As a result of an attack by
armed thugs 11 persons were killed. Nine of the 11
were children. 500 people were made homeless.

They are not cal-
ling for national-
ization of Alpart.
They are struggling
only for better
wages and working

At the same time
workers have been
critical of the way
some union offi-
cials have handled
the struggle with
Management.X No
real organized ef-
fort is made to
keep the workers
fully up to date

on the different
moves of the
Management and
since the strike
began on April 29,
only one mass
meeting of workers
was held on the
13th May. Workers
feel strongly that
only their own
unity and determi-
nation can stand
up to the Manage-
ment, especially
in view of the
tough line being

Alpart is the
fourth bauxite
plant to experi-
ence shutdowns
this year only
Kaiser and Rey-
nolds have stayed
open. It is un-
derstood that at
Kaiser in Discov-
ery Bay a similar
situation to that
at. Alpart is dev-
eloping. So far
bauxite production
for 1976 has fal-
len from 15 mil-
.lion in 1975 to. 10
million tons.


At his press con-
ference on May 15
Manley said 21 peo-
ple close to the
PNP or who were PNF
group members had
been killed. He
said that in his
study of the
Chilean experience
of destabilization
under Allende's re-
gime, the agents
were right-wing
businessmen, the
press, the military
and the CIA. In
Jamaica, he said,
the agents had
local and migrant
elements. He also
said that the eco-
nomic squeeze was
being put on
Jamaica and that
there was a slowing
down and entangling
of aid.


Over 100 people
have been killed
through organized
violence since
January 1976. In
spite of curfews in
the Corporate Area
violence continues.

Several thousand
citizens have so
far registered for
the National Home
Guard. Registra-
tion started on
May 17. Prime
Minister Manley was
among those


There have been
strikes at Alpart,
plant, Thermo-
plastics, railway
workers and garment
workers at Marold
of Jamaica Ltd.
Police roughed up
pickets and arrest-
ed three workers
including the Chief
Delegate at Alcan's
Kirkvine works.


The Statistical
Digest published by
the Bank of Jamaica
for April puts the
country's net for-
eign exchange re-
serves at the end
of February at
$11.2 million.




T HAS been defini- The ex-agent was time with the craft, bribery of Castro, during his
ely established taken front Cuba to agency. public officials visit to Chile in
hat the US Govern- the US in 1961 at and psychological November V97
went's Central In- the age of 13. He He also revealed a warfare to attain *
elligence Agency received high CIA plan NOW IN its objectives. De The ex-agent ended'
CIA) was directly school and univer- OPERATION to damage Armas stressed that his statement with
nvolved in the sity education and possibly break the CIA was the a list of CIA offi-
ombing of the there and was re- diplomatic rela- "protecting arm of cials and agents
uban embassy here cruited into the tions between Cuba United States in- now involved in
n 1974. CIA in 1969. For 5 and Venezuela. The terests" and that plans to turn back.
years he operated plan is being car- it acted without the socialist revo-
s most Jamaican as a top agent in ried out behind the any conscience. lution and people's
eople will recall, Cuban counter- back of the Vene- progress in Cuba.
he Cuban embassy, revolutionary exile zuelan Government Historically, he hese are some of
hen situated at terrorist groupings and is spearheaded said, the CIA has, the agents:-

Dillsbury Avenue in
St. Andrew, was
bored twice in
1974. On one of
these occasions,
sleeping children
were injured and
both times, there
was damage to the
building as well as
furniture within
the embassy.

These attacks came
at a time when
Cuba-Jamaica rela-
tions were being

In that same year,
the Cuban embassy
in Mexico was also
attacked and
again the CIA was
in on the planning
and coordination of
this action.

This information
was recently re-
vealed by a former
DE ARMAS, at a news
conference in Cuba.

- for example
"ABDALA" in the
US and Latin


De Armas told re-
porters that he had
broken with the CIA
and decided to re-
turn to Cuba be-
cause of the "per-
sonal, political
and ideological de-
gradation" he had
suffered during his

from the local end
by two CIA officers
under cover as US
diplomats in Vene-
The CIA team in-
volved in this ac-
tion operates from
an apartment in the
"Mayflower" build-
ing in Caracas.

This plan is in
line with one of
the major object-
ives of United
States imperialism
and its grotesque
arm, the CIA, in
Latin America and
the Caribbean at
this time. That is
to prevent regional
governments from
developing rela-
tions with the
People's Republic
of Cuba, the ex-
agent disclosed.

The US agency also
uses attacks on
Cuban fishing

NYS workers sa

NATIONAL Youth Service workers have re-
jected the government's proposal to cut
back on the intake of service workers
and to reduce the NYS programme to one

Beginning in September this year the
government plans to limit the NYS pro-
gramme to one year and to reduce the
annual intake of workers from 4,500 to

The NYS workers at the second congress
of the National Youth Service Workers
League condemned this proposal by the
Minister of Youth, Douglas Manley, as
one which comes at a time when the peo-
ple of the country, including the youth,
are faced with serious economic hard-
ships. 'They also pointed out that the
government had refused to increase their
allowance despite the fact that since
the inception of the Service the cost of
living has gone up by more than the
33 1/3 percent increase the workers are

The delegates trom thirteen parish
associations attending the congress
pointed out that the NYS and other
social programmes could be properly
financed from some of the profits being
made by the foreign and local capital-

ists in the country.

They also noted that
itical situation the
back on the NYS is a
tionary forces who we:
against the Service.
an additional three tl
be forced to seek sca&
this will inevitably
ployment and further
ready unstable social

With regard to an incr
the Service workers sa
decision as "unfair" a
the government only $2
finance the increase f
ers and further, the w
made recommendations
how savings on the pr
made. It was also th
vice workers should b
areas of productive w

The plan of action of
coming months include
mobilise the Service
the decision to cut b
gramme as well as to
decline in et-n.

been the main co-
ordinator, finan-
cer, director and
controller of Cuban
ary exile groups -
the same forces who
boast about their
attack on Cuban
fishermen in April
of this year.

He also spoke of an
unsuccessful CIA
plot to kill Cuban
Prime Minister,
Comrade Fidel

Dominican Republic


to the poorest

LAST week, for the first time in the
history of the country, the vast major-
ity of the island's 16,000 teachers too
determined and wides ale industrial ac-
tion to back up salary demands.

Teachers have been ', their conditions of
dissatisfied with work for many
years. But their
lf form of protest was
l usually grumbling
and complaining.

In the 1960's
teachers went on a
in the present pol- three-day strike.
decision to cut But this action was
victory for reac- carried out half-
re from the outset heartedly and did
It also means that not seem to have
thousand youths will the firm support of
rce employment and the majority of
lead to more unem- teachers.
aggravation of al-
conditions in the Of course such an
action must be seen
within the context
that teachers were
*ease in allowance even worse off
aw the government's then, than now and
is it would cost many could hardl;
million to afford to do with-
or the 4,500 work- out the salary.
rorkers had already %
to government on But the recent
ogramme could be 4 sick-out was more
eir view that Ser- organised and over
e placed into more 90% of the schools
orkt were closed.
On the second day
the NYSWL for the of the sick-out,
s arrangements to the ThJTA called a
workers to fight meeting at Mico
ack on the pro- College. At the
struggle against aCont
,4.,A _F tI.a.,. (Cont'd on back page)


Following are excerpts from a speech
made by Commander-in-Chief, Fidel
Castro, at the ceremony commemorating
the 15th anniversary of the victory of
Playa Giron, Havana, April 19, 1976.

In April 1961 Cuban forces defeated the
invasion of counter-revolutionary forces
backed by the US. In this speech Fidel
Castro refers to the defeat of imperial-
ism in Angola as an "African Giron".
(Editor's Note)

The war in Angola was really Kissinger's
war. Against the advice of some of his
closest collaborators, he insisted on
carrying out covert operations to liqui-
date the MPLA through the counter-
revolutionary FNLA and UNITA groups,
with the support of white mercenaries,
Zaire and South Africa. It is said that
the CIA itself warned him that such
clandestine operations could not be kept
secret. Aside from the fact that the
FNLA was supported by the CIA from the
time it was founded, a fact now publicly
acknowledged, the United States invested
several million dollars from the Spring
of 1975 on, to supply arms and instruct-
ors to the counter-revolutionary and
separatist Angolan groups. Instigated
by the United States, regular troops
from Zaire entered Angolan territory in
the summer of that same year, while
South African military forces occupied
the Cunene area in the month of August
and sent arms and instructors to the
UNITA bands.

At that time there wasn't a single Cuban
instructor in Angola. The first mater-
ial aid and the first Cuban instructors
reached Angola at the beginning of
October, at the request of the MPLA,
when Angola was being insolently invaded
by foreign forces. However, no Cuban
military unit had been sent to Angola to
participate directly in the fight nor
was that projected.



Ford and Kissinger lie to the people of
the United States and to world public
opinion when they try to place responsi-
bility for Cuba's solidarity actions in
Angola on the Soviet Union.

Ford and Kissinger lie when they seek to
blame the Congress of the United States
for the defeat of the interventionists
in Angola, because Congress failed to
authorize new funds for the FNLA and
UNITA counter-revolutionary groups.
Congress made those decisions on
December 16, 18 and 19. By that time
the CIA had already supplied large
amounts in arms, Zairean troops had been
repulsed in Luanda, Cabinda had been
saved, the South Africans were contained
and demoralized on the banks of the
Queve River and no shipment of arms from
the CIA would have changed the already
inexorable course of events. Today they
would be in the hands of the revolution-
ary forces like many of those it sup-
plied earlier.

US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger,
recently completed a tour of African
countries. During his stay in Africa,
Kissinger said in Zaire that the US sup-
ported gradual majority rule in Rhodesia
(but not in South Africa:). He refused
to support the militant armed struggle
of the Zimbabwe guerilla movement to
overthrow Ian Smith, but "in principle"
he said on April 28th, "the US is wil-
ling to assist the parties in Rhodesia
to bring about the rapid achievement of
majority rule and guarantee of (white)
minority rights".

On October 23, also instigated by the
United States, South African regular What is behind this tactical shift by
army troops, supported by tanks and the US government, which has all along
artillery, invaded Angolan territory been supporting the existence of the il-
across the Namibian border and penetrat- legal Ian Smith regime?
ed deeply into the country, advancing
between 60 and 70 kilometers a day. On The truth is that US imperialism is
November 3, they had penetrated more faced with a new tide in the African
than 500 kilometers into Angola, meeting liberation struggle which threatens to
their" first resistance on the outskirts bring down the hated remains of racism
of Benguela, from the personnel of a i" Southern Africa. In these struggles
recently organized school for Angolan imperialism has been unable to prevent
recruits and from their Cuban instruct- heavy defeats. The great victory of the
ors, who had virtually no means for MPLA in Angola assisted by Cuban troops
halting the attack by South African and the arms of other socialist coun-
tanks, infantry and artillery. tries over South African and mercenary

On November 5, 1975, at the request of
the MPLA, the leadership of our Party
decided to send with all urgency a bat-
talion of regular troops with antitank
weapons (Applause) to help the Angolan
patriots resist the invasion of the
South African racists. This was the
first Cuban troop unit sent to Angola.
When it arrived in the country, the for-
eign interventionists were 25 kilometers
from Luanda in the north, their 140 mil-
limeter artillery was bombing the sub-
urbs of the capital and the South
African fascists had already penetrated
more than 700 kilometers into the south
from the Namibian border, while Cabinda
was heroically defended by MPLA fighters
and a handful of Cuban instructors.

Stakes in Africa
U.S. Dependence on African Products

sese Cb ?
eWfv- -

troops backed secretly by the US govern-
ment, and the stepped-up campaigns of
the Zimbabwean guerillas against Ian
Smith's regime have made US imperialism
realize that it is now only a matter of
time before the fall of the Smith re-

Ford and Kissinger lie to the people of
the United States, and especially to thi
black population of that country, when
they hide the fact that the fascist and
racist troops of South Africa criminall'
invaded Angolan territory long before
Cuba sent any regular unit of soldiers

There are some other lies on the part o
Ford and Kissinger in relation to
(Cont'd on back page)

gime. This will leave South Africa
alone and increase demands for final
economic and political independence in

This poses a direct threat to US invest-
ments in both South Africa and Black
Africa. In South Africa alone, 350 US
multinational corporations have invested
$1.5 billion in manufacturing and miner-
als. This figure is increasing by 20%
every year. Trade with South Africa has
grown three times since 1969. But while
its single largest investment is in
Southern Africa, US corporations like
Kaiser, Reynolds and Goodyear are plun-
dering the wealth of Black Africa to an
even greater degree. US imperialism has
invested $2.4 billion in Black Africa in
oil, bauxite and other precious miner-
als. Unequal trade enforced by the US
has grown seven times since 1969 and
total trade now stands at $11.6 billion.

It is little wonder that Kissinger is
trying to blunt the spear of the Africa]
liberation movement, to buy time with
the African governments by pretending t(
be a big friend in the Rhodesian strug-

But this new bait is not being snapped
up by Black Africa. The armed struggle
in Rhodesia and Namibia is intensifying.
Tn May, at the UN Conference in Nairobi,
when Henry Kissinger proposed a so-
called International Resources Bank to
speed up the plunder of Africa and other
developing countries by US multinational
companies, the spokesmen from the
developing countries rejected this propo
sal and demanded equal trade relations
and a new and just international order.
It looks as if time is running out for
the manoeuvres of Dr. Kissinger and US
imperialism. The clock can no longer be
turned back in Black Africa.

w O rld Kissinger's

affairs safari
a US

3ut is not so. In all capitalist
ccurtries and especially in backward
countries like Jamaica where years of
colonialism and imperialism have kept
down the people, capitalist politicians
the always core up to serve the capitalist
class, to fool the people and to use the
the people to get money and power for them-
selves. These politicians always get
C t p rt the backing of the capitalists to form
e Ing s political parties like what we have in
r Ihe iW Jamaica parties which are chained to
the capitalists, parties where most of
the leaders really defend the exploiters
I Seven when they are talking about the
Rights of the people. Such parties like
the JLP and the PNP over the years some-
times help the people by giving one set
and then another a little more bread and
Sa little more butter. Because of this
such parties still have the support of
A N IYPI the workers and even have many genuine
F Rfreedom-fighters within their ranks.
But such parties can never fully defend
Of PA Y the people in the struggle against the
imperialist system because they always
have to keep looking out for the capita-
A( E ;; A; S-." S ; 5-1IS TOPIC) lists, because inside the party itself
are agents of the system and because the
main purpose of the party is to get the
people's vote once every five years.


Lenin taught long ago and the workers'
The workers and the masses of the experience all over the world shows that
Jamaican people do not know what a Con- this kind of party cannot free the peo-
munist Party is because they have ex- ple and that the workers have to build a
perience of only-one type of political new type of party, the Communist Party.
party and one type of politician. This This party is different from the capita-
is the political party and the politi- list parties.
cian who says one thing and does another
thing, who comes around at election time The first thing about the Communist
and then the people don't see him until Party is that it is a party of struggle
the next election is coming up. Every to place the workers and the people in
worker and every Jamaican knows these -power. Because of this only those work-
politicians who promise to end victini- ers, intellectuals and others who are
sation and political violence, who pro- really serious about struggle can become
mise to provide work for the youth and members.
to give land to the farmers.
This means threo things.
Then after the, promises how many times Firstly the party member must be con-
have the politicians and the parties scious. No one can really take part in
sold out the people? Little or nothing a serious struggle without being con-
gets done, conditions remain the same or scious, without knowing which class is
get worse. Because of this long exper- always the enemy of the people and which
ience from Bustanante's days down to the class is the friend of the people. The
present time many workers believe that Communist Party of the working class
"this is politics", that no matter what cannot be a party of struggle unless all
the communists say, their party is going its members are conscious of the true
to be no different. They feel that the meaning of socialism and communism which
people who say they are communists are is the final aim of the struggle and
just looking out for themselves just what are the steps along the way to this
like the PNP, the JLP and the present goal. This consciousness can only come
party politicians, with knowledge of the science of work-

ing-class struggle which is Marxism-
Leninism. Without this knowledge tae
party member fails to understand the
working of imperialism and capitalism
and is unable to show the people how the
enemy turns them against ore another in
order to hold on to his ill-gotten
gains. But consciousness is not enough.

The second thing about the member of the
Communist Party of the working class is
that he is at all times willing to make
sacrifice in carrying out the practical
work of the struggle without looking for
anything in return. Consciousness does
not make any sense unless it shows it-
self in practical assistance to the
struggle of the people which is going on
every day. People who only talk, people
who boast and shoot off their mouth can-
not really carry the working-class
struggle very far and therefore cannot
gain admission to the Communist Party of
the working class. People who are only
looking something for themselves the
"passengers" and "free-riders" whom
every worker knows in every plant also
cannot get into the Communist Party.
Such people, no matter how many books
they have read or how radical they
sound, are really holding back the
struggle and helping to keep up the sys-
tem of imperialism and capitalism.

Thirdly, the member of the Communist
Party of the working class must be high-
ly disciplined and be able to work as
part of a team. Every worker knows that
without discipline, without coopera-
tion, without organisation he is at the
mercy of the capitalist. No matter how
conscious and how militant we are, once
we are fighting by ourself without link-
ing hands with our brothers and sisters
against the oppressor, the capitalist
can always push us around. How much
more unity is necessary to fight against
the system and to overthrow the power of
the whole class of exploiters. This is
why the Communist Party of the working
class has to make sure that no member of
the party works by himself; each member
is part of a collective all for one
and one for all.

Without a membershipwhich is CONSCIOUS,
different countries proves that the
Communist Party of the working class
cannot really struggle to overthrow the
system and becomes no different from the
capitalist parties.



speaks cot'drl

Angola. Ford and Kissinger know per-
fectly well that everything I say is
The enemy has talked about the number of
Cubans in Angola. It is sufficient to
say that, once the struggle began, Cuba
sent the men and the weapons necessary
to win that struggle (Arpzpase). In
honour to our people we must say that
hundreds of thousands of fighters from
our regular troops and reserves were
ready to fight alongside their Angolan
brothers (App lase).

Our losses were minimal. In spite of
the fact that the war was fought on four
fronts and our fighters fought alongside

the heroic MPLA soldiers in the libera-
tion of almost a million square kilo-
meters (Applause) that had been occupied
by the interventionists and their hench-
men, fewer Cuban soldiers were killed in
action in more than four months of
fighting in Angola, than in the three
days of fighting at Giron (AppZause).


Cuba made its decision completely on its
own responsibility. The USSR which
had always helped the peoples of the
Portuguese colonies in the struggle for
their independence and provided beseiged
Angola with basic aid in military equip-
ment and collaborated with our efforts
when imperialism had cut off practically
all our air routes to Africa never re-
quested that a single Cuban be sent to
that country. The USSR is extra-
ordinarily respectful and careful in its
relations with Cuba. A decision of that
nature could only be made by our own
Party (AppZlaus).

--j I.,. t --. -z,., F-w A.

To the .

poorest (cont'd
same time, the JTA ary issue was that
leadership put for- the poorest teach-
ward a much more ers get the largest
realistic salary increases.
claim than their
claim than their He said that 85% of
original $71 mil- teachers were pre-
lion. Under this trained and train-
new plan, they are ed. The majority
asking an increase of these teachers
of $1,000 per year earned between $36
for pre-trained and $58 jier week
teachers and $2,000 and had to work un
for all other
for all other der deplorable con-
categories. ditions.
At the TDJTA's mass
teachers' meeting, Whatever salary
the Secretary, John settlement was fin-
Haughton, told the ally reached, said
over 300 teachers, Haughton, those
that TDJTA's main teachers had to get
concern in the sal- the most.