Citation
In Jamaica and Cuba

Material Information

Title:
In Jamaica and Cuba
Creator:
De Lisser, Herbert George, 1878-1944
Place of Publication:
Kingston, Jamaica
Publisher:
Gleaner Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 164 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Panama ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Most of the following chapters first appeared in the Daily gleaner."- Pref.
General Note:
A visit to Panama: p. 153-162.
Biographical:
From Wikipedia for H. G. de Lisser, from 29 June 2013: Herbert George de Lisser CMG (9 December 1878 - 19 May 1944) was a Jamaican journalist and author. He has been called "one of the most conspicuous figures in the history of West Indian literature". De Lisser was born in Falmouth, Jamaica, and attended William Morrison's Collegiate School in Kingston. He started work at the Institute of Jamaica at the age of 14. Three years later he joined the Jamaica Daily Gleaner, of which his father was editor, as a proofreader, and two years later became a reporter on the Jamaica Times. In 1903, De Lisser became assistant editor of the Gleaner and was editor within the year. He wrote several articles for the paper every day. He also produced a novel or non-fiction book every year, beginning in 1913 with Jane: A Story of Jamaica, significant for being the first West Indian novel to have a central black character. Another famous novel of his, The White Witch of Rosehall (1929), is linked to a legend of a haunting in Jamaica. De Lisser also wrote several plays. In December 1920 he began publishing an annual magazine, Planters' Punch. De Lisser devoted much time and effort to the revival of the Jamaican sugar industry and represented Jamaica at a number of sugar conferences around the world. He was also general secretary of the Jamaica Imperial Association, honorary president of the Jamaica Press Association, and chairman of the West Indian section of the Empire Press Union. He was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in the 1920 New Year Honours.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H. G. De Lisser.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
020510283 ( ALEPH )
24569573 ( OCLC )
AHX7577 ( NOTIS )
11027504 //r ( LCCN )

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Full Text


































. .. .. ...-






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FOR SALE BY ALL DRUGGISTS AND GROCERS.


11 --- -- -- -- "


















IN JAMAICA AND CUBA







IN JAMAICA AND CUBA













BY
H. G. DE LISSER


KINGSTON
THE GLEANER COMPANY LTD.


1910














PREFACE


CUBA, Jamaica, Panama: those are the countries dealt with in this
little work.
On Panama I have written very briefly. The present importance
of that Republic lies chiefly in its being the scene of a great undertaking
which, when finally accomplished, should bring about far-reaching changes
in the industrial and economic position of the West Indian Islands. The
principal route to the Canal, on its Atlantic side, is the Windward Passage,
and that Passage is commanded by Cuba and Jamaica. Hence it follows
that Cuba and Jamaica have, geographically and strategically, a close
connection with Panama. Because of this, and because I believe that
those two islands must reap directly most of whatever benefit there is
to be derived from the opening of the Canal, I have added to a work
on Cuba and Jamaica a chapter on Panama.
Why has this book been written ? To give those who do not know
the West Indies some idea of their people, their appearance, and the
manners and customs that prevail in them. Cuba is a Spanish, Jamaica
an English island. They are near neighbours, but their development
has taken place along different lines, their people are different, and so is
their future. And the contrast they present, even as regards configuration,
topography, and scenery, is most interesting.
I have added a few notes which I hope will prove of some service
to tourists.
Most of the following chapters first appeared in the Daily Gleaner, the
leading West Indian newspaper.
H. G. DE L.
KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
December 14, 1909.
V


1 3796




















CONTENTS



CHAPTER I
PAGE
THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD I


CHAPTER II
HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY 23


CHAPTER III

THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 37


CHAPTER IV
THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS 62


CHAPTER V

KINGSTON, THE GATEWAY OF JAMAICA .


CHAPTER VI

THE AMUSEMENTS OF JAMAICA 97


CHAPTER VII

PEOPLE AND POLITICS 112


CHAPTER VIII

ON THE ROAD 125








viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER IX
PAGE
THROUGH A BEAUTIFUL LAND 137


CHAPTER X

A VISIT TO PANAMA I53


CHAPTER XI

HINTS TO TOURISTS 63



















ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE
THE MORRO CASTLE AND MALECON, HAVANA 8

THE MALECON WITH RESIDENCES IN THE DISTANCE. 6

MILK VENDOR, CUBA 24

MAKING LOVE, CUBA 28

THE PRADO, HAVANA 32

THE CATHEDRAL, HAVANA 40

COUNTRY HOUSE WITH AVENUE OF ROYAL PALMS 44

BRINGING CANES TO THE FACTORY, CUBA 48

A COUNTRY SCENE, CUBA 56

GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBA 64

KING STREET, KINGSTON 80

TOWN OF MANDEVILLE, JAMAICA .88

ROARING RIVER, JAMAICA 96

ROAD TO BOG WALK 112

BANANA PLANTATION 120

JAMAICAN PEASANTS IN THE FIELD 124

THREE JAMAICA SCENES 128

TOWN OF PORT ANTONIO 132





x ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE
COFFEE PULPING, JAMAICA 36

NATIVE BOY PICKING COCOA-NUTS 136

THE SQUARE, MONTEGO BAY 144

THE FORT, MONTEGO BAY 144

CULEBRA CUT, ISTHMUS OF PANAMA 56

DEE STREET, COLON 156


















CHAPTER I


THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD

QUITE forty miles away a fan-like glare flamed bright against the horizon, looking
as though it rose out of the depths of the tropic sea. To the right of us and
but dimly discernible in the light of the stars and the crescent moon was a
long low-lying shadow which we knew to be the north-western coast of Cuba;
around us were the starlit waters of the Caribbean; above us a sky studded
with a million distant suns and streaked here and there with heavy clouds from
the heart of which gleamed forth at intervals broad sheets of pallid lightning.
The freshening wind whipped the surface of the sea to foam. Here and there
from the looming shadow-like land a friendly lighthouse sent forth its rays of
warning. We went slowly, very slowly, for we could not enter the harbour of
Havana before sunrise; but the fascination of the city was already upon us, and
so we stood for hours on the deck of the vessel watching the lights come closer
into view.
I had passed near the island of Cuba on previous occasions and had gazed
with curiosity on its terrace-like slopes and on the numerous islets and cays
that cluster along its extensive line of coast. The largest of the West Indian
islands, the most important strategically and the most fertile, it had always
had for me an appeal of the strongest. It was Spain's last possession in these
waters. It is the latest of all the Spanish-American republics. Before it became
free some bloody revolutions had to be suppressed and more than one fierce
battle fought; and in the end, as fate would have it, the freedom of Cuba was
not won by the same means by which the rest of Spanish-America attained
its independence.
Province after province of the old Spanish dominions in the New World rose
and proclaimed its independence after Napoleon I. had driven the Spanish
kings from the throne of Spain and put his own feeble brother in their place.
Not one of them chose to return to its old allegiance when the Spanish sovereign
Ferdinand came back to his own. They fought to preserve the freedom they
had won, and Europe and America left them to win or lose as fate should decide.






2 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

They won; but Cuba chose to remain loyal, and so to Cuba was given the
title of "The Ever Faithful Isle."
But the time came when "The Ever Faithful Isle" in its turn became
weary of oppression and misgovernment. Something of that story I shall tell
later on-the last chapter of it is already known to all the world. The revolution
which began in 1895 lasted until February, 1898. In that month a new phase
of the struggle was entered upon, for, with the blowing up of the Maine in
Havana Harbour, American intervention followed as a matter of course.
Intervention was sure to come; that it came so dramatically was but an accident
in the procession of events. For seventy years the eyes of American statesmen
had been turned towards Cuba. For seventy years-for longer than seventy
years-the Spaniard had realized that the day would come when he should
have to fight for the last remnant of his vast dominions in the West. The
signal for the final struggle was given on the night of February 15, 1898, and
a few months later the fleet of Spain under Admiral Cervera lay a wreck and
captive along the coast of Santiago. In the West Indies the reign of the
Spaniard closed amidst the thunder of cannon and the shrieks of drowning men.
The world which Columbus had discovered for Spain was finally lost when,
weeping like a child, Admiral Cervera stepped on board the conqueror's ship
and handed him his sword.
Something of all this passed through my mind on the night when I first
saw the lights of Havana flaring on the distant sky, and realized that at last
I was about to see the city and country I had so often longed to see. We crept
forward at a snail's pace, and one by one the passengers dropped off to sleep
in their cloth chairs upon the deck. But with the glimmer of daylight in the
east, with the first paling of the stars and lightening of the sky, we were awake
and trembling with anticipation. At three o'clock in the morning the great
lamps along the foreshore of the city could be distinctly seen, blazing in a
magnificent crescent. At five o'clock the lamps had all gone out, and there
appeared along the sea-front the noble esplanade which forms part of the sea-wall
of Havana. On the north behind this a long row of yellow-white houses rose,
following the curve of the crescent shore and stretching away to the west.
On our left a dark-grey fortress surmounted by a lighthouse jutted out into
the sea and completely commanded the entrance to the harbour; straight in
front of us was a narrow opening, and to the right of it another fort. This
was La Punta, that on the left was the famous Morro Castle of Havana, a
fortress massive and stately, and with the dignity that comes of age and of
historic associations.
Before we pass between these ancient forts and into the harbour of Havana,
we have already received an indelible impression of the city as one sees it from
the sea. We have seen before us a bay whose blue waters pale into pearly
green as they roll shoreward and break into surf against the shelving coral






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


coast. We have seen the sea-wall promenade that the Americans built, and the
flat-roofed houses; we have seen a city that rises from the sea and has put
on its best robes to greet the stranger. It is a city which seems proudly conscious
of its splendid appearance, its fine situation, and its reputation as being the
first and best amongst .the West Indian capitals. The men who built this part
of Havana built well, for on those who have seen it it leaves an unforgettable
impression. And as this picture prints itself on the retina of the mind, we pass
between the forts, and into the sheltered, spacious harbour of Havana.
Let me try to make you see it with the eye of the imagination and with
the aid of such poor powers of description as may be at my command. No
one has ever yet described a city or a scene as it actually is : it is the province
of the painter to catch and fix for us the world of colour and of form and
light. Yet a writer may put down the impressions be receives from some
beautiful landscape or from some interesting spectacle of human life and activity;
and such a spectacle is that which the harbour of Havana presents. The city
itself is built upon a peninsula, a large part of which is composed of alluvial
sediment. The entrance to its harbour is but a thousand feet wide, but further
on the harbour widens to a mile and a half : in length it is something over
three miles. On its western shore lies the city, and one may see at a glance that
Havana is but a little above the level of the sea, the ground rising gently from
the water-edge into low wooded hills to the south and west. On the left-hand
side of the harbour as you steam inwards are the fortifications of the Morro and
Cabana. These follow the line of the low hills that protect the harbour, and
further in there are still other fortresses. All these may have been excellent
defences in the days of wooden ships. To-day their usefulness is gone, but their
picturesque effect is undeniable.
The Spaniards knew the value of Havana. Early in the sixteenth century Don
Diago de Velasquez called it "The Key of the New World," and commanding as
it does the straits of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, this name has a certain
poetic appropriateness. The forts with their hundreds of embrasures stand
out grey patches in the midst of green, and opposite to them Havana appears
as a mass of yellowish, red-tiled houses interspersed with patches of green.
Green, too, is the water of this harbour, an oily, sickly, darkish green, horrible
to look at and horrible to think about. For centuries the filth and sewage of the
city has flowed upon it. Once it was 40 feet deep, now it is but eighteen
or twenty, and the bottom of it is a bed of slime undisturbed by the trifling rise
and fall of the tide. Except when strong winds blow, the water here is calm
and, as Havana is one of the busiest ports of tropical America, the shipping of
the world is represented here.
There they lie, the ships of all the nations. A great Frenchman is anchored
in the centre of the harbour and is flying the yellow quarantine flag; two
Americans boats are being laden with sugar; the flag of Spain floats from that






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


vessel yonder; our own ship flies the Union Jack, and there are other steamers
and barges and schooners everywhere. On the Havana side of the harbour a
hundred lighters lie with furled sails-a very forest of large flat-bottomed boats
and rakish masts. Fine ferry-boats steam across at regular intervals, bearing
freight and passengers to the little town of Regla, which is situated opposite to
Havana and is one of the city's suburbs. Pert little steam launches flit hither
and thither among the large craft, impudently demanding the right of way;
heavy barges pursue their lumbering course from one point to the other with
solemn indifference; and everywhere are the stout, strong passenger boats with
each its single boatman, its awning over the stern seats, and its shoulder of sail.
How bright and animated is the appearance of it all! The boats with their
awnings and their sails have reminded some voyagers of the canals of Venice;
and here, too, the city rises from the shore, and from the surface of the water
one may catch a glimpse of long, narrow streets, and church towers, and avenues
of trees. From the roof of Havana's Chamber of Commerce there rises a
splendid dome, and from the dome there springs a golden figure which holds
your attention for a moment as the vessel passes by. Along the low sea-wall
are wharves and covered iron piers, splendidly built and kept in good condition.
A busy harbour it is, and the entrance to a prosperous city. And looking down
upon it all are the weather-worn fortresses which the Spaniards built, but which
could not prevent The Key of the New World" from passing into other and alien
hands.
Havana does not wake to business as early as the sea-coast towns of Europe
and America; so though you may come to anchor a little after six o'clock, it may
be some time before you are free to go ashore. There are many preliminaries to
be gone through. First the doctor comes on board and examines the ship's
papers; then he inspects you personally to ascertain your health. He is satisfied
and leaves; then comes another official (called, I believe, the Captain of the
Port), and I think he brings with him about twenty-five inspectors," all dressed
in neat crash uniforms and caps, and most of them looking as if they would
be much happier with some real work to do. It takes the chief inspector quite
a time to examine the ship's papers. He must know the quantity and contents
of all the passengers' trunks, as well as the quantity and kind of cargo in the ship ;
he wants duplicates of every form, and if a single name is misspelt, or a wrong
initial set down on the duplicate, the form may have to be made up all over again.
If this official is satisfied, he leaves two or three of his subordinates on board
to watch proceedings, and betakes himself to his launch and to another ship.
Now, you think, we can land at last; but you are soon undeceived; for though
you may have come successfully through the scrutiny of the doctor and the
examination of the inspector, you have yet to reckon with the immigration agent.
This officer will want to know your status in society and your object in coming
to this country, and unless he grants permission you cannot go ashore. So we:






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


wait for the immigration agent while a hot hate of Cuban official routine springs
up in our hearts; and no wonder, for now the sun is shining full upon the water
and yonder the green avenues seem to promise a grateful place of rest. Still,
even in Cuba, the immigration agent does arrive at last, and after satisfying
himself that we are not Chinamen or penurious labourers he says we may land;
on which we discover that the launch which is to take us ashore is nowhere
to be seen. We therefore find ourselves either. compelled to remain on board
a little longer or to take one of the boats that have gathered in scores around the
ship. The launch will come later on, we know, but some of us will not wait for
it. We have had enough of Cuban procrastination. So we spring into a guadano
and are pulled towards the shore. In a few minutes we are treading on Cuban
soil.
In every land the traveller is greeted by hosts of porters anxious to assist him
(for a consideration) in his passage through the Custom House. In Havana it is
the same, though of the ten or twelve persons who surrounded me as I landed I am
not sure which were employed by the Government and which were gentlemen of
independent and irresponsible position. I only know that I saw a four-hundred-
weight trunk carefully deposited on the top of my light valise, which had been
placed on the truck used to take the luggage from the wharf to the Custom House.
I did not approve of this arrangement, but my attempts at remonstrance were
evidently misinterpreted as signs of complete approval, for, after nodding at me
encouragingly, the porter shouted "Vamos and away he went to where, in the
centre of a square formed by low counters, the Custom House officials of the
Republic were standing. Then commenced an excited dialogue between the hotel
agent who claimed me as his own, and the Custom House officer who was much
perturbed by the neckties I had brought with me. The Cuban Customs regulations
allow the traveller to bring with him clothing to the value of twenty pounds,
and I am sure that the things I had were not worth quite that. Yet he could
not away with those three new ties. He pointed to them fiercely. I explained
that a civilised man was usually expected to wear ties; the hotel agent called
down the vengeance of heaven upon every one who could make a fuss about
a few ties. The official eventually yielded, and after still another official had
satisfied himself that the trunk and valise I had landed with corresponded to
the number of packages I had reported to the ship's officer as belonging to me,
I was allowed to go my way.
We had been outside of Havana from about four o'clock in the morning,
and had we arrived at half-past six the evening before we should still have
been obliged by the harbour regulations to wait until six the next morning before
entering the port. We had anchored in the centre of the harbour at about twenty
minutes after six. Yet we did not leave the Custom House before a quarter
to ten, and for all this waste of time we had to content ourselves with the reflection
that it was "the custom of the country." "The custom of the country !" It is a






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


phrase that you hear every day in Cuba. There is no reason why large ships
should not go alongside the wharves, for the draught of water is deep enough to
accommodate them. But the lightering interests are powerful enough to insist upon
the maintenance of an obsolete and annoying system which costs the consumers
of Havana over 500,000 a year, and the reason is that lighterage is a custom of
the country. Every good purpose could be served, and time and money saved,
by having one set of officers to look over the papers of the ship. But it
is apparently a custom of the country to find public employment for the
largest possible number of persons. Still, all these numerous officials were
polite, for politeness is also a custom of the country. It is a custom which
the stranger appreciates, and so one soon comes to address even one's porter
as "senior" and "caballero"-as sir" and "gentleman"-and to permit him to
take, on request, a light from one's cigar. To refuse to let him do so would
be to offend against a custom of the country.
1'


From the roof of the Belen College I am looking down upon and over
the city of Havana, and with me is a Jesuit priest who relates the history
of this institution and tells me something about his Order and his life.
"I leave for Spain on Thursday," he is saying; and I ask, "Are you glad
to return home?"
"It is all the same to me," he answers; then he adds: "It is the second
rule of our Order that one place must be to us the same as another; we
are to have no preferences."
He pauses, then continues: "In Spain, in the winter, I can work harder
than I work here; but here the climate is genial, and one feels warm and
pleasant all the year round; so, you see, there is no reason for preferences.
The body can be ruled by the mind. One may be happy anywhere."
As he spoke of the genial climate of Cuba he waved his arm towards
the city which lay stretched out in silence and bright sunshine at our feet.
I followed the motion of his arm. There to the west, on an eminence commanding
the city, was an old Spanish fort, the Castillo del Principe, and to the south
and west were the low, sloping hills that form the background of Havana.
To the east was the harbour, to the north the Gulf of Mexico; on every
side were the houses and the streets and the plazas; and gazing down upon
them all, upon the red-tiled roofs, the solid square and rectangular houses,
the avenues and the narrow thoroughfares-the city seemed to me to be
still dreaming the dreams of the eighteenth century, and not yet to have
wakened to the bustle and activity of to-day.
There is an old Havana and a new. The old books will tell you that once
the city was all to the east, along the eastern edge of the harbour, and was
surrounded by a thick wall and defended by a fort. The wall has disappeared






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


but the fort is still there, and near it still cluster the public buildings of Havana;
its president's palace, its cathedral, and its "Templete," which marks the spot
where was celebrated the first Mass sung in Havana. There, too, within
what was once the boundaries of the old city, are the narrow business
streets of Cuba and the solid stone buildings a single storey high. And
there is the Plaza des Armas, where once the Spanish band played at night,
and the soldiers paraded in the day. To the north and south and west
the city has spread out. It grew outside of the walls, and as it grew its
streets widened, its open spaces multiplied, and elegant houses were built
in its suburbs and on either side of the broad tree-shaded avenue which
now runs through the present centre of the town. It is growing still; it is
spreading itself out in new suburbs; and as one saunters about this Spanish-
American city, one comes upon instant evidences of the changes that are
taking place.
From the heights of La Fuerza or the Belen College the city seems asleep
or but half-awake; but in the streets below there is activity and movement.
The stranger in Havana, after leaving the Custom House (which once was
a church that the English desecrated), finds himself in a narrow street
which runs along the whole harbour front and on which are built some of
the great business houses of the city. Above this street is the only bit of
elevated railroad track to be found in Havana; and following this tract,
which soon descends to the level of the ground, we catch glimpses of the
sea. The sea is everywhere here: to the east it looks a sickly green, to
the north it shines in the sunlight-a sheet of limpid blue. And running
at right angles to the water-front are a number of other paths that lead into
the city. I call them paths, for they look as though they had been hewn
out of a solid block of houses, so narrow are they and so steeped in shadow,
except when the sun is high above the roofs. They were laid out so as to
exclude the sun, so as to shut out its fierce rays and its fiercer glare; they
were built only for pedestrians too, and by a people who could not imagine
an era of hurry or of electric cars.
I love to stand at the beginning of one of these streets and gaze down
into its cool dark depths. I see on either hand a number of small stores and
shops, nearly all of one storey, that open on a level with the street. So high
and spacious are their entrances, you might almost imagine that the side of
them which fronts the street had been lifted away ; yet in many of these shops
there is always something of gloom except at the brightest hours of the day.
The street itself seems decked out as for a festival. The Spaniard has painted
his house here as he has painted it in Mexico and the Canaries; and red and blue
and yellow are the colours with which he has adorned the walls. The effect
is quaintly pleasing, and the holiday quality of the scene is heightened by
the festoons of cloth and the canopies hung out above. The canopies are






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


for the comfort of those who work in or patronise the shops; the festoons
that look like banners at a distance are shop-signs setting forth that here is
the best emporium for Parisian goods, and there the best opticians in the world.
Sign follows sign; you walk or drive under scores of them. They flutter in
the breeze, they challenge your attention; they make of gaudy-coloured Havana
a picture-city adorned with flags. And sauntering along the tiny sidewalk
where all must walk in single file, you see exposed in the windows hats that
are still the fashion in Paris and robes which you may have seen this season
in the stores in Regent Street. And you notice that each of these shops has a
fancy name, such as "The Hope," or "The Dove," or "The Grand," for the
Spaniard loves to give fine-sounding names to everything he owns.
But one does not go to Havana to buy goods from Paris or London or Spain;
so the shops that will entice you are those in which Cuban fans are sold, or Cuban
souvenirs; shops in which Spanish girls, and perhaps a Cuban girl also, will
be found, and where you may buy a fan for fifty cents or five dollars from
a quiet, pretty, tired-looking girl who never hurries and is never impatient ..
only fatigued.
In this narrow street are all the other evidences of the commercial life
of Havana. I think the Cubans must love three places above all others: the
barber shops, the cafds, and the tobacconist shops. These are everywhere in
this city of three hundred thousand persons, as numerous nearly as the
houses themselves. I sit in a cafe, and opposite is a sumptuously fitted-out "hair-
dressing saloon," with its high, adjustable, plush-covered chairs, its huge mirrors,
and its stock of cosmetics and tonics, all infallible cures for baldness.
I see the barber at his business; I see him stopping every now and then
to admire the work of his hands, for he is an artist. I watch the stream of
life as it flows by, and it occurs to me that there are but few women in the
streets of Havana. The heat keeps them indoors, and the custom of the country.
The seclusion of women was a custom which the Moors brought with them
to Spain and which the Spanish adopted willingly. I have only to walk a
little further on, and I shall see houses whose heavy doors are studded with
great brass- or iron-headed nails, and whose high, wide windows are barred
with iron grills. Behind those doors and barred windows are the women;
and if I sit here till evening I shall see them going in twos and threes to the shops.
At this hour they are dressed in their loose dressing-gowns, and are whiling
away the long hot hours in sleep or in some of those light feminine occupations
that make no great demand upon their energy. In temperate countries the
women work; in tropical countries the peasant women work also; but the women
of the better classes rest. In Cuba, too, women have not yet entirely ceased to
be the property of men, and the barred windows and massive doors are a sign
of their subordination.
I also notice that there are very few black men and women in this













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1






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD 9

street. Somehow, the idea prevails in other countries that Cuba, like the
British West Indies, is a land of black or dark-coloured men, whereas it is
for the most part a country of white and light-coloured men, and is steadily
becoming whiter. At any rate, though they are here to the number of some
thirty thousand, you do not see large crowds of negroes in the streets of
Havana. But swarthy Cubans constantly pass up and down ; Spaniards go by;
victorias drawn by fine strong horses roll and clatter over the hard pavement.
Carts drawn by pairs of mules, and sometimes by teams of mules, creak slowly
along, and as they pass you hear the tinkling of the bells hung round the
necks of the mules, and see the broad red bands and the tassels with which the
halters are trimmed. The Cuban muleteer loves his animals, if the appearance
of these mules be any proof of care and affection. People of the Latin race
are not renowned for taking thought of the patient brutes that serve mankind
so well; yet the horses and the mules I saw in Havana, and even the dogs,
showed as it seemed to me no trace of ill-treatment. Just the reverse.
The sing-song voices of boys hawking the daily papers break upon the
air at intervals with shrill insistence, and now and again the electric car goes
by. The car tracks of this city are of a narrow gauge, and many of the
lines are laid down in single tracks on one side of the street. Sitting in a
car, you may shake hands with or talk to a friend in the near-by shop or
house, without troubling to move from your seat. On the side opposite to
this single track all wheeled traffic is brought to a standstill when a car is
passing, and this for fear of accidents. And there are other streets through
which only one line of victorias or landaus may drive, for there is not space
enough for two. How, then, does the crowd move about?" one imagines
some one accustomed to the thronged thoroughfares of London or New York
asking; but there are no busy crowds in Cuba. There are people in the streets,
but the tide of human beings that flows across Brooklyn Bridge in the evening,
or along Piccadilly or the Strand when the day's work is done-nothing like
that will you see in any Cuban town. Indeed, to one coming from the cities
of Europe or America the streets of Havana will seem almost deserted and
empty. Yet Havana is a populous city, and in its warehouses and shops an
immense amount of business is done.
In the cafe with me, seated round the little marble-topped tables, the
customers are talking and reading and sipping refreshing drinks. Two or
three are playing dominoes, and have thrown off their jackets so as to be
more at ease in their absorbing occupation. Some talk politics. I hear the
names of Zayas, of Gomez; I hear the word "Americano" pronounced with
bitter emphasis. The Cuban is by nature an eloquent talker, and politics
to him, as to every other Spanish-American, are as the very breath of life.
The newspapers are full of politics, the cafes are full of politics; yet I witness
no unseemly demonstration; even the gestures of the talkers are not violent.






io IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

I catch such expressions as "el progress del pais," and I gather that, in the
opinion of that bearded man opposite, the country is not progressing under
the present Government. From another speaker I learn that it is. But these
differing opinions are given quietly, and however long these men may remain
in this cafe, they will leave sober, for drunkenness is not a vice of the Cuban.
Behind the long, high counter stand the bar-tender and his assistants, all
Spanish. For if the Spaniard has lost his political supremacy in Cuba, he
still retains his superior commercial position: all the retail business of the
country is in his hands, and every one is agreed as to his competence and
ability -as a man of business. He is a polite salesman with a democratic
freedom of manner which no wise man would deprecate. He serves you
drinks, native, Spanish, or American, with commendable quickness, and most
of his mixtures are good. At one end of his counter is piled a great heap
of tropical fruits : pineapples and melons, with mangoes and bananas and
soursops and cocoanuts. You ask for pina fria," and he takes a pineapple
and peals it and cuts it into large chunks and pounds it up with white sugar
and ice and water, and hands the concoction to you in a huge, thick tumbler, and
you find it delicious. He will do the same with tangerine or melon ; he will
mix you a white almond drink of sickly sweetness, or an orangeade of
refreshing flavour. Or you may have coffee, with milk or without; an excellent
tonic which acts as a stimulus on the heart and nerves. But, for myself, I
prefer the fruit drinks to any, and I love the Cuban cafes for their sake.
At the end of an hour or so I leave my seat and wander towards what was
once the principal plaza of the town. I emerge from a narrow street upon
a square, and in the square is a park with benches and a marble statue, and
planted out with laurel trees and royal palms and flowering shrubs. Before
it is the immense yellow-white building of the Administration, with its lofty,
imposing colonnade. To one side of the square is the building where the Senate
meets. This square is almost deserted, though here, too, are one or two cafsf
in which a few men sit, and in the park some idlers lounge upon the benches.
A mulecart passes every now and then, its tinkling bells making music as it moves.
A soldier, a policeman, or a public officer comes forth from the palace. Suddenly
a shadow falls over the peaceful, quiet square, and looking up I notice that
dark clouds are drifting across the brilliant blue above. Then a muttering
sound warns me of the approaching thunderstorm, and in a few moments the
rain begins to fall. I seek shelter; and for an hour or two I watch the rain
pour down in great sheets, and see the paved narrow streets of old Havana
transformed into muddy streams.


When does Havana appear at its best? I have seen it in the early morning,
swept, clean, and preparing for the business of the day. In wagonettes drawn






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


by stout pairs of horses, in victorias, in street cars and on foot I have seen its
workers going out to work, its shops opening, its caft proprietors arranging
chairs for the morning coffee, and its newsboys shouting and singing the names
of the papers they sell. I have seen it at midday when the sun blazed down
upon it, and when its streets were almost deserted and nearly every one had
sought the shelter of its canopies and colonnades. And I have seen it in the
evening when the sun was going down and a refreshing coolness seemed to
steal over its plazas and along its thoroughfares ; again, I have seen it at night
when it has adorned itself with a thousand lights and has sent out its young
men and women to listen to the music of the band. Havana is then at
its gayest and brightest, and striving to be what it so proudly asserts that it is-
the Paris of the West Indies. I like to see Havana then ; but, better still, I like
to see Havana after rain has fallen and just when evening is beginning to shade
into night. For then its skies are laminated with delicate pinks and with gold
and crimson, and the painted city shines in that luminous atmosphere like a city
of one's dreams.
The Havana that spreads itself out beyond the old city walls contains many
beautiful homes and a splendid promenade. At different points along this
promenade (the Prado it is called) are the principal parks of the city ; to the
south is the Columbus Park with its Royal palms and its fountains ; to the north is
the old fortress of La Punta, now partly remodelled into a pleasure resort for music
lovers. In between these termini stands the statue of the Indian Woman in India
Park; it is called La Habana, and is supposed to be symbolical of Havana. And
there is a statue of Jos6 Marti, the Cuban patriot who inspired the last Cuban
struggle for freedom and who died in one of the first battles fought in 1895.
They have erected Marti's monument in Central Park, where it ought to be, for
this is the finest and best situated plaza in Havana. Round it are built some of
the great stores and clubs and hotels of the city, and when it is lit up at nights
it is a patch of green over which a web of light has been thrown. There are
other parks in Havana, and many squares plainly planted out in grass and
surrounded with laurels. These are not beautiful, but in time, I suspect, the
Havanese will make pretty plazas of them. At present their Prado is their
pride and their delight; and stretching westward from the southern end of it is
the Malecon, the sea-wall which was built during the governorship of General
Leonard Wood, and which, with the fine mansions to the south of it, and the
green and blue waters of the Gulf to the north, is one of the finest drives in all
Tropical America.
The Prado with its avenue of laurels, and, in between these laurels, its beds
of lace-plant and other shrubs, is to Havana what the Champs Elysees are to Paris.
I will not compare the two. There is nothing in all Havana comparable to
the great drive that leads from the Place de la Concorde to the Arc de Triomphe;
nothing like the fountains and gardens to the south of the Champs Elysees, between






12 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

which you pass to the splendid bridge that spans the Seine, and on to where the
golden dome of the Invalides rises serenely in the air. But Havana's Prado has a
beauty of its own, and its people are right to love it; and the houses they have
erected here are worthy of the avenue, built as they have been with taste and
architectural effect. In front of each is an arcade or colonnade, with Doric or
Ionic columns. Massive doors of cedar or mahogany open on a hall paved with
marble, and a marble stairway leads to the upper floor. The house is built
round an open space, or patio as it is called, and this is filled with shrubs and
palms, and perhaps a fountain; and on this patio the living-rooms open, so
that the garden is always at one's feet, while above is the sky. Colonnades
strike the dominant note in Cuban architecture. Clearly the Spaniard planned
that Havana should be a city of shade, a city where one might walk for hours
and yet be safe from the rays of the sun. And he built his houses of stone,
and so lofty that a single storey might look as high as two storeys, and a three-
storey building might wear the appearance of a palace. As you pass up and
down the Prado at night you will see these houses lit with electric lamps, and
through the open doors and the beautiful iron-work of the barred windows you
will catch a glimpse of elegantly furnished drawing-rooms, in each of which a
number of well-dressed persons are sitting, in which some one may be playing a
piano, and about which small fresh-looking palms are so arranged that these rooms
look like conservatories filled with graceful, laughing women.
Most of the houses in Havana are of one story, and in these three-fourths of the
population live. The city is said to be one of the most crowded in the world, and
this and the democratic habits of the Spaniard have worked together to bring
about a close contiguity of rich and poor, palace and hovel. Fine residences may
be found in the business quarter of the town. In the houses that face the Malecon,
even along the Prado itself, I have seen places inhabited by people of the slums.
In a very short time the Prado will have purged itself of these, and the Malecon
quarter will follow its example; but to-day, as one walks along the sea-wall, one's
eyes are constantly offended by glaring advertisements of Tivoli Beer or of Lecha
Condensada stuck up on a gigantic hoarding next to some mansion with its arcade
of rare and beautiful design.
This mixture of mansions, hovels, and advertisement hoardings, in the best
residential section of Havana, spoils its appearance. True, it may be touching to
think of rich and poor as living together in brotherly unity; but proximity does not
always mean unity (it may come to mean hatred), and then there is the inartistic
effect of the glaring incongruity. But let such reflections be. I am writing of
Havana as it is, as one sees it at night when it is wrapped in its garment of dark-
ness and the stars; and not of as I think it should be.
At this hour, though you see a few men here and there in the houses, you will
find most of them in the cafes, and many are dining there as they dine in the cafls
of Paris. But whereas in Paris you will find the cafd tables and the restaurants






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


crowded with women also, you will see very few of Havana's women dining in the
open air. Here is where Havana fails to be like Paris, in spite of its ambition, for
it is the custom of the country for women to dine at home. This custom will
slowly yield before the revolutionary influence of the vigorous American; for his
women dine in cafds and restaurants with him, and Havana's daughters behold the
miracle. Already a few are following the example.
All the old customs are beginning to feel the influence of the foreigner. I stand
at the corner of a street, and in a balcony above are two girls, pretty, with nicely
fitting white robes and with chestnut hair puffed in front and neatly gathered in a
coil on the crown of their heads, and tied round with blue ribbon. The light
shines on them from the room behind; in the street below is a young man who
keeps watch, steadily pacing to and fro. He is a lover; perhaps he has met one of
these girls at a ball given by the club of which their brother or father is a member.
There are many clubs all over Cuba-Clerks' Clubs, Conservative Clubs. Liberal
Clubs, and the like-and these give balls and parties, and at these many young
people meet one another. The next step in the path of love is the parade before
the house, and perhaps the serenade ; and then, if the lady likes her suitor, she will
go to the window and the courtship will begin in good earnest. It is a Spanish
custom and not confined to Cuba, and it amuses the stranger who is not accustomed
to such public love-making. But some of the travelled Cubans are beginning to
dislike it.
It is not decent," said one of these to me. "Why can't a man go into a house
and talk to a girl if he wants to talk to her ?"
"Ah, but it is so picturesque," I objected. "There are your iron bars, you
know, and there is your bright-eyed beauty behind them, watched over by mamma
and papa and the whole family of aunts and sisters. Then outside is your bold
lover in the light of the moon; and at last, moved by his unwearied attention, she
lets her womanly heart triumph over her maidenly modesty, and she rises and goes
to the window and he pours forth his love in spite of all the listeners in the world.
I like that."
It is not decent," replied my friend.
I have no argument to advance against the compelling plea of decency. In
time it will become not decent" to pay one's court at the window and in the open
street, and then the streets of Havana will no more be enlivened with the lover's
presence and the sound of his guitar. But I feel that the Cuban girl loves to sit
there and see him pass; and I have seen her eyes brighten with pleasure when
some bold stranger has looked up at her with open admiration in his gaze.
Form is of importance in Cuba; one bows down before custom and fashion;
so the Cuban girl impassively looks in front of her as you stare. But
the tell-tale eyes betray her; in the flash and twinkle of them, and perhaps
in the faint half-smile that plays about her lips, you read the thoughts of her
heart.






14 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

But "it is not decent," so the time may come when to look may give offence:
decency createth a multitude of sins.
In the dimly lighted streets in the centre of the city friends are talking to one
another at the doors and windows. A party or gathering of some sort has broken
up, and I meet a number of persons pouring out of a small building : I notice they
are all women. In another part of the town a dark street is lined on either hand
with houses with each its heavy door, and in every door a wicket, and at every
wicket a woman. This is the famous San Cedro of Havana, the street of ill-fame;
and some of the women here, if you met them in the Prado, you would think to be
daughters of the best houses in Havana. Some are beautiful. Many are graceful.
.The Spanish woman has learnt or has inherited the art of walking, and so some of
the women of the San Cedro will move with the mien of queens. There is no noise
in this quarter, no unseemly demonstration, nothing vulgar. The police rules here,
but I doubt if it would be much different even if the police were kind. A Haytian
general, bent upon sacking Port-au-Prince, advised his ragamuffin army to pillage
in good order," calling them his children as he gave this good advice. The women
of San Cedro follow their calling "in good order," so that no scandal shall result.
And thither come the youth of Havana, and many who have long passed the age of
youth. Married men come here. That, too, is a custom of the country. I have not
heard it spoken of as not decent."
Havana's residences have spread out into the suburbs, and it is in one of these
(the newest) that I find a portion of twentieth-century Havana. In the older
suburbs, in the Cerro and in Jesus del Monte, you see the old type of the Havanese
suburban house ; massive single-story houses fronting the street, and each with its
colonnade. Some of them are great buildings with gardens attached, gardens in
which fan-palms grow and Royal palms; and laurels and crotons and flaming poin-
cianas. Some of the owners of these bear the names of the old nobility of' Spain
and these houses have sheltered some of the proudest families of Cuba. They
have been built as family mansions, built solidly and with no sparing of expense, as
they used to build in the British West Indies and never will do again.
But the suburb that one hears most about in Havana is Vedado; its praises
are sung by every visitor, and one American writer has even called it an earthly
paradise. I do not know what Paradise is like, but I suspect it is not a com-
promise between Spanish and American styles of domestic architecture. And
this, amongst other things, is what Vedado is. It is in the Vedado buildings that
I see most clearly the influence of the dominant American; for Vedado is unlike
the Cerro or Jesus del Monte, is being laid out differently, and is being resorted to
by many of the wealthy foreign residents of Havana.
This suburb lies to the west of the city, a few miles distant. To the north it
overlooks the sea, and was once, indeed, a favourite bathing-place of visitors and
the wealthier classes. It is a comparatively new suburb, the land has not yet all
been taken up; large open spaces are seen here and there, and most of the houses





THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD 15

have a new, bright appearance that but few of them wear in the city. Vedado has
been laid out in avenues of laurels; its principal street is a boulevard, on either side
of which its finest houses stand. They have paved the streets with macadam and
laid down a system of concrete curbs and gutters. It is connected with the city by
the cars, and some of its houses are really beautiful. Many rise to two storeys, and
sometimes the second storey is smaller than the first, so that one part of the house
stands as it were inside of the other. Many of the doors are beautifully carved and
ornamented, and open on a lofty portico supported by Ionic columns of stone.
Some of these residences are surrounded by verandahs, and these verandahs again
are shaded by deep-green lattice curtains when the glare of the sun is at its fiercest.
And gardens are everywhere, for here, unlike in the Cerro or Jesus del Monte, or
the other near-by suburbs of Havana, the houses do not open on the street or run
along in one continuous block. They are all detached, all standing in their own
grounds; and some of these grounds have been planted out as gardens, and these
gardens are railed in by handsome iron fences; and so these spacious, ornamented
buildings speak eloquently of comfort within and of the opulence of their owners.
But the taint of jerry-building is on Vedado. I see in Vedado houses that the
old Spaniard would never have built. The style is Spanish, but the material is
cheap; and the wooden palings surrounding these cheap houses-surely they were
an invention of the jerry-builder. No defence can be offered for these wretched
grey or white palings : they are out of place in a Spanish-American city. And
even many of the iron fences here are frail and mean-looking. They suggest
hurry and cheapness and modernity. They suggest also the twentieth-century
Havanese suburb that will be created as the population grows. These houses are
cooler than those in the city; air and light and the blue sea are the common pos-
sessions of Vedado. But the little villa with its pathetic aping of the style of the
great house is in Vedado also, and it will be found in increasing numbers in every
new suburb that is built.
A part of the seashore of Vedado has been made into baths. The hard
coral rock has been cut into squares, with an opening in front through which the
sea ebbs and flows continually, and a bath-house has been built around and over
these excavations. The water here is always cool and clear, and, in one great
rectangular bath, swimming is an easy and delightful exercise. Once the fashion-
able bathing-place of Havana was where the Malecon now stands; looking over
the embankment one can still see the coral baths filled with pale green water, but
now fallen into decay. To-day the baths are at Vedado; and at Marianao, some
miles away, is the shore-bathing resort of Havana.


To the south-west of Havana lies the suburb, or, more properly, the village of
Marianao. It is separated from the city and from Vedado by a large track of waste
land, and in travelling over this you obtain some idea of what the site of the city





16 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

itself was once like. The old writers on Cuba tell us that outside the city walls
there were swamps and evil-smelling places, and in rough weather the waters of the
Gulf of Mexico would roll in upon the land. There were no gutters to carry off
the storm waters when it rained, and the filth and garbage of the city that did not
find its way into the harbour was often thrown outside the walls and lay there in the
sun, rotting and reeking, and breeding hideous forms of life. The saturated soil
teemed with rank vegetation, and this gave the refuge to myriads of flies and
mosquitoes which preyed upon the people and spread the germs of disease. So
Havana lived and moved and had its being on what in rainy weather must have
been little better than a marsh; and driving to-day along the road that leads to
Marianao one feels that even now the city is perilously near a breeding-place of
disease.
On leaving Vedado the car emerges on an open undulating plain, and in the
distance one sees the low hills that rise to the south of Havana. On your right
are cultivated fields in which vegetables are grown; to your left you see the
tall chimneys of some factory; standing out singly or in groups, like cays and
islets in a sea of green, are a few large trees ; and houses appear here and there;
and cattle and horses occasionally. The car rushes between living walls of
rank vegetation, which are sometimes high enough to obscure the view. You
have passed over a low bridge that spans a slow-flowing, mud-coloured river
that empties itself into the sea upon the right and makes a swamp of acre
upon acre of the low-lying neighboring country. You have passed an
ancient fort which is said to have defied the pirates in the past; and though
you are but a mile or two from Vedado, it is as though you were in a
country almost deserted, so few are the signs of life everywhere. The
driver leaves his brake and leans carelessly against the rail that separates him
from the passengers in the car. The conductor comes inside and sits down
to smoke a cigar and to talk with a friendly passenger. The car goes at full
speed; presently, riding across the open country to a red-roofed house surrounded
by royal palms which I see in the distance, is a troop of Cuban cavalry, a fine
body of men whose khaki uniforms, slouch hats and long swords, and whose
martial appearance as they trot along mounted on their strong, fine-looking,
well-kept horses, make a splendid picture in that landscape of green and
blue.
In the days of the Spaniard thousands of soldiers were to be seen by night
and day in the streets of Havana and in other towns. Their uniforms brightened
the scene, the music of their bands and the sound of their bugles were heard
everywhere. At one time there were quite 2oo,ooo of them in Cuba, and they were
the mighty instrument and symbol of Spain's predominance in that land. Now
they are all gone; and though one sees a good many soldiers in Cuba to-day,
and in Havana especially, their number is by no means out of proportion
to the rest of the population. The army is but 4,000 strong, and is for the






















Lk~1


THE MALECON. WITH RESIDENCES IN THE DISTANCE.





THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


most part composed of men with well-formed features and athletic appearance.
I think they must choose the pick of Cuba's men for the army. When one
sees a troop of them riding across open country, as I saw them on the morning
I went to Marianao, one must admit that, in looks at least, they compare favour-
ably with almost any soldiers in the world.
Nearing Marianao one catches a glimpse of a group of red-roofed houses
that look like a manufacturing dep6t, and in front of these is the sea. Then comes
Marianao, and one enters the village through an avenue of great trees whose
over-arching branches completely shut out the rays of the sun. We climb up
a low hill with houses on either side of the street. A policeman, big, black,
and the picture of good nature, is leaning against a wall and talking to a rather
well-favoured mestizo girl; a few black women lounge about smoking; a cafd or
two hang out the announcement that there the traveller may have board and
lodging; the shops are deserted; a few dogs stray aimlessly about. In a word,
Marianao is a village asleep.
Yet it is a summer resort for the fashionable folk of Havana, and some of
its houses are as handsome as any you will see in the suburbs near the city.
They stand in the midst of their gardens, with high iron fences surrounding them;
and as you pass you may see the ladies of the house seated in rocking-chairs
on the broad verandahs with little children about them, and black nurses. These
nurses are said to look after their charges well, and a neater lot of women servants
it would not be possible to find anywhere in the tropics. They are well paid
too, and the children they care for look strong and healthy-healthier by far than
those who live in the crowded houses of the city.
The city houses, in truth, where 95 per cent. of the population live, are
not places where one would expect children, or even men and women, to
thrive and be strong. The wonder is that any escaped the periodical epidemics of
smallpox and cholera and yellow fever which time and again broke out in the city
of Havana. The soil was sodden with the leaking and the filth of centuries;
many of the streets were unpaved; open gutters took the waste water to the bay,
and from each gutter came the horrible smell of stale soap-water and kitchen
refuse. The latrine system was primitive: a pit situated next to the kitchen and
belching odours into the living-rooms. Thus every courtyard of the poorer sort of
house was a wretched, evil-smelling place, and on these courtyards all the living-
rooms of the single-story rectangular tenement opened. Everything came in and
went out by the one door that opened on the street; and in the little cells that
faced one another and opened on a level with the ground many families lived.
Many families still live in them--overcrowding is common in Havana, is, indeed, a
custom of the city. It costs a great deal to build a house of stone, and so long as
one of these places is habitable it will be tenanted. It is no wonder consumption is
the most prevalent ordinary disease in Havana to-day in spite of the tropical
climate and the pure air that blows from the Gulf; yet yellow fever has






18 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

disappeared and smallpox, and one sees the reason of this as one peeps into or
walks through some of the houses in the poorer quarters of Havana.
Most of the thousands of courtyards have been paved with flag-stones or brick,
many of the streets are paved with brick or asphalt, and the modern sewer system,
though not yet completed, embraces a great section of the city.
The crowded tenements of Havana do not look unclean now, with their paved
courtyards and drains. I peep into them, one after the other as I pass, and I see
naked or half-naked children playing and crawling about the yard, and women
washing and doing their domestic work. There are no patios here, no tasteful
arrangements of palms and ferns and flowers and fountains; yet there are a
few palms and shrubs ranged in pots and pans around the courtyards; these
redeem these places from utter sordid ugliness, and testify to the unconquerable
craving of a city population for the green things of the field and the forest. The
furniture of these rooms is a bed sometimes of iron, often of wood ; sometimes a
" cot" only, which is simply a piece of rough canvas stretched over a light wooden
frame that can be opened and closed at will. There are a few rocking-chairs,
a table or two, and a wooden cupboard in which is stored the crockery of the
house. In this room, with its flooring raised but a few inches above the ground,
a family of five or six persons may live, and when the door is closed at night I
imagine that the heat must be infernal.
Havana is clean on the surface and filthy beneath, is what some of the foreign
residents in the city are fond of saying, but they exaggerate. The poorer classes
have certainly not yet learnt the value of cleanliness, but the house-to-house
inspection by sanitary officers is not altogether a paper precaution, and the streets
at any rate, are well kept. As one drives through them after nightfall, one finds the
dirt and rubbish of houses and shops all packed into receptacles or neatly heaped
up on the sidewalk awaiting the street-cleaner's cart. And all day long the members
of the sanitary corps may be seen sweeping the streets and taking the refuse away
in their hand-carts. Havana, too, is excellently supplied with an abundance of
good water from the Vento Reservoir, and its sewers are flushed and its drains
disinfected regularly. The Government knows that an outbreak of yellow fever or
any other epidemic would mean a grave remonstrance from, and perhaps the
intervention of, the United States; so it does try to keep Havana clean. Inter-
vention will come sooner or later, but at present, at any rate, it does not seem
likely that the alleged neglecting of the sanitary condition of Havana will be the
cause of it.
There is a Chinese quarter in Havana, as there is in every important city in the
world. There are mean streets in Havana; streets in which are little shops with
fly-blown meat hung out for sale, or with piles of vegetables and fruit exposed, or a
miscellaneous stock of groceries. They are never very busy, these places. They
must make a profit, but quietly, for hurry and bustle are not characteristic
of them. The flies love them, for they swarm there by the thousand, but the





THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


customers do not mind the flies. And so the beef is sold, and the vegetables;
and if the fly has his meal first well, there is enough left for God's other
creatures.
Most of the book-shops of Havana are situated in a busy thoroughfare facing
Central Park on the east; here the books and papers are displayed on counters set
out on the piazza. The literary tastes of the reading population, if one may judge
by the literature displayed for sale, are not such as the Society for the Promotion of
Christian Knowledge would approve of. Pornographic literature abounds. French
novels translated into Spanish, Spanish novels as bad as, or if anything a little
worse than, these translations, you will find in plenty in Havana. On their
coloured covers one is treated to scenes in which a conventional devil with flames
and fork may be represented as triumphant or enraged, or one sees masked
men stabbing a half-clothed woman to death, while the title of the book gives
a clue to its contents. There are other works, of course. Don Quixote" seems
to be a favourite, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's detective stories are here also,
and American tales of the Wild West. And there are anti-theological works in
abundance.
It is easy to see that the newspapers are well read here. There are a good
many published in Havana. Two (the Havana Daily Post and the weekly Havana
Telegraph) are in English; La Lucha has an English section also; then
there are the Diario de la Marina, and the Triunfo, and others; and the
offices of these are all fitted out with linotype machines and modern engraving
apparatus. The Press is perfectly free in Cuba, and is outspoken; but now
and then, unhappily, editors are shot at by angry politicians, and this makes
the work of newspaper editing a little difficult at times. The weekly illustrated
papers contain cartoons of public men and pictures of public events, and seem
to have a large clientele. In Havana, as elsewhere, the newspaper bids fair
to beat the book out of the field; that is, of course, the sort of book that is
something better than rubbish.
Yet they have a fine National Library in Havana (which is hardly ever used);
and one or two other public libraries. The guide-books never omit to tell you that
the volumes in the National Library are all richly bound; so, I may add, are those
in the Centro Dependientes, a Clerks' Club that has over 20,000 members and the
finest club-house in Havana. The building is of three storeys and faces the Prado.
You pass through a lofty doorway, with magnificently carved'doors of cedar,
and enter on the first floor of the house by a marble staircase, with richly worked
rails. The splendid, spacious ballroom of this club, with its painted ceiling,
its glitter of electric lamps, its cushioned seats, its marble floor, its mirrors ranged
on either side of the room, and the veined marble arches supporting the lofty
roof is a pleasure saloon of which any palace in the world might well be proud.
Now in this club there is a library, and through this library I was permitted
to look by the obliging librarian. It is not large, but the books are beautifully






20 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

kept, the room is cool and spotlessly clean, and the leather-upholstered chairs
are comfortable. On the shelves were ancient treatises on Spanish-America,
and Plato's works, and some of the works of modern European authors. Dickens
was there, and Victor Hugo; Balzac and Goethe and Zola. Mr. H. G. Wells is
there-they have bound his "Anticipations" and his "First Men in the Moon"
together, and near him stands Ribot's psychological studies; and there are
histories of literature and the lives of great generals. I could add to the list,
but these names are enough to show that the Clerks' Association of Havana is
catholic enough in its literary tastes; or rather, I should perhaps say, catholic
in its selection of books for its library. For as I took up book after book and
looked at its beautiful binding, as I opened Dumas' novels and remarked how
new they were, I was reminded of Porthos' famous will, in which was mentioned
Porthos' library of eight thousand volumes-" all uncut." The Centro Depen-
dientes of Havana has a fine library-all unread. I left the library and went
to the bar. The businesslike appearance of that institution showed that it was
by no means "all unused."
When one mentions bars, one is reminded of the ways and habits of those who
serve at them; now it will always strike a stranger as peculiar that even in the bars
of the best hotels in Cuba he will often find the assistants working in their shirt-
sleeves. The waiters at the hotels, too, will come to you in the act of putting on
their dress jackets, and, so far as I can remember, none of the boys who worked at
the hotel I stopped at wore anything like a livery. I think I can remember seeing
two coachmen in livery in the streets of Havana-there may have been more,
but I do not recollect having noticed them. Servants in Spanish-America, in
fact, do not like to wear anything that might seem a badge of private service.
But the saying in Havana amongst the foreigners is that if you put a Cuban in
an official's uniform you may pay him half the salary he could earn in private
employment. His dignity is enhanced by the outward and visible signs of
public office. He is then more than a man: he is a public functionary, however
humble.
Perhaps the Government had this in mind when they gave their police
force a grey-blue uniform with caps to match. This uniform may have been
designed by the Americans or the Cubans (I do not know which), but, at any
rate, it is a handsome one, and the men look well in it. Havana has about
a thousand policemen-an extraordinary number. But the police are intended
to do more than protect property and see that the laws are obeyed. Armed,
every one of them, with a heavy revolver, feared and respected because of
the support they receive from the Government, seen everywhere-in the street
cars, in the streets, in the parks-they are really a semi-military force which
would be most effective in crushing one of those dmeutes for which the cities
of Spanish-America are famous. They are well paid too (though they wear
uniforms), and well looked after. Sometimes, late at night, I have seen one






THE KEY OF THE NEW WORLD


of their officers sitting motionless on his horse at the top of some street, his
cloak thrown across his shoulders, his left hand on his hip, and his eye surveying
the scene before him as though he were a general on a battle-field. He carries
himself proudly : perhaps he is aware of his statuesque appearance, and delights
in it. He knows how much he and his colleagues of the force stand for in
this city, but I do not think he takes undue advantage of his knowledge and
position. He must be obeyed-that is well understood-but he does not officiously
interfere with one. And he and his subordinates do keep order in Havana,
where, I may say in passing, the stranger is perfectly safe at any hour of
the night or day.
What, indeed, you cannot but remark in Cuba, and especially in Havana,
is the politeness of all the public functionaries. They show an urbanity and
a readiness to help that win your good opinion at once. On the day I visited
the Palace where (as I have said before) the President lives and the public
offices are situated, a parliamentary committee was busy revising the Budget
for 1910, and at first there was some difficulty about allowing strangers to
go through the principal rooms of the building. But when the object of my
visit was explained, one of the officials in charge remarked that, after all, I
could not disturb the members of the Committee by simply passing through
or near their room. Later on, when I met one of the Under Secretaries of
State, he expressed his regret that the President was away on vacation, and
presented me with a splendid Atlas of Cuba and a copy of the last Cuban
Census, giving at the same time a copy of this work to each of the five
gentlemen of my party.
It was in this Under Secretary's office that I met and had a talk with
Pino Guerra, about whom the world has heard something. It was he who,
in 1906, went out into the bush, and put himself at the head of the movement
which had as its result the overthrow of President Palma's second Government and
the intervention of the United States for a second time in Cuba. A more unassum-
ing, simple-looking man I have never met. He was placed by Governor Magoon
in command of the Rural Guards, or army, after the revolution; General Magoon's
idea being to make him, the most popular guerilla leader in Cuba, responsible
for the maintenance of peace in Cuba. This revolutionist become a Major-
General, was dressed in a khaki uniform on the day I saw him-there was
no difference between his dress and that of a common soldier, his sword
even, with its plain leather scabbard, was of the same pattern as the common
army sword.
Pino Guerra is a little above middle height and is sparely built. He looks
you straight in the eyes when speaking to you, and smiles frankly. In complexion
he is swarthy; the thin, hooked nose betokens energy, and if the upper lip
is too short to give the impression of inflexible will, the strong, prominent
chin and firmly closed mouth leave you no two opinions as to his strength






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


of character. Pino Guerra's eyes seem to me to indicate a strain of Indian
blood in his veins, but this may be a mere fancy of mine, for I have met
Englishmen and Americans of great force of character who have the same
half-closed, gleaming, rather oblique eyes.
People speak of him in Havana as a political factor of the first importance.
He himself does not seek to give you any such impression. I told him that
I had heard much about him and had read his statement in the North
American Review, written while he was still a rebel in arms, and setting
forth the reasons why he was leading a revolt against the Government of Cuba.
He smiled at this, somewhat deprecatingly, as though what he had done was
of little consequence. I asked him what he thought of the political future of
Cuba. He told me he believed it would be peaceful. Did he think the United
States would again intervene in Cuban affairs? No; he saw no reason why
it should, and had no fears that it would. He believed, too, that the next
Presidential election would be conducted with perfect fairness and that the
will of the people would prevail. I suppose he could not have been expected to
say anything different from this; but now, when I come to think of it, I really
had no right to ask him these questions, and he could with perfect courtesy
have refused to answer me. What struck me about the man, too, was this,
that he talked with real modesty and as though he were the humblest servant
of the Administration. I know that Pino Guerra can be different when he likes:
men with a face like his can make their power and authority felt, and their
will obeyed, very effectively indeed. But I specially mention his demeanour
and his politeness here, because I found it characteristic of Cuban officials
and soldiers generally. It was characteristic of the white officer who allowed
me to go through the old fortress of La Punta, and equally of the well-set-up
black soldier who showed we what was interesting in that place.


















CHAPTER II


HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY

ONE morning the sound of bells awoke me. The insistent clanging of them
broke loudly on the morning silence; from all parts of the city the sound
seemed to come, peal answering peal as though the bells called to one another.
I slipped out of bed, wondering what this continuous ringing could mean.
At first I thought of the mule-carts and the tinkling of the bells hung round
the necks of the splendid brutes I admired so much, but in a moment I
dismissed them: this noise was far louder than any the mules could make.
Then suddenly I remembered that this day was Sunday, and that these were
the church bells calling the faithful to early mass. In fifteen minutes I had
dressed and swallowed a cup of black coffee, and was standing on the piazza
of the hotel waiting for a victoria to come in sight.
The city still lay sleeping as it seemed, wrapped in a mantle of dark grey
clouds. A fine rain was falling, the trees in Central Park were covered with
shining drops of water, and in the concrete gutters thousands of bubbles were
formed by the pattering drops of rain. All was deserted and quiet, except
for the pealing of the bells which was waking the city and calling it to
prayer. Presently Havana would awake; indeed, as I stood there I saw that
it was waking. The passing street cars contained passengers; one, two, many
victorias appeared. I hailed one of these: in a few moments I was being rapidly
driven through the narrow streets to where the Merced Church is situated.
Men leaned here and there against the tall columns of the arcades and
colonnades, two or three women covered with mantillas and holding umbrellas
were hurrying on, evidently to some favourite church. We passed under a
great dark arch that is one of the picturesque features of the city, the Arch
of the Jesuit College; then we turned once or twice and stopped before a
large edifice standing near the end of a narrow deserted street.
From within came the sound of an organ. I entered; in front was the
high altar blazing with lights and rich with flowers and variegated colours;
on either hand ran a row of marble columns sweeping up into arches and






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


supporting the lofty roof above. Behind these columns were the chapels and
side-altars of the church, some of the latter decorated richly. The scent of
incense filled the building and hung upon the moisture-laden air; at the altar
officiating was a grey-haired priest; and scattered about the church were some
seventy worshippers who knelt devoutly while the solemn chant went on.
This church, La Merced, is reputed to be the most wealthy and the most
aristocratic in Havana. It has one of the largest congregations, and the finest
church orchestra in the city; it can seat hundreds; but at this morning's mass
there were but seventy persons present at the most, and most of them were
women. The spacious aisles looked empty, the kneeling worshippers here and
there mainly serving to call one's attention to the empty seats, and the lights on
the altar, but throwing into relief as it were the thick shadows which shrouded the
building. From the gallery above the main entrance to the west, where the organ
stands, a singer with a strong, fine baritone voice chanted the responses, and every
now and then a woman would steal across the church to one of the side-altars, and,
fixing her eyes upon some image there, would lose herself in contemplation and
prayer, as though there were nothing else in all the world except herself and her
saint. As the service went on I had time to look about quietly. The women were
dressed plainly in black and white, and though one or two of them wore hats,
the rest wore black mantillas which draped their shoulders and covered their
heads. One or two of these women were black, and these sat with the rest,
for there is no colour line drawn in Cuba in either the theatre or the church.
The few men present sat near the doors that led to the street, and one or two
of them slipped out towards the end of the service. On a few chairs to the left
about five little girls sat waiting, all dressed in white, and veiled, and with white,
slender wands in their hands. These were to make their first communion that
morning, and presently they were taken in front of the altar by a woman clothed
in black, and there they knelt and took the sacrament, while the congregation
looked on. This ceremony over, I left the Merced and went to the Cathedral.
From what I had already seen I did not think that the people of Havana greatly
cared to go to church.
The Cathedral of Havana stands in one of the oldest parts of the city and faces
a square. The tide of life and activity has, so to speak, flowed by it and left it
stranded; other churches have sprung up in other parts of the city, and have
acquired fame as the most wealthy church or the church which the prettiest
women prefer, or where the best preaching may be heard. These have been built
with a greater attempt at show, or in better localities, while the Cathedral of
Havana is surrounded by shabby-looking buildings, and its square is paved with
rough stones and has not a single tree growing in it. Yet Havana's Cathedral has
a certain dignity which none of the others possesses. It is not old, having been
built but some two hundred years ago on the site of an older church; but time has
not dealt kindly with it, and as one comes upon it with its dome and its two square


























IJr


MILK VENDOR, CUBA.


1-~I ..;i.






HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY 25

towers rising into the sky and marks where the rain has beaten great holes in the
limestone blocks of which it is built, and sees its huge, dilapidated wooden door
studded with rusted iron nails, and the two plain smaller doors on either side
of this, and the heavy, dark-grey colour which the passing years have stamped
upon it, one is at first inclined to believe that centuries have gone since its stones
were first laid, and that man and the elements have warred against it and left
it half a ruin.
You enter the Cathedral by a broad flight of steps, and pass into a sort of
vestibule that opens on the right and left into the interior of the church. Here
you see at a glance that those who built this cathedral aimed at nothing like
picturesque effect, but rather at a solid simplicity; so the weather-beaten appear-
ance of the Cathedral without is matched by the austere coldness of its interior,
and even the paintings on its vaulted roof have faded into a sober harmony with
the cold, bare walls and heavy marble columns of the aisles. The high altar on
which, to-day, a few candles are burning, is in keeping with the sombre appearance
of the church. Here, at any rate, is none of that garishness and that tawdry tinsel
which so constantly offend the eye in too many Spanish-American churches.
Behind and on either side of the altar are arranged the choir stalls of black,
polished mahogany, and the walls of this chancel are inlaid with slabs of black
marble, so that the gleaming lights on the altar shine out against a background
of semi-darkness.
There are side-altars here, and one or two paintings, and a covered niche
in which the remains of Columbus are believed to have reposed until they were
removed to Spain in 1898. But San Domingo still claims that the bones of the
great Genoese are in the Cathedral of the city which Columbus founded himself,
and which is the oldest in all Spanish-America. I leave this dispute to those
interested in it; but I think the Cathedral of Havana was no unfitting resting.
place for Columbus, since he seemed to have loved Cuba best of all the islands that
he discovered for Spain.
In the Cathedral on the Sunday of which I write a special service in honour
of some saint was being held. I noticed as I entered that only about one-third
of the interior was provided with seats, and this added to the bare and drear
appearance of the church. But what was more significant than this was the
number of worshippers. I counted them: twelve in all-nine women and three
men. At the altar were three priests, all robed in vestments of white silk
embroidered with gold. They wore the tonsure; and attending at the altar was
one other man dressed in ordinary clothes, and two acolytes, each not more,
I should say, than about fourteen years of age. As the service proceeded, one
of these acolytes swung a silver censer with rhythmical motion, the smoke of the
incense burning within it filling the aisles with its pungent, oppressive scent.
Then by degrees, as the minutes slipped by, a few other persons straggled into
the building, and after an hour had passed there were twenty-five persons in the






26 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

congregation. But still the ceremony went on with its full wealth of ritual,
so that you might have thought that the church was crowded to overflowing, and
that this long, impressive service was being followed by hundreds of devout and
eager listeners.
Then something happened which showed me that the demon of anger could
not altogether be exorcised even by the presence of the Blessed Sacrament upon
the altar.
The moment came for reading a portion of the Scriptures, and one of the
priests, a sharp-faced, elderly man, found on turning round that the acolyte had
not brought the Bible. He spoke to the boy, then seizing him by the arm, gave
him a sharp push and sent him off to bring the book. On the boy returning with
it, the old man caught hold of it and pulled it sharply out of his hands, pushing
him away as he did so. No one seemed disturbed by the incident; perhaps it was
not uncommon. But whatever spell of impressive solemnity there may have been
about the ceremony was broken for me by that open display of temper on the
part of this priest in the very act of officiating at the altar, and in performing one
of the most sacred duties imposed upon the priesthood of his Church.
The first part of the service lasted an hour. That over, the door to the left
of the altar opened, and, preceded by an acolyte, a young-looking priest came in.
For a minute or two he stood with the others before the altar, just a little behind
them, then he went towards the pulpit, and his colleagues sat down within the
altar rails. Mounting into the pulpit he began by praying inaudibly, muttering
a few words. Then he rose and made the sign of the cross, and then he prayed
again. Presently he began to preach in a scarcely audible voice. He continued
thus for about a minute, then his voice rose, and rose louder, and in a little while
he was rapidly pouring out his sermon to his few patient listeners and the empty
spaces of the church. A soldier stole in to listen, then went his way. An old
woman peeped in at the door, and then came further in. He seemed to notice
nothing, the words came rolling in a steady torrent from his lips, while his right
arm cut the air in emphatic gestures. A life without religion, he insisted, could
only end in shadows and night; but his rhetoric never deepened into fervour or
rose to high eloquence; one might have thought he had studied this sermon by
heart, and perhaps he had.
He preached for fifteen minutes, then stopped; muttered another prayer, and
then went on again. The sermon must have lasted half an hour. But at last it
was over, and when he came down and rejoined his colleagues the four of them
disappeared into the robing-room, and in the interval a boy went round with an
armful of huge wax candles and handed each of us one. We lit them with wax
vespers, the crackling sound given off by these as they ignited seemed strangely
out of place in a cathedral. In a little while the doors of the robing-room opened,
and the two acolytes appeared holding aloft two great silver candlesticks in which
candles blazed, and between them came a priest with a massive silver crucifix, and






HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY


after him a boy swinging a censer, and behind them all the three officiating priests
marching under a canopy held by four men who had been amongst the congrega-
tion. They paused before the altar, and we were motioned to take our places near
them. Then turning their faces to the north they led the procession, chanting, and
as we moved away the organ in the gallery above the entrance thundered forth in
a tremendous burst of music, and the great bells in the towers broke into clamorous
peals.
Slowly we moved, a straggling crowd of thirty-four souls in all. Mingled with
the chant, and the pealing of the bells, and the sound of the organ, was the steady
patter of the rain as it beat down upon the roofs and on the hard pavement
outside; mingled with the smoke from the censer was the smoke given off by the
candles we bore in procession round the church. It was a pathetic contrast:
the full-dress ritual, the splendid robes of the priests, the music of the organ, the
clanging of the bells, the noise of the rain, and the volume of smoke that went
curling and floating up to the cold, painted, lofty roof, and then this handful of
women and men straggling with irregular steps in the wake of the crucifix held
high before them, and looking as though they took but little interest in the service
or the chant.
It was over at last. We stopped before an altar of the Virgin, and the priests
took sacrament from the sacred chalice, and we extinguished our candles and
gave them back, and went out once more into the streets and the rain. I had been
in the Cathedral upwards of two hours. I had assisted at a special service with
a handful of worshippers. I had seen but a few of Havana's people at church,
and if I was inclined to think it was the rain which prevented them attending
that day, I was to learn later on that rain is no hindrance in Havana when
pleasure calls to its people.
The following day I asked a Jesuit priest about the religious condition of the
country. "The men have no religion," he said, "though many of the women
have. There is very little of real religion here."


Some writers have written as though Havana were a city of churches and
temples, but I should say that compared with many another Spanish-American
city, and considered positively from the point of view of population, it has but
an ordinary number of places of worship. The Catholic churches number less
than twenty; and it is only since the end of the Spanish dominion in Cuba that
Protestants have been allowed to build a church in Havana, or in any part of the
island. Intolerance was rife in the island. No Protestant ceremony could
be performed in public, not even the burial service; and this rigid rule was never
relaxed. The Church was supported by the State. A yearly contribution of some
400o,ooo (,8o,ooo) was paid out of the Cuban Treasury to the ecclesiastical
authorities; and all the higher ecclesiastics, as well as most of the priests,






28 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

were Spaniards. The island was divided, as it still is, into two dioceses,
the eastern and the western; at the head of the eastern diocese was the
Archbishop of Santiago, at the head of the western was the Bishop of
Havana, and both these prelates received a salary of $18,ooo a year before the
Church was disestablished under the new regime. In addition to the aid it
received from the State, the Church in Cuba acquired riches by the same means
that have helped to make it so wealthy an institution in many lands. Devout
ladies gave of their substance to Holy Church, rich men dying bequeathed
property to the representatives of God on earth; the property of the priests
multiplied, they owned estates, they became powerful; but whenever the Spanish
Government was in difficulties, or thought it was, it did not hesitate to plunder
the Church. So what it gave with one hand it often took back with another
a little later on, and the religious orders were the chief sufferers.
Still, the Church in the days of the Spaniards was never very poor. The
authorities in Spain must have clearly perceived that the Spanish ecclesiastics
in Cuba formed a strong factor in favour of the continued domination of Spain;
hence they were treated well, and no prelate in Cuba was by any chance of any
other nationality but Spanish. The Cubans felt this deeply; they saw that their
sons, however talented and distinguished, could no more hope to rise to place
and power in the Church than in the Army or the Public Service ; little wonder
it was, therefore, that the Church had little influence upon them. The Cubans
are Catholics nominally, and when not positive unbelievers or Free Masons, they do
subscribe to the doctrines of their Church. But the men are mostly indifferent to
religion, and if there is no open hostility shown to the Church, that is because the
Church has largely ceased to be Spanish and has become Cuban.
After the Spaniard was driven from Cuba and the Church disestablished,
a Spaniard was sent to Havana as Bishop. He did not remain for long. The
people would not tolerate him; they had not forgotten that Spanish prelates were
once the instruments of Spanish tyranny, or at the very least the symbols of it.
So they hissed him and threw stones at his carriage, and eventually he was recalled
and a Cuban put in his place. A good many of the priests in Cuba are still Spanish
of course, but as time goes on their proportion will steadily decrease. And, if one
may judge by all the signs of the times, the influence of the Catholic religion
will steadily lessen also, as it is lessening in Spain, as it has lessened in France.
My friend the Jesuit told me that there was little real religion in Cuba.
The poor attendance at the churches, the cessation of imposing religious processions
through the streets, a recent suggestion on the part of some Cuban politicians
that such processions should be forbidden by law-all this shows what is
the influence and status of religion in Cuba. The statistics of illegitimacy
might also be regarded as indicating the prevailing religious indifference;
but I should not take that view myself. A religion may be believed quite
fervently, and yet may fail to influence the morals of a community to any remark-




























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cv.
.7


'4,


4~H


MAKING LOVE. CUBA.


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*28

HIP





HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY 29

able extent. Belief is one thing, its influence on conduct is quite another; and
so, though reliable statistics are lacking, I am satisfied that the people of Cuba
were not more moral when they had greater faith in the doctrines of the
Church.
Yet the priests continue their ministrations, the Jesuits labouring hard especially.
This Order is now building two new churches in Santiago; their college (the
Belen) in Havana is the leading educational institution in the city for gentlemen's
sons under eighteen years of age; here they not only teach languages and
literature, but something of the physical sciences as well; here, also, they make
the meteorological and astronomical observations which have gained for their
college a world-wide reputation. I went through this institution when I was
in Havana: the priest who took me round was a Spaniard who spoke English
fairly well; he was a genial, cultured man whom it was a pleasure to meet. Like
all the brethren of his Order, he was dressed in full black, with black boots
and cap, a sombre figure moving about the squares and corridors of the large,
rambling building.
Eight hundred boys are educated there, he told me, a large number being
boarders. The fathers can take no black scholars, for that would injure the school,
but they have Sunday classes for the black boys of the city, at which the catechism
is taught: class and caste prejudice will not allow them to go farther. These
priests, following the established policy of their Order, do everything in their
power to influence the boys in their charge in favour of the Church; they are
incessant in their watch over them; they treat them kindly, looking well to their
comfort, and they try to shield them from all irreligious and immoral suggestions.
No part of a boarder's life is left unsupervised. In the chapel, in the schoolroom,
in the playground, in the sleeping corridor, the watchful eye of the Jesuit
father is upon them; and so the atmosphere of the institution surrounds them and
helps to mould them to the service and "to the greater glory of God."
I spent an interesting hour at the Belen College. I went through its museums,
its library, its art gallery (which contains a fine Christ in the Garden of Geth-
semane), and its Boys' Chapel and the Belen Church. Froude said that the Jesuits
of Havana were the Royal Society of Cuba. They are to-day, perhaps, the
most zealous workers for the cause of Catholicity in Cuba. Their simple life, their
devotion to the ideal of their founder, their unhesitating sacrifice of comfort
and friends and personal ambition to what they believe to be the interests of
the Church, all serve to place them among its best agents and apostles. Yet though
they have been educating the better-class youths of Havana for generations,
Havana's leading men are not the strongest supporters of the Church.


At about one o'clock on the same Sunday that I went to the Cathedral, I
was mingling with the crowd of boys and men that had collected under the






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


colonnades which face Central Park on the east. Many of the shops and stores
had been open for some time; the cafis were doing a good trade, the cigar
sellers and barber-shop keepers looked happy, and every now and then a boy
thrust a red, or green, or yellow programme into my hand. From these
programmes I learnt that the theatres would be having performances that afternoon,
and eventually I decided upon going to the Moulin Rouge," where, it was said,
certain escultural" ladies would delight the audience with exhibitions of dancing
and with songs.
On the programmes of this theatre it is stated that the performances at the
"Moulin Rouge are "for men only "-" dedicada A los caballeros." There are two
of these "men only" theatres in Havana, and they never lack for enthusiastic
audiences. Some time last year a Cuban girl who had been trained in Spain
returned to Havana and was employed at the Payret Theatre to dance and sing;
and to all accounts she performed her part exceedingly well. Yet few cared to see
or hear her; she could not draw a crowd. So, after a while, she left the Payret
Theatre and entered into an engagement for a season with the Moulin Rouge."
She danced before men only, and sang to them; and in a week her fame had
spread all over Havana, and the city was raving about her. The management
of the Payret Theatre saw its opportunity. Overtures were made to the young
actress, and, shortly after, the Payret's bills announced that the "escultural"
young lady would in future perform at the Theatre Payret. The move was a
wise one. Men, women, and children went to see this actress dance. Night
after night she drew thousands, and many had to be turned away from the theatre's
doors. This was significant of the sort of entertainments Havana loves. And while
very pretty variety performances may be attended by audiences numbering from
fifty to a hundred persons, the Alhambra" and the Moulin Rouge have no reason
to complain of lack of patronage. The men of Havana are faithful to them.
Havana's Moulin Rouge" is a sort of barn, with a pit and a long gallery. The
stage is large, the orchestra is divided from the audience by a light rail. In the
pit on this Sunday evening there was a large number of respectable-looking men;
in the crowded gallery there were all sorts and conditions of persons, some of them
the very dregs of the city. Black and yellow and swarthy and white faces peered
down upon the stage. Chinamen, mestizos, negroes, and white Cubans were
huddled up in a whistling, perspiring, malodorous mass that was every moment
growing more impatient. Cries, shrill whistling, impatient exclamations broke out;
the pit was more orderly but was obviously impatient also. And with every
moment the noise became louder, until at last, obeying a signal from some one half-
hidden by the curtain, the orchestra broke into sound.
It might have been the tune of a devil's dance. The music had a fierce, brutal
quality that was clearly intended to arouse every evil passion within the soul
of man. It suggested a wild abandonment to the animal impulses; it hissed out
mad desire; it screamed as if enraged. Then it became staccato, and its harsh






HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY 31

pulsations were accompanied by the steady beat of the heels of the sound-intoxicated
men in the gallery. Suddenly it stopped. The curtain rose slowly and the lights
went out. Then on a white sheet was thrown a picture from a cinematograph,
which I must not describe. The real entertainment of the afternoon was yet
to come, however; this was a drama in two acts, and the play bills proudly
announced that the work had been prohibited: in two seconds you quite under-
stood why. Then followed songs and dances, the dancers working themselves
into a perfect frenzy of savage movement from which all suspicion of decency was
abolished; and these sweating, writhing women on the stage were cheered on
to further exertions, by the screaming, applauding, delighted audience which had
now lost all control of itself.
The scene was in strange contrast to that I had witnessed in the Cathedral
that morning-in strange and significant contrast. And much worse scenes
have taken place in Havana. In the month of June, at the "Alhambra," the dancers
came on the stage without clothing, and the cinematograph exhibitions represented
the very last perfection of indecency. Fights occurred amongst those anxious to
obtain a good seat; tickets sold at a vastly increased price; during the perfor-
mances the theatre was a perfect pandemonium. But this was more than the
clergy and the better classes of the city would stand. The Bishop of Havana
gathered round him the best elements of Havana society, and pressure was
brought to bear upon the Government to put an end to these demoralising orgies.
The Government intervened; but what is now permitted is not much worse than
what has been prohibited. And the Government will hardly venture on a further
prohibition.
The Americans tried to put a stop to what they considered were the more
demoralising pastimes of the Cuban people, but what they did is rapidly being
undone by the Cuban Government. The latter declares it is powerless: the
people want cock-fighting and lotteries, and they will have them; so cock-
fighting and lotteries have again been legalised. In time, maybe, the great
bull-ring at Regla will again be the arena of bloody fights between pain-mad-
dened bulls and nimble matadors, but bull-fighting is still prohibida at the
moment that I write. The lust of blood and of money must needs be content
with the excitement of the lottery drawings on Sunday afternoons, and the
cruel combats of infuriated game-cocks.
Sunday in Havana, as in all Latin countries, is the great day for amuse-
ments. The lottery, which has been recently re-established as a state institution,
announces the winning numbers on Sunday afternoon, and its announcements
are feverishly awaited by thousands of persons. This is what the Havana
Telegraph had to say the other day about the opening of the lottery. "Most
extensive preparations are going on for the opening of the lottery; the machine
which served in the old Spanish days has been furbished up and provided
with an electric motor, and all other gambling has been suppressed that there






32 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

may be an accumulation of hard-earned wages on hand to be invested in
lottery tickets. Heretofore all efforts to stop gambling in the clubs of the city
were vain, especially in the political clubs, but now there is no playing in any
of these, not even in the Miguelista Club itself. Gambling has been declared
intolerably immoral, unless you gamble with the Government, in emulation of
the President's virtuous example."
This, of course, is a political outburst; yet it is quite true that the Presi-
dent himself chose the number 1895 for the first drawing of the national
lottery.
The Havana theatres, although large, can claim but little in the way of
appearance. The Havanese are very proud of their Opera House, but I found
it a rather shabby structure capable of seating some three thousand persons,
the entrance to this building being through one of the largest cafes in the
city. It is not singular in this respect. The stranger who is directed to the
Havana Opera House and who finds himself in a large room with a bar at
one end of it, in which scores of men are seated round little tables, smoking,
sipping cool drinks, and talking, may well imagine at first that he has blun-
dered into a public-house. But he has only to walk straight towards the big
doors in the centre of the wall facing the cafi's entrance, and he will find
that he has made no mistake. After giving up his ticket and passing in, he
will see before him a spacious amphitheatre, the pit of which is crowded with
seats, and which is provided with galleries rising vertically one above the other
to the roof. These galleries are all very narrow ; the lower ones are divided
into boxes in which two rows of chairs facing one another are ranged, so that
a company of ladies and gentlemen may comfortably sit in one of these boxes
as they do at home, and talk during the intervals of the play. In a Cuban
house (it is the same in other Spanish-American countries) the ladies sit oppo-
site the men unless related or on very familiar terms, and those who manage
the Cuban theatres have thoughtfully provided that there shall be no divergence
from this custom in a theatre box. These boxes have no curtains; they are
separated from each other by the flimsiest of white railings; you enter them
through a flimsy slat door; and as a rule they are patronised by women.
It is when there is some specially attractive performance at one of these
places that Havana's fashionable folk are seen in all the glory of their war-
paint. A Havanese audience prides itself upon its appreciation of good acting
and singing : the women show their approval by going in hundreds to hear
their favourites, the men express their delight by cheering vociferously, by
throwing bouquets on the stage, and by making presents of jewellery to popular
actresses.
There is always an Italian or Spanish Opera Company cruising about in
Central American and West Indian waters. These companies seem to be as
much a part of these regions of the world as the sky or the sea itself. The






A


F~B~


THE PRADO, HAVANA.


I vlokil





HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY


prima donnas are frequently ifat; the tenors, too, have often reached an age
when, in spite of hardships and the vicissitudes of fortune, their abdominal
development indicates that they have long since passed the days of love's young
dream. Yet one must be thankful for what the gods provide, so a West
Indian audience will turn out in thousands to hear a prima donna, aged forty-
five, declare in quavers and high notes that she is on the point of committing
suicide because a cruel uncle prevents her from being united to the dear ob-
ject of her love, who may be fat, florid, and fifty years of age.
Such a company going to Havana does not often leave dissatisfied. Yet
some very good companies have gone to Havana, and not a few "artistes"
who have won fame in Europe have appeared before the footlights of the
Grand Opera House of that city. During the summer there is no opera in
Havana, but there are always variety entertainments at which you are treated
to exhibitions of ballet dancing by an "incomparable" dancer who (so the
programme informs you) delighted and astonished the people of Paris last year;
and then, since even the incomparable one may not suffice, there are views
from a cinematograph, and jokes by a world-famed comedian, also
"incomparable."
And what amuses me about the Havana theatres is the quite cheerful way
in which the audience is permitted to see what is going on upon the
stage before the curtain rises and after it falls. There is always something
the matter with the curtain; it persistently refuses to come right down to the
flooring of the stage, nor does it always hide the wings of the stage from
view. So one, sitting in the pit, sees quite easily what is going on upon the
stage; and if it happens that some one has died in the last scene of an act
you have been witnessing, it is not at all uncommon to see the dead man rise
with remarkable agility and take himself off. The enterprising advertiser has
also made the most of the opportunities which these theatres afford him for
publishing the excellence of his goods to the Cuban world; and so on many
a drop-curtain I have seen flaring advertisements of beer and biscuits, while
the picture of a watch, rising like a sun out of the sea, and sending forth
bright rays of light, haunts my memory like an evil dream. I saw that pic-
ture on the curtain of the Payret Theatre, and remember that underneath it
was the veracious announcement that watches of that make are the best and
the cheapest in the world.
The prices charged at these theatres (except during the Grand Opera season)
are very low. In the course of an evening three entertainments may be given
at the same play-house, each lasting about an hour. You pay a shilling or two
(25 or 50 cents), and at the close of one part of the performance
you leave or buy another ticket as you please. But these variety shows, though
very good for the price, are but poorly attended; you see very few women at
any of them, for example. And the men, as a rule, prefer the "Moulin






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


Rouge" or the "Alhambra." I imagine that the actors and actresses at the ordi-
nary respectable Havana theatre must often ruefully conclude that while respect-
able acting is praised in the press, it is a little too often (like virtue) its own
reward.
From what I have written it will be concluded that the moral tone of
Havana is not high. The watch which mothers and fathers keep over their
daughters, the insistence that all love-making shall be done under the eye of
a relative, the partial seclusion of the women, the disinclination to allow a young
woman to go anywhere alone : all this finds an explanation in the Spanish proverb
which recommends "a brick wall between a male and a female saint." The
Cuban woman is reputed to be a faithful wife and a devoted mother. The
Cuban husband, it is said, regards continence as an admirable thing-for his
women folk. Ten years ago, according to available statistics, 25 per cent. of
the white Cuban children were illegitimate. The percentage amongst the
negroes could not be ascertained, but was believed to be very much higher.
The last Cuban census (whose figures are suspect) gives the proportion of
illegitimates to the rest of the population as something over 12 per cent. The
figures show a truly wonderful improvement, an improvement too good to be
true. So I glanced over the statistics given by the Cuban Government in its
elaborate "Censo de la Republica de Cuba, 1907"-and remember they were
prepared for the perusal of others besides Cubans and residents in the
country.
A foreigner long resident in Havana told me, too, a story which he declared
illustrated a common enough phase of life in Havana. He was staying at a
boarding-house with a number of other persons, and amongst them was a young
couple whom he thought a pattern of mutual affection. They must have lived in
the house for over two years, when one morning he noticed that neither was
present at breakfast. As he had been on fairly friendly terms with them,
he casually inquired of the landlady what had become of Mrs. D-, and was
told that she had left for good; had gone to the country, the landlady thought.
And Mr. D- ? Oh, he was to be married next week Then the landlady,
who had known all along the true relations existing between Mr. D- and his
lady, explained that the gentleman belonged to a very good Cuban family who
wanted him to marry; and he, in order to please them, had severed his
connection with the soi-dissante Mrs. D-, but not one moment before he
thought it absolutely necessary to do so. "And that sort of thing, my dear
sir," said my friend, "is common enough here." He was a great moralist in
words, and so he went on to tell me innumerable other tales reflecting upon
Havana society, to each of which he added a severe remark of condemnation
though I noticed that he told his stories with infinite enjoyment. I doubted
none of them. He was a bachelor who lived in lodgings, and so should
know.






HAVANA AT PRAYER AND AT PLAY


But enough of reflections upon Cuban morality. As I write I think I see a
bevy of Havana's fairest daughters gracefully walking under the shade of the
laurels that form the leafy avenue of the Prado, and this brings to my mind
the memory of a Sunday evening promenade when the sun was sinking, a globe
of gold, and when the stars were beginning, one by one, to peep out of the
pale blue dome above.
"It is something we can all enjoy," said an American to me when speaking
of this Sunday promenade. It is something every one in Havana does enjoy.
It is at this promenade that you see a real crowd in Havana; not a hurrying,
busy crowd, but thousands of pleasure-seekers whose one thought is of the
enjoyment of the evening.
In Central Park and on the Malecon the bands are playing, and as the
dusk deepens the throng of well-dressed people increases. Motor-cars, private
landaus and victorias drive up and down the Prado and along the road that
runs beside the embankment from La Punta to where the Malecon ends. But by
far the greater number of persons are walking about or sitting on the fauteuils
provided by the municipality, and for the use of which a small amount is charged.
Most of the women are bareheaded; and the lithe, sinuous bodies of those that are
still young, with the light from their dark eyes, and their graceful movements, and
their self-conscious, studied look of indifference as they pass groups of young men
who stare with bold admiration at them-all this makes a picture I should not
willingly forget.
The whole blessed family goes out together," a young American remarked in
disgust to me. They will not trust a girl alone." That is true: the whole
blessed family, or most of it, does seem to go out together. And mamma is
generally fat, while the spinster aunt runs to skin and bone ; papa, too, I suspect,
is a bit of a savage where his daughters are concerned. His swagger and the de-
fiant set of the straw hat that he wears seem to utter vague but terrible threats
against those who would venture too far. Still, thank heaven, there is nothing to
prevent your staring; so while the band plays you follow the girls with your eyes,
feeling sure that they also are looking (but furtively) at you.
The Cuban woman, as I have hinted above, has a tendency to grow fat or thin
as she passes from youth to age. But she is pretty and graceful when young, and
for so much the stranger is most thankful. She almost invariably carries a fan, and
has learnt to manipulate it with the same dexterity with which she uses her eyes;
with the slightest motion of her fingers it opens or closes rapidly, and she fans
herself with a series of quick movements fascinating to behold.
Many a young man, I fancy, would, on a promenade night, as he watches these
girls, vote most cheerfully for the abolition of papa and mamma. He would like to
see the girls alone, with their airs and graces, their soft movements and their quick
or languishing glances. And no doubt a future emancipated generation will see
mamma relegated to the company of her contemporaries, and papa sent altogether







36 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

about his business. But that time is not yet; so, meanwhile, "the whole blessed
family," or the major portion of it, strolls up and down the Prado, or along
the Malecon, and the strains from the band fill the tropic night with music and
the moon up above aids the lamps of the city to shed brightness on the scene;
and to the north the waves of the Gulf of Mexico eternally roll shoreward and
break in surf against the shore, and the wind comes stealing over that wide ex-
panse of water, bringing a sweet, refreshing coolness to the pleasure-lovers of this
queen city of the Caribbean;Sea.
And so the hours steal on, and gradually the crowd thins and vanishes, and
Havana retires to rest after a day of prayer and pleasure-or of pleasure merely, as
some observers would say.


















CHAPTER III


THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY

THE harbour of Havana was beginning to awake to the business of the day when,
along with a number of other passengers, I stepped on board the ferry-boat that
was to convey me over to Regla. In this little town was the railway line that
connects Havana with Santiago de Cuba, the capital city of the great Province of
Oriente at the other end of the island. Five years ago it would not have been
possible to go right through the country by train, for although there were several
lines of railway running in Cuba, they were all independent and all disconnected.
To-day they have changed all that : to-morrow they will improve on what they
have already done. Road-building and the extension of the railway system have
begun in good earnest since the dawn of Cuban independence, and so one can
now see Cuba without any considerable difficulty. Ten years ago the ordinary
traveller contented himself with a visit to Havana.
The train did not leave Regla promptly at 7.30, as it was scheduled to do.
The reason was that neither the train nor anything else pays strict attention to
schedule time in Cuba. This contempt for punctuality is one of the customs of
the country which I failed to admire; anyhow we did start at about eight o'clock,
and after pulling out of the station and leaving the little town, we found ourselves
in the open country-in the green undulating plains and under the bright blue
sky of Cuba.
What a contrast to the city it was We had left the narrow streets with their
painted houses behind us, and were now in the midst of cultivated fields dotted
here and there with peasants' houses, interspersed with clumps of heavy-foliaged
trees, cut through by paths which showed red or black according to the nature
of the earth, and watered by dark, gleaming streams that flowed and gurgled
between banks fringed as far as the eye could reach with Royal palms. Here
was where the real wealth of Cuba lay. Here was the soil whose fertility is
so wonderful that it never needs manure, where the cane-farmer does not have
to replant his land with new canes for seven and sometimes for ten years. So
rich is this soil that from the same roots fresh canes will spring and be as full






38 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

of luscious juice as those he gathered last season, and so deep down is this
layer of black or red earth that at some places you must dig for a yard or two
before you reach the hard limestone rock beneath. And nature has in other
ways been kind to this island of Cuba. It has given her a genial climate which
varies slightly as you travel from west to east, and which is almost cold in the
west in winter and never unbearably hot in the summer months. In all the
four seasons of the year it is still a land of bright sunshine and genial temperature :
if not, perhaps, in the towns, then at least in the country districts over whose
whole area the trade winds blow, bringing a refreshing coolness from the sea.
It is a land of placid beauty, smiling, fertile, and with something feminine
about its low wooded hills and purling waters. And it is the soft richness of
the island, its three thousand varieties of plants, its thick carpet of variegated
green, its deep blue skies, and its millions of palms and trees which grow in
luxuriance on its broad plains, in its deep valleys, and on its mountain peaks,
that have gained for it the title of "The Pearl of the Antilles."
The shape of Cuba has been likened to that of a hammer-headed shark.
The similarity exists. From point to point the island is 900 miles long,
and is everywhere less than 1oo miles broad; in one or two places it is
less than 25 miles across. Most of it is flat country, except to the east
and west. In the east a well-defined mountain range sends up lofty peaks,
the highest of which is 8,000 feet; in the west there is also a range
of low mountains, and in the centre of the island, running through it like a
backbone as it were, are spurs of the Sierra de los Organos and groups of
hills; but, on the whole, Cuba is singularly free from mountainous projections.
The island is divided into six provinces. The province to the extreme west,
Pinar del Rio, is the scene of the tobacco industry of Cuba. It is here and in the
farms immediately west of Havana that the tobacco is grown which has made
Cuba famous, and which gives employment to thousands of men and women. I
have already spoken of the tobacconist shops in Havana; and one of the most
interesting sights of that city also is its tobacco factories with their thousands of
workers, both male and female, and their atmosphere of busyness and skill. The
tobacco is cultivated on vegas, or small farms, by men who know their business by
instinct as it seems. Every farm is a little community in itself ; there the houses
of the farmer and his workers are situated, and there the vegetables for home
consumption are grown; sometimes, too, these vegas have gardens for the
common enjoyment of the community, and there are sheds for the cattle, and
the tobacco drying-house.
These vegas are hardly ever larger than forty acres. The men who grow
and tend the tobacco (chiefly white Cubans) know that while the soil and
climate will do much to bring the leaf to perfection and give it the fine flavour
that the connoisseur loves, everything may still be ruined by unskilful handling
or careless sorting, and so they go about their work with something of the





THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


care a mother shows in looking after her child. The best quality of leaves is
carefully sorted out from those of slightly inferior quality, and then the better quality
of leaves is sorted out. And so the process continues, until the poorest quality
of the tobacco has been picked out to be used in the making of inferior cigars,
while the finer leaves are all neatly made up into bundles and duly labelled
according to their worth. But the finished work of the grower and sorter
is but the raw material of the man who makes the cigars. A great deal depends
upon him also. He knows it, and takes pride in his work. Seated at innumer-
able tables in some great factory in the capital, with their knives and their
pots of paste at hand, and, with cigars in their mouths, hundreds of these workers
sit for hour after hour in the day, rolling and cutting the cigars that are to go
all over the world. In the centre of the room, perched upon a sort of pedestal,
sits the reader of the factory, the man who is employed by the Company to
read aloud to the men who are at work. It is a curious custom this, but the
cigar-maker is a politician wherever he is found, and wants to hear what
the -newspapers are saying on the topics of the day. So the reader reads
to him as he works, and in listening he manufactures the fine cigars from which
Cuba draws so large a portion of her revenue.
Tobacco is grown in other provinces, as well as in Pinar del Rio; through
all of these, with the exception of Pinar del Rio, the train passes on its way
to Santiago de Cuba. The line I travelled by is a single-track, broad-gauge
railway system owned by an English and Cuban Company; the first-class
cars they provide are fairly comfortable, and are fitted out with straw-covered,
reversible seats and electric lamps (though some are still lighted by kerosene
lamps). The price of a ticket from Havana to Santiago is 5 2s. 6d.
After we have been travelling for ten or fifteen minutes the characteristic
features of the Cuban landscape begin to unroll before our eyes. One may have
read before coming to Cuba of the Royal palm and of how it grows in profusion
in this land; but no amount of description, no piling of adjective upon adjective,
no excess of poetic simile, can give any true idea of what these palms look like
as one sees them rising out of the ground in groups, in single stems, or in countless
thousands for hundreds of miles upon the way. They are fewer in the east than
in the west, and after passing through Havana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara one sees
another variety of palm, a fan-palm which is not as stately as the Royal palm,
but which has nevertheless a beauty of its own, with its crown of short fan-like
fronds shining a dark green in the rays of the sun.
Rank after rank of these Royal palms appear and vanish as the train speeds
past; sometimes they put one in mind of a regiment of soldiers marshalled out
there upon the plain, or of a forest that has not been allowed to grow up at
will, but has been trained and looked after, so that every tree has been given
room enough to spring up towards the sunlight and to spread out its branches
in the air. They strike a note of stateliness, so noble and so graceful is the look






40 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

of them. The wind passes through them, and the long green branches sway here
and there-thousands upon thousands of them moving at one moment. Grass
grows about the roots of them, long, thick, and emerald green; a carpet of beauti-
ful colour from which the slender, grey-white columns rise up and expand into
waving crowns of green.
Reddish-brown penguin hedges show where a careful farmer has sought to
protect his crop. A stream tumbles over its rocky bed, perhaps to join farther
on some river that flows towards the sea. There are many rivers in Cuba; the
country is a land of streams. But so narrow it is that but few of these are
large, and only one or two are navigable for any appreciable distance. The Rio
Cauto is the largest; the others flow chiefly north and south to empty themselves
into the sea. The rainfall in Cuba is copious, and so these rivers supply the
land with the water that it needs; but many of them sink into the limestone
caverns, while others spread themselves out on the low-lying lands of the southern
coast, and thus help to form the vast cienagas, or swamps, of Cuba, where the
crocodile lurks, and savage landcrabs find shelter, and fierce mosquitoes swarm
in millions. Evil places these are: death-traps and poisonous; yet I can imagine
that, in the days gone by, many a fear-maddened slave flying from a daily torture
worse than death may have plunged into them as behind him he heard the
thunder of the hoofs of pursuing horses or the deep, awful baying of the blood-
hounds tracking him to his doom. And to him they may have proved a place
of refuge.
The cattle ploughing in the heavy black soil of the countryside, and the
group of huts near by, tell me that I am passing one of the numerous farms
of Cuba. This is a small one, probably not more than 40 acres; and a glance
at the labouring oxen shows that they are harnessed to a wooden plough, a
crooked branch, one end of which, thrust into the soft earth, turns it up in
heavy lumps which must afterwards be broken by the hoe. A primitive process,
yet it serves the farmer's purpose well. The land is so soft that it yields to
his efforts, the soil is so rich that even a superficial plughing will give him
good returns. Yet it must not be thought that modern agricultural implements are
unknown in Cuba: they are being used more and more every year. I find that in
the three years, 1905-7, Cuba purchased over 172,ooo worth of agricultural
implements from America and the United Kingdom, and it has purchased more
since then. The American may be trusted to preach the value of modern
implements and methods to the Cuban.
Standing at the doors of the huts on this farm are a few women, white,
loosely dressed, but with their hair neatly plaited and parted. One of them
holds a naked child of about five years old in her arms. This custom of leaving
the children to go naked until they are five or six years old is one that will
die hard in Cuba. I don't think it hurts the children much in this sunny
climate, but the sight is a little startling at first. A strong, fine-looking American






;: ~.~?7~-
::
~:~~


lSSiJL TlE CAThEDFIAL JA ANA.


S"f







'C~4






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


from the Southern States, seeing me look at the child, offers some information
on the subject.
"A law has been passed prohibiting mothers to let their kiddies go
naked after four years of age," he tells me, "but nobody obeys it. The laws
here are a joke. Everything here is a joke! Why, in the interior many of
the boys and girls never put on anything before they are sixteen."
My informant was an intelligent man who helped to make the journey
interesting for me. He had been in Cuba for fourteen years, and cordially
disliked the people. He found them a joke, a bad joke apparently, for his
laugh when he spoke of them was not appreciative.
"Yes, sir," he continued, "boys and girls naked up to the age of sixteen.
What do you think of that? And the older men all patriots who fought in
the war of liberation! Everybody here is a patriot and fought in the war
of liberation; and when it came to paying off the army some years ago,
it seemed as though every person in the country had been engaged in
a life-and-death struggle for freedom, and patriotically expected to be paid
for it. I know hundreds of these patriots, and only one of these was a private-
he was not even a sergeant-he insists upon it. I regard that man as something
rare and wonderful, for all the other patriots were either colonels or generals.
One private, sir, to a thousand colonels It is a joke."
I laughed; "But they fought well ?" I suggested.
"They ran away well. I never saw such people for getting out of the
way of an army in my life. You simply couldn't catch them-the patriots!
"The Spaniards fought all right. The Spaniards and we are good friends
now, you know; we appreciate one another and despise the Cubans.
"There is no damned, high-fallutin' nonsense about the Spaniards. But
we all wept over the Cuban before we knew him. General Wood came over
here and talked a lot of nonsense, and spent a lot of money for no good
purpose whatever. They have made him Commander-in-Chief of the United
States Army, because, I suppose, he entertained the Cuban ladies at balls and
dances at the palace in Havana when he was Governor here. He built a
million-dollar road from Santiago to the San Juan hill, so that tourists could
go and see where the bold Roosevelt did the great deed that made him become
President of the United States. We call that road "Wood's Folly" over
here. Fancy building such a road in a country that needs roads to develop
its agriculture It is a joke."
My candid friend relapses into silence, and in the interval I scrutinise
closely the other passengers in the car. There are three or four Americans, a
few Cuban ladies with children, and numbers of men, all Cubans presumably,
who are going on to Matanzas or Camaguey. I stroll into the second-class
carriage; here another type of tropical humanity presents itself for study:
rough-looking men, without their jackets, and swarthy in complexion, and






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


women with figures and faces which indicate that they belong to the working-
classes, are seated here. My friend the Southerner will tell me that the Cuban
woman does not work; but then, he is judging by the American standards, and
judged by those standards even the lower-class Cuban woman does little. But
when I remember that even the simple duties of the home must take up some
time, when I think of the girls who are employed in the tobacco factories of
Havana, and when I call to mind the demands which a tropical climate
makes upon one's energy, I will not agree with any wholesale charge of laziness
brought against either the men or the women of Cuba. I know that in the cities
it is the Spaniard (as I have said before) who is the man of business. I know,
too, that the men in the cities and towns do not seem as robust and are not
so energetic as those who work on the farms and estates. The Latin-American
city-dweller does not love the strenuous life and is not fitted for it; yet, after
all, it is chiefly the native Cuban who grows and manufactures the sugar and
cigars, and who cultivates the fruit, which Cuba exports in such large quantities.
He is a splendid hand at cutting timber. He is fairly good at cattle-raising.
Some railway-men say he is a good hand at heavy railroad work, but others
deny this; so I suppose that some Cubans do navvy work fairly well,
while others do it badly. In the light of all this I cannot refrain from differing
from my Southern friend's opinions on Cubans as a whole.
I look out of the window again, and in the middle distance I see the forests
of palms, and behind these, against the horizon, there runs a low range of
green hills. The sun is now high in the heavens and the heat has stilled the
landscape to sleep. I imagine that out yonder the silence is as the silence of
night, unbroken save by the chirping of some insect or the lowing of the
cattle as they wander about cropping the juicy grass. Picturesque groups of
peasants' huts we pass, a little settlement here and there, with its shops, its
houses, and its vegetable gardens, and before we come to Matanzas we pass
by a great sugar estate with its square and rectangular fields of cane, its
red-roofed factory with the tall iron chimneys rising suddenly into the sky,
its avenue of Royal palms leading up to a low house surrounded by verandahs
and its grove of young cocoanut-trees with their fronds of yellowish-green.
We are in the province of Matanzas, one of the chief sugar districts of the
island. Sugar is grown everywhere in Cuba; it occupies about one-half of the
cultivated area of the country; it gives employment to the bulk of the people:
and while, in other West Indian islands, the cane-sugar industry has fallen upon
evil times, in Cuba it flourishes and has nothing to fear from the competition
of the beet; and no wonder, for what better sugar lands can you find
anywhere ?
I know that Java is said to have some of the best sugar soils in the world;
but this flat, rolling country with its thick layer of vegetable mould, its
numerous fine harbours to the north and to the south, its easy access to the






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


sea from every point; this island of Cuba, I think, has nothing to fear from
Java, which is not even now as important a sugar-producing country as Cuba.
You must remember that the cane can be grown on almost every part of it,
and that of its area of 40,000 square miles (excluding the islands and
cays along the coast) only about 3 per cent. was said to be under cultivation
in 1899. Picture to yourself this island well supplied with roads and an extended
railway system (as it one day will be), and steadily attracting workers from
Spain and the other West Indian islands, and you may form some idea of the
position it will occupy as one of the world's sources of sugar supply. Even
now the larger number of its sugar estates are splendidly equipped with
modern machinery. And the latest process of sugar manufacture will be found
in Cuba to-day.
A large sugar estate is a village, with its barracks for the workers, its 20,
30, or 40 miles of narrow-gauge railway tracks for the train of cars which
bring the canes from the field to the factory, and its hundreds of draught-oxen
and its gangs of labourers. The industry here is carried on upon a grand
scale, with expensive sugar centrals and an enormous output. This one island
alone can supply all the world with the sugar it needs. Yet, fifty years ago,
Cuba produced, not sugar chiefly, but coffee, and only gave up the cultivation
of that berry with reluctance, and in obedience to stern economic necessity.
To-day Brazil is the great coffee-producing country of the world. Fifty
years ago she had already begun to threaten the other coffee-growing countries
with her promise of enormous production. The Cubans saw the danger that
threatened; their coffee plantations had also severely suffered through the hurri-
canes of 1843 and 1845 ; so the ruined cafetals were re-planted in cane, the fruit
trees that once shaded the delicate coffee plant disappeared, and where the tender
shrub had once blossomed into snow-white flowers of delicious perfume, the green
blade of the cane now appeared. Thus an economic revolution took place,
and Cuba, which once had produced great quantities of inferior coffee, began
to produce greater quantities of superior cane sugar, and in the production
of this she will not be beaten by any other tropical country in the world.


And now I notice that the appearance of the country has slightly altered. We
are now running through a valley almost entirely surrounded by hills, and through
this valley a river flows, and here and there are houses and groups of peasants,
and horses and cattle, and plots of cultivated ground, and-but suddenly I cease
to observe the scene, for we have emerged from the valley now, and surely that
stretch of sparkling blue water is the sea, and there, climbing from the shores
of that noble bay up the low sheltering slopes of the hills, is a city-Matanzas
with its red-roofed houses and its six-and-thirty thousand souls.
The train stopped. We had been a little more than two hours upon the way,






44 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

and it was at this station that we should stay for twenty minutes for breakfast.
So we left the train and streamed into the station, and here we sat down to a meal
prepared in Cuban style, which is a style quite different from that which prevails
in the American or the Americanised hotels of Havana.
In the large waiting-room several long tables were set, and heaped upon them
was food of all sorts and descriptions. Great dishes of rice coloured red and
yellow, and cooked with large pieces of fowl or fresh fish, or with shrimps, were
scattered all about. Beef lopped with egg, eggs fried in oil, Cuban steaks swim-
ming in a rich gravy, ripe plantains sliced thick and fried to a golden brown, sweet
potatoes and yams and avocado pears-the tables were laden with all these. And
in the centre of each table, forming a sort of ridge, or backbone, was a row of
bottles and water jars, and claret decanters, and fruit-stands filled with fruits; and
dishes with slices of cream cheese and guava jelly were placed in between those
containing more solid food.
What a mixture it was We sat on benches ranged on either side of the tables,
and while we were being served I looked around me. Cubans of all colours and
complexions were there-black, white, and brown-and some Americans, and a
Chinaman or two. My friend from the Southern States sat next to a negro; I
glanced at his strong-featured, rather proud-looking face-he did not seem
disturbed by the proximity. John Chinaman eats quickly, undisturbing, and
undisturbed. And every one assisted every one else to food and drink, some
of us talking, some eating in silence.
Here, at any rate, we were all on a footing of equality. At the other Fondas in
Cuba you will also find a mixed company-you cannot exclude a man from an
hotel or restaurant in Cuba on account of his race or colour. But in the hotels
frequented by American tourists, I am told that they sometimes charge high
rates to certain guests whom they do not want; or they perhaps discover that
there is not a spare room in the house. But the poorer establishments do not
venture to do this; and, for my part, when I saw a Southerner sitting side by side
with a negro, and near to a Chinaman, without evincing any disapprobation
whatever, I felt that at last the lion was (temporarily) lying down with the lamb.
We ate with remarkable rapidity, having little time to lose. The plates and
glasses were of an extraordinary thickness, of execrable pattern, and clumsy
beyond description. Some of us began with fruit, following this up with fried
eggs; claret mixed with water was the favourite drink, and for dessert we had
bananas and native cream cheese flavoured with slices of guava dulce. I tasted
nearly everything-I paid the penalty afterwards-and I confess I found most
of it good. The dishes were oily beyond description, and some of the meats
had a tendency to sweetness; still they were palatable, and the price of the
breakfast was moderate-an American dollar for each person. This restaurant,
I understand, and the others at the different stations along the line, are either
owned by or run in connection with the Railway Company. The waiters at



































T0













A


COUNTRY HOUSE WITH AVENUE OF ROYAL PALMS.






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 45

Matanzas, I noticed, too, were Spaniards, but at the station eating-houses farther
on they were all Chinamen; and all the cooks were Chinamen.
We left Matanzas at about eleven o'clock, and as the train drew out of the
station I again caught a glimpse of the city and of the bay into which the Yumuri
empties itself. The Valley of the Yumuri is believed to be the most beautiful spot
in all Cuba; here, too, are the famous caves of Bellamar, great limestone caverns
that reach a depth of 400 feet, and which are one of the tourist-shrines of Cuba.
But it is the bay of Matanzas which charmed me, so calm it is, and so beauti-
ful is its surface of blue and frosted silver. And here I may remark on the
peculiar formation of so many of the harbours of Cuba. They are nearly all of
them long and narrow, and entered by a narrow opening, so that the cities built
upon the shores of these bays cannot always be seen from the sea. Santiago de
Cuba, for example, is so completely hidden by the hills on either side of the wind-
ing channel which forms the approach to it, that one may pass near to the coast,
and, but for the presence of the Morro Castle at the entrance of the harbour,
never suspect there was a city within a hundred miles of it. These pouch-like
harbours are formed by the erosion of the limestone rocks by the sea. The reef-
rock that for the most part forms the Cuban coast is hard and resisting, but
immediately behind it is a softer substance : hence the numerous, narrow, protected
bays of the island. The harbour of Cienfuegos, for example, is thought to be one
of the safest in the world ; while that of Santiago de Cuba is one of the most
sheltered and most beautiful that I have ever seen. And many other of Cuba's
harbours make admirable anchorages for ships.
After leaving Matanzas we settle down for a journey of several hours; for
though we shall stop at different stations along the line, the destination of most
of us is Camaguey, and that place we may reach at nine o'clock to-night. My
friendly Southerner is joined by another American who shares his views on the
Cuban situation, thinking it somewhat of a joke; but the newcomer is more
charitable towards the people, and so tells me of their good qualities, which
information I receive most gratefully.
The torpor which follows after a heavy breakfast falls upon all of us. It is
warm in the train, and presently many of the passengers settle themselves down
to sleep in attitudes that suggest the writhing of men stretched out on beds of
torture. The guard comes in, and seeing us all comfortable, or at any rate
resigned, proceeds himself to make the best of the situation, and begins to do
so by sitting down, picking his teeth, and spitting on the floor. He is a Cuban
but speaks English, and he tells you he has lived for some time in Canada and
the United States. Most of the guards on this line speak English (this to facilitate
the American traveller), and all of them are quite prepared to give you any
information in their power with an easy familiarity which is not intended to be
offensive and is not in reality so. Still, any one accustomed to the habits of those
countries where a railway guard is supposed to keep to himself and not mix on






46 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

friendly terms with the passengers, would be a little surprised at the conduct
of the guards on this Cuban railway line. Shortly after this particular one sat
down before me, he pulled a mango out of his pocket, and, pealing it, threw the
skin upon the floor. Slicing off the heavy flesh and judiciously sampling it, he
began to talk, telling me about the country, and the people, and the Americans,
whom he did not seem to love. Another guard was talking to my Southerner
with his right hand resting familiarly on the latter's shoulder, and a cigar between
his lips. Everything and every one suggested a kind of lazy indifference to class
distinctions, to discipline and order; and if there was not much conversation,
that was either because we were lazy or had nothing to talk about; it was not
because we were proud.
The villages we see after passing Matanzas are larger, more numerous, and
of more prosperous appearance than those we passed before. Some of these
settlements are towns, and I know of nothing more interesting in its way
than one of these Cuban towns set down on the railway line, with its church
and its better-class houses, and its huts and its streets and lanes, and perhaps
a tiny park. Colon town, as I remember it, was a town of the better sort:
a pretty place with red-tiled houses, and a plaza with a statue in it, and streets
paved with cobble-stones and macadam ; a place with a mixed population
of whites and negroes and mestizos, who all looked careless and happy, as they
slowly moved about or stood loitering at the thresholds of their doors. But
Esperanza, situated farther on upon the way, was altogether different. Esperanza,
or the village in Esperanza that I saw, is perhaps a typical Cuban settlement
upon which fortune has smiled. It is a mass of roomy huts divided from one
another by narrow lanes. The huts are thatched with the fronds of the Royal
palm, and the sides of them are either built of boards or of the flat end-portion
of the fronds. There are a few tiled houses there, and a church; but the
dominant note of the scene is struck by the grey, painted, comfortable huts,
and the patches of banana-trees and sugar-cane near them. The sun was
shining down upon it all as I saw it on the day of which I write, and the spears
of the cane-plant gave back the light in flashing reflections. Above the village
a flock of vultures (the John Crows) circled and wheeled, and just outside
of its boundaries a few horses and cattle strayed. Two or three shops supplied
the community with its few wants, and before these, as before every village
shop in Cuba, a number of horses were tethered to the poles that support
the projecting eves of the little wooden buildings, each of which is surrounded
by a narrow verandah.
These village shops are all the same. Some of them hang out the sign that
there the traveller may have food, or may have his hair or beard attended to.
" Fonda y Barberia," says one sign; Ropa y Articulos de Fantasia," says another.
So that cloth and clothing and fancy goods may be purchased there, as well
as condensed milk and beef.






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


I imagine, too, that these shops are the gossip-houses and clubs of these
settlements. Men riding from different parts of the adjacent country districts
alight at these places to "pass the time of day" and have a little talk. This
explains the number of saddled horses I see here, and I can picture a gathering
of these caballeros in times of revolution; I can see them spring out of their
high-peaked, hollow, richly worked saddles, each with a long machete hanging
at his side and a gun in his hand, and all gesticulating fiercely, and discussing
the all-absorbing topic of the day. Then I see them moving off in a group,
and trotting across the plain until they are swallowed up in a forest of Royal
palms, or disappear behind the distant horizon. And as I see some of them,
now, jacketless, good-humoured, and armed with the machete, I suspect that
in a tussel they would not prove to be merely the joke that my Southern friend
describes them to me.
It was, I think, at the station which was labelled Colon that a boy led
in a blind beggar, evidently one of the cherished institutions of the town.
The cry for alms rang plaintively through the train, and I noticed that but few
persons refused to assist the beggar. This scene was repeated at more than
one station farther on, and takes place every day, no doubt. You do not hustle
the beggar here and give him to the guardians of the poor; you look upon
him as part of an ordered scheme of life, and give him your pence, and receive
his blessing, quite as a matter of course. But there was something else accepted
as a matter of course also, which I did not appreciate. A man went from car
to car selling papers and illustrated magazines; I thought I would buy one
or two, and I did so. He handed me the papers, and on his giving me the
change of the silver coin with which I had paid him, I looked at his hands.
To my horror, I saw that the man was a leper-the signs of the disease were
all too visible-and I had touched his paper and money I called the Southerner's
attention to his case, and asked him if lepers were not segregated in Cuba.
This gave him an opportunity to launch out upon a description of all the loath-
some diseases of the country, and the carelessness of the authorities in dealing
with them. And here, I am afraid, he was not altogether wrong.
A blind beggar led through the train to plead for alms was a pathetic object,
and illustrated the easy-going kindliness of the people. But a leper allowed
to sell papers on a train was enough to make one sick. The leprosy of Cuba,
fortunately, is said to be non-contagious; nevertheless one does not feel very
happy for some time after one has come into contact with a man suffering from
leprosy or some other dangerous contagious disease.
Santa Clara, the province through which one passes after leaving the pro-
vince of Matanzas, is the largest sugar district of Cuba, and one of the best
cultivated. Signs of its prosperity may be seen in the superior appearance
of its peasants' huts, and in the size of its settlements scattered along the line.
And yet wages are lower in Santa Clara than in almost any other part of the





IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


island. I say this on the authority of the latest statistics I have been able to
obtain upon the subject; from them I learn that while in Camaguey, a province
with only four or five sugar estates, the rate of wage for an agricultural labourer
was 3s. 8d. a day in 1907, it was 2s. 9-d. in Santa Clara. On the other hand, it costs
a labourer much less to live in Santa Clara than elsewhere : the average cost
of a month's board for a labourer in Santa Clara is put down at about I i6s. 4d.-
little over 9s. a week. The best paid workers in Cuba are unquestionably those
employed in tobacco growing-but these, of course, are nearly all skilled men.
In the cities, too, the price of labour is high, some domestic servants getting
as much as I ($5) a week.
Wages fluctuate in Cuba as elsewhere, and as the exploitation of the island
continues wages will rise. The country will require a much larger population
than it has if it is to be developed properly, and part of the labour force it requires
must be attracted by high wages. After the independence of the country was
attained in 1898, a stream of emigrants began to pour into Cuba. The census
of 1899 gave the population as 1,572,799 souls; the census of 1907 gives it as
2,o48,980-an almost incredible increase. Now nearly one-third of this population
lives in towns and cities of 8,ooo inhabitants or more. This means (stated
differently) that over 6oo,ooo persons in Cuba are town and city dwellers;
and if we took the towns of I,ooo inhabitants and more, we should find
that the people who live in towns and cities numbered nearly 900,ooo. Many
a town, however, supplies the surrounding country districts with workers; so,
in speaking of the city dwellers, the first figure given above more fairly indicates
the proportion of the urban to the rural and agricultural population.
But even that proportion is entirely too large. The Cuban clearly loves the
life (such as it is) to be found in the streets and plazas of his towns, but the city-
bred man will not do much towards developing his island. As for the Cuban
labourer, although admitted to be good-humoured and imitative and willing,
he is very apt to take offence, and very quick to resent a real or an imagined
insult. Speak harshly to him, and you may find yourself suddenly attacked;
and when he is armed with his machete he is no mean antagonist. He may even
do worse. He may set your cane-fields on fire. The knowledge that this is
possible keeps many a boss to a perfect courtesy; nor does the latter resent
being called by his Christian or his surname by his labourers. For they do not
mean to be discourteous. They merely feel that they are quite the equal of the
man who is placed in charge of them.
I have met many men who have had gangs of these Cubans working under
them, and one and all have told me the same story. The unmarried Cuban, they
say, is almost hopeless as a worker-as an American epigrammatically put it, He
is all necktie and affection." The Cuban youth loves a gaudy-coloured neckcloth,
and he always wants a woman near him : away from his wife or his fiance,
or the woman who stands to him in the relation of wife, he does badly. His






Uipl


1


BRINGING CANES TO -HE FACTORY, CUBA.


- .4


\:'E





THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 49

thoughts are always with "a certain she," even though he may not be constant
to one. Now, women are fewer than men in Cuba. While the gentler sex
preponderates in many other lands, in Cuba it is more than 1oo,ooo less than the
other, and this alone would be a good reason for the not very high moral tone
of the country. So long as this great disproportion continues, too, the Cuban
will always have a liking for the towns, where, naturally, the women prefer
to live.
This preponderance of males in the population has prevailed for over a
century. As the authors of the last census tell us, "En todos los census, los
varones han constituido una mhyoria de los habitantes." In 1841, 58 per cent.
of the population were men; this proportion became 51I8 per cent. in 1899; in
1907 it was put down as 52'5 per cent. And the cause ? The slave trade in
the first place, and emigration in the second. Slaves continued to be taken to
Cuba up to 1845, and most of the slaves imported were men. Shortly after
this commenced the introduction of indentured labourers from China, and in
twenty years some 130,000 of these workers were brought to Cuba. Most of
them were men, and they were so badly treated that, in 1877, the Chinese
Government refused to allow any more of them to be taken to the island.
There are only about ii,ooo of these Chinese in Cuba to-day, and there is now
a law prohibiting the entrance of new arrivals. The others have either died or
have returned home, or have migrated to other lands.
As the Chinese are a disappearing quantity in the Cuban population, I may
deal with them in a few words once for all. They are industrious, law-abiding,
and frugal; they are restaurant-keepers, vegetable gardeners, and cooks. A
few work on the sugar estates, where their services are appreciated, for the
Chinaman does not neglect his work. For example, the cane juice must boil
for a certain length of time before it becomes transformed into the crystals
that are sent abroad. If the liquid is poured out too soon, it is spoilt; if
allowed to boil too long, the crystals are not of the required size and quality.
Now it is just possible that the Cuban, at the very moment his attention should
be fixed upon the boiler, may remember that he wants to light his cigarette.
But the Chinaman stands there watching with a wonderful patience, and at
the right quarter of a second he upsets the boiler, and the sugar is done to
perfection. Still, he is not wanted in Cuba. That island will never be developed
with the help of the Chinese.
Another reason for the preponderance of the male population of Cuba is
the number of male emigrants which has been pouring into the country since
the establishment of Cuban independence. These are chiefly from Spain, and
are the most prized and probably the most valuable element of the Cuban
population. They are splendid workers, and peaceful on the whole, and though
in the past a good number of those who went to Cuba did not always remain
there, the likelihood is that the larger portion of the Spanish emigrants will






50 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

settle for good in the island, where they will merge with the people, who are
of the same race and who speak the same language as themselves.
It will also be apparent that the steady emigration of Spaniards to Cuba
must lead to the gradual disappearance of the darker elements of the Cuban
population. These strangers will seek wives amongst the women of the coun-
try, and the competition of the males for the women will end in a victory for
the white men, who, for one thing, will be better able to support their wives.
As a matter of fact, the coloured element of the population has been steadily
decreasing in proportion to the whites for near upon a century. The negro
never throve in Cuba-he died there easily-and the mixture of the races has
further tended to diminish the numbers of the black man. So we find to-day
that more than two-thirds of the Cubans are put down in the census as white
-a doubtful statement-while the remainder are divided into mestizos and blacks,
the latter being least of all.
The process of miscegenation will continue. Cuba will steadily become
more white, and the strain of black blood in the veins of the people will pro-
bably help them to bear the effects of a tropical climate better than they
otherwise would. It is this island and the colony of Porto Rico that will fur-
nish in the future some most valuable data on the question of white colonisation
in the tropics, a question of some importance to both the white and the darker
races of the world.


Night had fallen when the train drew into the station at Camaguey. From
the station I passed into a street, lit here and there by faintly gleaming lamps.
Except for one or two hotel boys, and a few victoria drivers, I saw no one:
the city was asleep.
The city is always asleep, as I found when I wandered about on the fol-
lowing day-it has been sleeping for over two centuries. What an impression
it made upon me I had read of the independence of its people, of how it
had been one of the centres of revolution in the days when Cuba fought with
Spain for independence, of how it was the "whitest" of Cuban cities, and of
the superior beauty of its women and the bravery of its men. What did I
expect? I cannot tell; yet what I saw in Camaguey was something I had
not expected; for it was all new to me, and strange: a curious city which
lives upon the few traditions it has acquired with time.
It is an inland town, built upon the site of an ancient Indian village whose
name it bears. The name the Spaniards gave it is Puerto Principe; but
Puerto Principe is a seaport to the north; and though once the city itself
was there, fear of the terrible pirates drove its inhabitants to move into the
interior, until they came to where Camaguey now stands.
The whole province of which the city is the capital is also known as Puerto






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


Principe or Camaguey. But even the Cuban might be a little puzzled at first
if you spoke of it by its Spanish designation. In the West Indies there has been
a conflict of names as well as a conflict of races and nationalities, and in many
instances the native names have won. "Cuba" itself is an Indian word, but
the island has been christened many a time. Columbus called 'it "Juana," then
it was renamed Fernandina." Shortly after they named it "Santiago," then "Ave
Maria," then "Alfa y Omega." But there was a district in the central region of the
island called "Cubanacan," and this name, truncated to Cuba, was eventually
bestowed on the whole country. In a somewhat similar manner an Indian
village has given its name to a province and city, and the people of this part
of Cuba are proud to speak of themselves as Camagueyans.
It was early morning when I went out into the streets of Camaguey, and
what first struck me was the silence that seemed to reign everywhere. A few
women were going to church in twos and threes; a man or two loitered at
a shop door ; but what other sign of life was in this city of thirty thousand
souls ? Yes; I remember some other things as I recall that ancient town.
I remember little carts drawn by goats and looked after by boys, which went
about with vegetables and with bottles of milk. And where the Alameda stands,
with its withered-looking trees all covered with dust, I remember seeing a
stray horse or two, and a man who ineffectually tried to persuade himself that
he was trying to catch them. Other scenes rise before me like dark specks on
a white curtain. So I remember that I found the short-circuit electric car after
some search; and saw a few more people here and there ; and-yes, Camaguey is
not dead but sleeping; but one may be excused if at first one is tempted to
write of it as dead.
The streets of this inland city curve about, of their own volition as it seems.
Parallel streets are unknown in Camaguey; the ancient founders of this place
must have hated the straight line and loved the circle. There has been some
attempt at paving these thoroughfares; but where the rough cobble-stone or
the macadam ends, the sand begins; and in a Camagueyan street I have sunk
to the ankles in sand. Most of the houses here are of a single storey, and old;
the walls of many of them are cracked and dilapidated; the low steps leading to the
doors of these places are narrow and encroach upon the tiny side-walks; often,
too, they are broken-fallen to pieces through age and decay.
The wooden window grilles project into the streets. They are big and
clumsy, nothing at all like the plain or fancy iron-work that one sees in Havana.
Where they are broken they have sometimes been patched with pieces of cloth;
but at the best they cannot be intended to secure privacy, for I have no difficulty
in peering into the interior of the living-rooms as I pass along; and there I see
the scantily clothed women lolling in rocking-chairs, and the naked babies crawling
on the floor. There is hardly any furniture in the houses of the poorer sort. One
or two tables, a bed, a few rocking-chairs-that is the inventory. The houses






52 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

of the better sort, I am told, are furnished fairly well; but the doors and windows
of all these are kept closed; and so when I passed through a street where are
situated the houses of the aristocracy of the town, it seemed to me as though
I were in a place deserted by its people.
The one bright thing in all Camaguey is its liquor shops. I saw no customers
in them; nevertheless their shelves were not covered with dust as was the
case with the other retail establishments I saw. Its cathedral and churches,
large though they are, are ugly buildings, and the altars in them are decked
out with artificial flowers and tawdry tinsel. I think it was in the cathedral that
I noticed a score or two of rickety benches painted blue and provided for the
use of worshippers, the entire building looking deserted, squalid, miserable, out
of repair. And the beautiful women of Camaguey ? I saw just nine of them-or,
at least, I saw nine fairly good-looking girls, and I suppose these were representa-
tive of the rest. It was at the corner of a street-No. 35 Calle Soledad, to be
precise, that I came upon something that looked like a little shop, in which
some girls and a man were gathered. I peeped in ; the easels and paintings about
showed me at once that it was an art school-or what is considered such in Cama-
guey-and the ages of the pupils may have ranged from fourteen to twenty-one.
The features of the girls were rather sharp, but their eyes were bright and they
were a merry lot; the pictures scattered about were execrable, and the room
itself, a plain wooden structure, must surely have been used for retail-trade purposes
in the not distant past.
A priest draped in a long brown cloak and wearing sandals on his naked
feet passes up the street. A child or two come out of a house near by, and
run inside again. Every one seems bent upon avoiding the open air: is it that
the habit of seeking shelter-acquired in the days when the fear of pirates was
upon the people of this town-has clung to them through all these generations ?
Strolling back to my hotel I lean against the door, and from here I can
see where the street ends and the open road begins. There are no suburbs
here, no gradual transition from town to country: one ceases and the other begins
abruptly, and the grass grows round the city, disputing its boundaries with it.
Grass grows in the streets of the city, in those silent, deserted streets through
which life moves with such monotony. Camaguey is the great cattle-rearing
province of Cuba, and in travelling through it one passes savannah after savannah
of rich parana or guinea grass, and thousands of cattle. Sometimes the grass
grows so high that nothing else can be seen; even the cattle are hidden by the
long spears. The soil of this province is not so rich as that of other portions
of Cuba, being largely composed of sand; yet it serves its purpose, for Camaguey is
the meat-supplying province of Cuba. Now, as I stand at the door of the hotel
and note where the houses cease and the sand and grass begin, I picture to
myself how easy it would be for all these low and ancient structures to be buried
and forgotten did all these people leave the city for two or three short years.






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 55

How easy for ruin to overtake this place which strikes such an unharmonious
note in the centre of these green savannahs. The silence and oppression of
vastness are already upon it; yet, in the end, the commercial spirit of the age
will conquer the spirit of the plains; for even in Camaguey two or three new
buildings are being erected, and land agents are there, and a speculation in
land has begun.
Who owns the land in Cuba? Cubans chiefly, but foreigners also own a good
deal of it. An attempt has been made to effect legislation prohibiting foreigners
from acquiring land ; it has proved unsuccessful, and so the transfers of property
continue, much to the annoyance of those far-seeing Cubans who perceive that
the strength of the stranger will be chiefly in his ownership of land. I was told
in Havana that the younger Cubans are hastening to get rid of their possessions,
so that they might go to enjoy the pleasures of Paris. But here, in Camaguey,
I hear a different, and, I believe, a truer tale. It is a land-speculator who tells
it to me, an American whose yearly transactions amount to many thousands
of pounds.
"The Cuban never willingly sells his land," he says; "never sells it until
necessity compels him to do so. When he comes and offers me so many acres,
I know he is in difficulties, and I offer him my own price. 'Oh, no!' he says,
' couldn't think of selling for that, would much rather not sell.' But I don't budge,
for I know what will happen; so he goes home and talks the matter over with
his wife, and turns it over in his mind, and in the end he comes back to me
and we close the bargain. But he only sells under compulsion." That I believe to
be the truth; yet, in spite of this reluctance, some of the land is being sold.
For one thing, not many Cubans have capital enough to develop their properties,
and the temptation to realise on what brings them but little, if any, profit must
always be great.
How do these people live ?" I ask my informant, as we stand together at the
door of the huge hotel that was once a barracks for Spanish troops.
"How do they live? I have been eighteen years in Cuba, and have made
it my ambition to be the best-informed man in the island on Cuban affairs. I
live in this city, and I like it; I know a good many of the people; yet time
after time I have found myself asking the very same question you have asked
me. I am not sure that I can answer it, but I will try. You see those little goat-
carts going about? well, they go from door to door selling vegetables, and a
woman or child will come to the door and will buy a quarter of a cabbage, or
a plantain, or a few bananas, and a small portion of fish or beef is bought at the
shops; but it is chiefly vegetables that these people live upon."
But they must have money to buy these," I said. Where does the money come
from ? I see no one working here, and no signs of industry."
"Well, it is like this. Every man here, more or less, owns a piece of land
or a few head of cattle. Now, a few of them will go into partnership-that is,






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


they will put all their cattle under one man and divide the calves amongst them.
These calves can always be sold, and so a little money comes in in that way.
Then there are one or two sawmills near this town, and a sugar estate, and
the railway shops. All these employ some of the people. And these live upon so
little that they don't require much money. Nobody works very hard in Camaguey."
That was obvious enough; and if the secret of a happy life be a minimum
of exertion and a minimum of wants, I think the lower classes of Camaguey
have learnt that secret.
Great two-wheeled carts drawn by teams of oxen creaked past the hotel,
each taking one or two huge logs of wood to the sawmills. These carts were driven
by swarthy Cubans, each armed with a whip whose thick, tapering leather thong
measures some three or four yards. Dogs sneaked about here and there, big
brutes which must have descended from the hounds that were used to hunt
the slaves in the days gone by. I left my hotel, where the three male guests
had sat down to a game of poker which (so far as I could make out) had been
in progress for a week or two, and strolled towards the end of the street. There
I found a victoria, and taking it, was driven into the open country over what
was by courtesy called a road.
In the last "Census of the Republic" we are given two pictures: one is
called "Un camino primitive en Cuba," the other, "Un camino Cubano de
construction moderna" Only those persons who have had some acquaintance
with an average Cuban road can understand why the Cuban authorities are so
anxious to show the difference between the old roads and those they are now
building. The Spaniard, while he founded substantial and even fine cities,
systematically neglected to build even passable roads in any of the countries he won
from the Indians. Here and there he paved a path, like the famous gold road
across the Isthmus of Panama, in order that the mule trains bearing the gold
and precious stones from the mines might reach the coast safely. But mule
tracks and narrow pathways cut through the forest represented almost all that
was done in the way of road-building for the purpose of facilitating travel and the
development of the country; and this policy of neglecting the means of transit
it was which prevented Spain from easily and completely subduing the Cuban
revolutionists. The Spanish soldiers, though brave, could not reach the enemy,
and so passed most of their time in the towns. The enemy, knowing every
inch of the country and all the defiles of the hills, mocked at the efforts of the
Government. So, from a military as well as an agricultural standpoint, some
good roads would have proved a blessing to Spain. As I plunged and jolted
over the stretch of earth that formed the Camagueyan road, and saw the deep
trenches dug out by the rains, and the great holes here and there, and the hillocks
everywhere; as on every hand was visible an absolute disregard for the con-
veniences of communication; as I perceived that when the rains fell this road
must be entirely impassable by man or beast; I felt that at any rate the American






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


had rendered good service to Cuba by instituting a system of modern road-
building. Next to sanitation, this was one of the real benefits of the American
occupation.
Just outside of the city, hovering on the boundaries of it, and perhaps officially
included as part of it, stands a settlement of huts. One or two great trees over-
shadow them, and the near-by shop marks their comparative independence of the
retailers of the town. I mention them particularly, for I noticed the wide gaps
in the sides of these huts, I saw where the nails had given, and how the rough
planks of unpainted, weather-beaten wood had fallen apart from one another,
and I wondered why no one had troubled to make these places decent once more,
and why the people should be contented to endure the discomforts of rain and
wind when a little exertion might make them comfortable. It could not be
poverty that had caused these huts to fall to ruin. I saw breadfruit and banana-
trees growing near them; the dogs that prowled around did not look ill-fed ; goats
and pigs searched for food here and there, and horses were tethered under the
trees or to broken-down remains of what once may have been fences. It was not
poverty, it was indolence-it was the spirit of mafiana and the spirit of sleep that
had brought about this general neglect; and yet one would have thought that the
misery which the rainy seasons must inevitably bring would have roused any one
to a sense of the necessity of making his habitation rain-tight. When the rains fall
heavily, as they do in May and June and in October in Cuba, the hard earth over
which these huts are built must become sodden, and in this mud their owners must
walk or stand. Yet a few planks laid down and nailed to a beam or two would
constitute some sort of flooring. But no one seems to think of it, and in Cuba
there are hundreds of dwellings like these. I don't wonder now that consumption
is prevalent in Cuba.
And now when I come to look back upon it all, I think that the most interesting
thing I saw in Camaguey was its cemetery, for that seemed to typify the place.
There are two great burial grounds in Havana, and one, which I visited, contains
many splendid monuments and the mausoleums of some of the oldest families of
Cuba. But, I was told, you either bought a piece of burial land for a large sum
of money, or you rented it for so many years-five years for ten dollars-and if you
did not renew your lease the bones of the person interred were taken out and cast
into a ditch-a sort of modern Golgotha made up of the skulls and the skeletons
of the poor. In the Espada Cemetery of Havana are niches which may even now
be rented for a term of years, and all over Cuba this system of grave-renting
prevails. But a Cuban guide-book informed me (with much evident satisfaction
on the part of the writer) that in Camaguey one could rent a grave for twenty
years, a fact which is mentioned to show that the Camagueyans have great respect
for the dead, and love to think of them after they are laid to rest.
Inscribed in Latin above the gate of the Camagueyan Cemetery I visited were
the words : "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord." The impressive text,






56 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

the silence, the shadows cast upon the graves and tombs as the light clouds
trailed slowly across the sun, the black-clothed woman and child hanging a
wreath upon a family vault, and weeping silently, the rustle among the grass
and weeds as a great lizard ran from one grave to another, and the occasional
shrill shriek of a blackbird hovering among the branches of a tree, I shall
never forget it all, so sad and so appealing it was, and so symbolic of this still
sleeping city, and perhaps also of the ancient Indian village of which one now
remembers but the name.
I was told that the train would leave Camaguey for Santiago de Cuba at 12.20;
so I went to the station at that hour, and waited until long ,ast one o'clock before
the train arrived. Here, at any rate, were many signs of life. About a hundred
persons had gathered to see some ten men and women leave for other parts of the
country, and these strolled about and lounged, and from the appearance of most
of them I gathered that they were the loafers of the town. Most of them had just
enough energy to live. And though Camaguey may be the whitest of Cuban cities,
the persons who frequent its railway station are of all colours, most of them being
swarthy, many looking emaciated.
A black policeman strolls nonchalantly up and down, a black woman lovingly
caresses her naked baby as she pulls at the stump of a cigar, a man who rents
a stand on the station sells sweet drinks and brandy and claret to those persons
who want to buy. He alone displays some energy; the rest of us are languid,
indifferent. But at last the scream of a steam whistle is heard, and shortly after
the train comes in. Those who are to leave by it take their seats, and presently
we are leaving the city of Camaguey behind. And lo it has put on a new appear-
ance, for there it stands in the distance, red-roofed, substantial-looking, with its
church towers soaring serenely up towards the sky. It stands there, for all the
world like a prosperous, opulent city, and while I stare and wonder at the mirage
which distance and a new point of view have created, it slowly fades from my sight.


Once again we were among the fields and plains, and Camaguey became but
an incident in this journey through the island of Cuba.
And now the monotony of the scenery began to pall upon me, as hour after hour
passed and still we saw the same type of settlements, the same sort of towns, the
same rolling savannahs, and the eternal unvariegated green of the countryside.
Now and then we passed a forest, with its thick, tangled undergrowth, and that
was a relief; but we knew that it would not be before nightfall that we should
reach the eastern end of Cuba, with its mountains and valleys and its noble
forests and its murmuring streams. And as we travelled eastward the heat
increased, and towards evening we found ourselves in the midst of a terrific storm.
This lasted an hour, and when the skies cleared a few stars peeped out, and then
the moon came up and lightened the darkness with a faint silver glow.












































A COUNTRY SCENE, CUBA.






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 57

When should we reach Santiago ? I was positively informed in Havana that
a train leaving Camaguey at the usual hour would arrive between nine and ten
o'clock at night at Santiago. But after night had come on I noticed that the train
had slowed down considerably, and was even stopping every now and then.
These stoppages might be included in the regular itinerary-but then they might
not be. So I thought I would ask the guard when we were likely to reach our
destination. "At ten-or eleven-or twelve," he told me, pausing thoughtfully
as he mentioned each hour, perhaps with the idea of giving me time to choose
the hour I fancied most. Ten, or eleven, or twelve o'clock; and the proper hour
was nine I inquired of a friendly passenger if this train ever kept to its time-
table. He assured me that it did-sometimes.
And then I learnt the cause of the present delay. Something had gone wrong
with the engine, and when the train went at its usual speed there was danger of
fire. The reason why it stopped so often, and blew its whistle (as it now occasion-
ally did), was because another train was coming in the opposite direction, and so
there was the possibility of a collision. "And we would telegraph," added the
guard, "only the telegraph wires are down." A chapter of accidents, truly; but I
was told that there really was not much to complain of. For," said the passenger
who had spoken already, sometimes the bridges are swept away, and we have no
knowledge of it until something begins to happen. You can never tell what may
not have occurred during a heavy rain here." This was not exactly reassuring, and
I began to feel that Cuban travel had many disadvantages.
I bought a cup of black coffee from a boy who went about the train with a
kettle and a wire basket in which, on little hooks, a number of tiny cups were hung.
Afterwards I went to the compartment where he sat and asked him for some beer :
he opened the bottle and handed it to me-there were no glasses on the train. I
went back to my seat, and, sitting down, looked out of the window. It was ten
o'clock, we were in the province of Oriente, the largest province in Cuba ; but I
caught no glimpse of hills or valleys. I saw nothing. Everything was wrapped in
soft darkness as with a mantle or a shroud.
Somewhere on the road, at one of the side stations, we passed the train which
might have collided with us, and therefore were relieved of that anxiety, at any
rate. Ten o'clock passed; then eleven. I must have fallen asleep after that; for
the next thing I heard was a voice asking me if I wanted a boy to take my things
to a hotel. Was this Santiago ? No; Santiago was the next station : I should be
there in a very few minutes. And half an hour afterwards I was indeed in the city
of Santiago. I looked at my watch. It was two o'clock.
Santiago de Cuba, situated at a distance of 869 miles from Havana by the Cuban
railroad, is next to Havana the most important city in the island of Cuba. Driving
through its streets at two o'clock in the morning I remembered that fact; when I
saw it in the light of day I noted also that it was very unlike Havana. I stayed at
the best hotel in the city that night, and several incidents occurred which have





58 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

caused me to remember that experience. First, there was the heat: only in
Colon and Panama have I found it hotter than in Santiago de Cuba. Then
there were the cats, which kept up a lively dispute amongst themselves until
about four o'clock in the morning. After they had retired (whether to rest or not
I do not know) some men in the street, which my bedroom overlooked, began an
argument, from which my attention could only be diverted by the shrill piping of
the mosquitoes in my room. I fell asleep when the dawn was breaking, and was
rather glad that the porter did not come to call me up at six o'clock, as he had most
faithfully promised to do. He never came near me at all-as a matter of fact, he
simply promised and forgot. Later on I was to learn that to trust to the memory
of a hotel servant in Santiago de Cuba was to place one's faith in something
apparently non-existent.
If in Havana the majority of the people one meets are white or light-hued,
in Santiago the majority are black or dark-coloured. The province of Oriente
is the one province of Cuba where the negroes outnumber the whites and
the women outnumber the men; its capital is also one of the hottest of Cuban
cities.
The city of Santiago has in the past been a most important administrative
and revolutionary centre. It is built on the side of a hill, and so its streets run
up and down at steep gradients, or terminate suddenly against high banks of
earth, or break away in precipitous descents of some 30 or 40 feet. You stand
at the top of a street and look down at the shops and houses on either hand.
A little further on in the same street, and you are looking up towards more
houses and more shops. I have a memory of the Archbishop's Palace : that,
too, climbs the hill on which, it is built. I remember seeing a public school near
the hospital, a handsome structure which the Americans say was the work of
General Wood. It overlooks the hospital from the top of an eminence. And
so on of nearly the whole city; only along the sea front is there anything like
a fairly continuous strip of level land. One street of the city, indeed, consists
of seven flights of concrete steps, four steps to each flight, and each flight
ending on a broad platform. Similar constructions will have to be provided
in other parts of Santiago if one is to move freely from one part of the city
to the other. For here and there I have come upon great masses of earth
overgrown with grass and weeds, and up the steep sides of which a goat alone
can climb.
What impression did Santiago de Cuba leave on me ? This is what I had
read of it in a Cuban guide-book: It is to-day clean and healthy, and one
of the most alluring and delightful cities to visit on this side of the Atlantic."
I found it one of the most unhealthy-looking places I had ever seen, and one
of the dirtiest.
They have been doing much to clean Santiago, and already a portion of
its streets have been paved. But most of them are unpaved, and some are






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY


simply the filthiest of gutters with no side-walks and with hardly a dry spot
on which one may place one's feet. In the Calle San Pedro, I remember, I
had to walk between the car-lines which were laid on a track specially paved
for the purpose. On either side were trenches a foot or more deep, and these
were filled with slime and decaying vegetable matter and with soap water
which gave off a horrible stench. Not even in the city of Panama, in its worst
days, had I seen anything to equal this. Most of the houses in Santiago look
old and dilapidated, and the steps leading to them have encroached upon the
narrow streets. So that an unpaved street represents to the newcomer the last
word of wretchedness. Yet as I heard many pipes being played by musical-
minded persons in San Pedro Street, I suppose that any sympathy expended
upon the people of Santiago would be resented as an impertinence.
If I had seen scores of naked babies in the yards of Havana, in the settlements
along the line, and at the railway station at Camaguey, I was to see them in
hundreds in Santiago. They were mostly black here, and they trotted about in
the back streets and besported themselves on the doorsteps with all the modesty
that comes of innocence. The men and women of the city, however, looked
prosperous enough ; and the shops filled with merchandise, and the stir in the
streets and the independent demeanour of the inhabitants of the place, all
showed me that Santiago de Cuba was a thriving city and the capital of a
wealthy province.
The copper mines of Cuba are situated but a few miles from the town,
and the ore is shipped from Santiago. The banana industry is carried on in
this province, hardwoods are cut and exported, and coffee, cocoa, and sugar
are grown. With its high hills and deep valleys, its moist heat and copious
rainfall, the province of Oriente will one day produce magnificent crops of every
kind of tropical product. Its people have great faith in its future; they, indeed,
call themselves Cubans, and call their city Cuba : the other people of the island
they allude to by the name of the provinces from which they come. We are
the Cubans," said one of the inhabitants of Santiago to me. "The only
Archbishop in the country is the Archbishop of Santiago, and this city was the
first capital of the island." All of which is true enough; but Havana will never
lose its primacy. For one thing the geographical situation of Santiago is not
to be compared with that of Havana, even though it lies in the track of the
Panama Canal. Then its people are more backward than the Havanese; and
the city itself, with its 50,000 souls, can never equal Havana in salubrity, nor can
existence be ever as pleasant there as in the capital city of the island.
Indeed, this city of Santiago, despite its history and the aspirations of its
people, still gives every indication of being but a tropical provincial city. And
the dominant note of it all is a good-natured, lazy indifference; thus, in some
of the barber shops I see women suckling their babies, and in some of the
smaller provision shops I see half-clothed children sitting contentedly upon the






60 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

counters. And in the streets I come upon groups of horsemen from the surround-
ing country districts, all contentedly having a talk, and apparently quite oblivious
of the fact that the pedestrians might resent their blocking of the way.
Santiago does not sleep like the city of Camaguey. Here there is some work
to be done, and the people do it. But they do it in a way of their own, and
always (as it seemed to me) with a rocking-chair near at hand. It is not a
city that hustles. But it contains politicians in abundance, and if there is ever
any trouble in Cuba, Santiago will participate in it.
I was booked to leave for Jamaica by the weekly service boat which connects
Kingston with Santiago, and I was informed that the vessel would leave the
wharf at twelve o'clock sharp. At twenty minutes to twelve, accordingly, I was
on board, the arrangement with my hotel being that my luggage should precede
me by at least an hour. But remembering my experience with the hotel porter,
I thought I would inquire if the things had arrived. They were nowhere to be
found. Nobody on the ship had seen or heard anything of them. Had I anytime
to spare ? I asked the purser. "Fifteen minutes," he said ; the vessel would leave
promptly on the stroke of twelve. I had to make up my mind between the risk of
being left by the vessel or losing my clothes. I determined to take the risk
knowing that "promptly" might mean anything in Santiago. I drove rapidly
to the hotel, and was at first assured that my trunks had been taken to the ship,
since the cartman had said that he would take them. That faithful servant, on
my earnest recommendation, was sought for and found. He was very sorry,
but he had quite forgotten my luggage. He could not understand how he had
forgotten it ; it was the most extraordinary thing in the world. In fact, the whole
affair seemed to appeal to him in the light of a most humorous incident, and
he evidently expected to be tipped for his forgetfulness.
I went back to the wharf, trembling with anxiety as to whether I had been
left behind, and in my hurry I gave the cab-driver a five-dollar instead of a one-
dollar bill. I rushed on board, happy that I had secured my baggage and had not
missed the boat. When should we leave ? I inquired; Immediately," I was
gravely informed. It was then half-past twelve o'clock. We left at two.
While waiting until we should immediately leave, I had time to reflect upon
the peculiar monetary system of Cuba. When in Havana, I had found that
Spanish and American and even French money circulated freely, while all about
the city were the shops of the money-changers who, to judge by the number of
them, must do an active business. Cuba has no currency of her own, Spanish
gold and silver having been the coinage of the island for centuries. American
money was always accepted in Cuba, and often American gold was at a high
premium ; then, with the independence of the island, came a proposition to make
the American dollar the standard currency of the country. This proposition has
not been acted on, and in Havana I found that the Spanish coinage still held
first place, in the retail business transactions of the city at any rate. My surprise






THE PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY 61

may therefore be imagined when I found they would not accept Spanish silver
from me in the shops of Santiago de Cuba. And everywhere in that city you will
find the sellers demanding American money.
Indeed, although it is but little more than ten years since Spanish soldiers
swarmed in the streets of Santiago de Cuba, the Spanish copper coins seemed to
have completely disappeared, for some of the people to whom I showed them did
not know what they were. I gave a boy some; he handed them back to me,
saying that not even the money-changers would have them. Yet in Havana they
are the means by which all small purchases are made.
The inconvenience of this refusal to accept Spanish money in Santiago will be
better understood when the reader is told that the smallest American nickle coin
in use in the city is a five-cent piece; so that if any article costs but a cent you
must purchase five at a time, or take a sort of promissory note in lieu of the
change from the petty retailer. The shops must benefit immensely by the lack of
coins of a small denomination, for I noticed that they insisted on selling a pair of
things for five cents, on the ground that it was impossible to sell one alone. Why
the Government of Cuba does not make Spanish coins legal tender in Santiago as
well as in Havana is a problem that perhaps only the Cuban mind can solve.
Perhaps the Americans will eventually settle this currency question for the
Cubans.


















CHAPTER IV

THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS

IT was at the Payret Theatre in Havana that I witnessed one night a significant
demonstration of Cuban political feeling. Several items of the programme
were performed ; then came a rather pretty feature of the evening's entertainment.
This consisted of a band of girls marching round the stage to the tune of the
national anthems of the leading countries of Europe and America, and displaying
by means of little white shields the names of the rulers of these countries. On
each shield was painted a letter, and as the girls moved round the stage to
the sound of the music, these letters were arranged to form the name of each
ruler. One after another the national anthems were played; then came the
Marseillaise, and I think I detected a faint murmur of appreciation from the
spectators. "Yankee Doodle" followed, and the name of "William Taft" stood
out in bold letters on the shields : it was received in deadly silence. The first
bar of the Spanish anthem next came from the orchestra, and the letters held
in front of us spelt out "Alfonso XIII." You might have thought that that monarch
himself had entered the theatre Men and women, the audience broke into
loud cheering, and I do not think they cheered Jos6 Miguel Gomez, President
of Cuba, more, when his name followed that of the young sovereign of Spain.
Ten years ago they would have hissed Alfonso XIII. and applauded the
President of the United States. But the glamour of American intervention has
passed, the sober reality of American domination has daily to be faced. And
this people who fought for their freedom and who hoped for complete
independence fear now that they have but made an exchange of masters. "The
future is dark," said a Cuban to me one day (he had been the head of an
important revolutionary Junta in the last revolution) ; "the future is very dark."
We were in Santiago de Cuba, and he was showing me a new suburb laid
out by the Americans and being built in the American style. He seemed to
think that even this suburb contained a vague, dark hint of the future that
threatened-it was American, and it signified the presence of the Americans in
the land.






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS 63

But to understand the Cuban situation to-day we must go back a little into the
history of the past.
In my opening remarks I told of how Cuba had come to win the title of
"The Ever Faithful Island." This title was bestowed upon the island because
of the famous oath of fealty which every member of the Provincial Councils
swore to their true sovereigns after ,Napoleon had expelled them from the throne
of Spain; but when the legitimate dynasty was restored, the Cubans discovered
that they had to deal with men who were incapable of ruling, and with a nation
to whom the bitter lessons of colonial misfortune had taught no wisdom. In 1825
came the royal decree that struck so terrible a blow at the aspirations of those
Cubans who had hoped for some progress towards political freedom. That
degree gave to the Governor-General of Cuba all the powers and authority
belonging to the Governor of a city in a state of siege. It gave to him "the
most ample and unbounded power, not only to send away from the island any
persons in office, whatever be their occupation, rank, class, or condition, whose con-
tinuance therein your Excellency may deem injurious, or whose conduct, public
or private, may alarm you, replacing them with persons faithful to his Majesty,
and deserving of all the confidence of your Excellency; but also to suspend
the execution of any order whatsoever, or any general provision made concerning
any branch of the administration, as your Excellency may think most suitable to
the royal service." Those words, conferring the power of a despot upon the
Governor-General of Cuba, proclaimed also the doom of the sovereignty of Spain
in the last of her great American possessions.
Two years before the promulgation of this royal decree, an uprising had
actually been attempted, but had been prevented with no great difficulty. After
the promulgation of the decree, revolutionary sentiment spread apace, and dis-
content with Spanish domination grew. But the curse of slavery was upon the
land ; at the back of every white man's mind was the fear that a revolutionary move-
ment once started might lead to the freeing of the slaves; and the terrible
warning of Hayti, the island not 50 miles from Cuba, was sufficient to make
the Cubans bear in impotent rage a tyranny from which they would otherwise
have tried to free themselves.
So the cause of Cuban independence languished, but was never wholly forsaken.
The ill-fated expeditions of Narcisco Lopez, the Venezuelan, and Colonel
Crittenden, the American, showed that the more daring spirits in Cuba were
prepared to make an effort towards the freedom of their native land. These
had planned to join Lopez and Crittenden, but the former, although he actually
landed at Cardenas in 1850, had to re-embark his men and was nearly captured
by a Spanish warship as he fled to Key West. The next year he landed again
on Cuban soil and fought a disastrous battle with the Spanish troops near Havana.
Crittenden and his American associates were shot, Lopez was garroted on the
September I, 1851.








64 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

A peace that was not peace endured for over twenty years. In the meantime
oppression grew, and misgovernment multiplied its evil effects. Taxes were
enormously high, and the proceeds of them went into the pockets of the Spanish
officials chiefly. Once, as in 1877, the amount raised in taxes amounted to the
extraordinary sum of 12,ooo,ooo ($60,ooo,ooo), and this in a country where
production was hampered by lack of commercial freedom because of Spain's
insistence that Cuba must buy what she needed from Spain The population
at that time, too, only amounted to 1,509,ooo persons.
A yearly contribution of $6,000,000 was made to the Spanish Treasury, Spain's
Colonial system being based upon the principle that the colonies must assist the
mother country.
From Professor Robert Hill's "Cuba and Porto Rico" I take the following
statement of how the revenue raised in 1884 was expended. It amounted to
$34,269,410. "Of this sum, $12,574,485 was paid for old military debts incurred
by Spain in suppressing Cuban outbreaks and otherwise riveting the shackles of
tyranny upon the Cuban people; $5,904,084 for the Ministry of War; $14,595,096
or nearly one-half the revenue, for supporting Spaniards, as follows : pensions of
Spanish officers, $468,000; pay of retired Spanish officers, $918,500; salary of
Captain-General, $50,000; salaries of colonial officials (all Spaniards), $10,115,420;
church and clergy (all Spaniards), $379,757; military decorations (to Spaniards
only), $5,000; pay of gendarmerie (all Spaniards), $2,537,119; expenses of Spain's
diplomatic representatives to all American countries except the United States,
$121,300. This left I,195,745 for the ordinary administration of the island, such
as education, public works, sanitation, the judiciary, &c."
By one budget we may judge the rest. The island was governed by military
men; every Governor-General had to hold the rank of Lieutenant-General in the
Spanish Army; the governors of the six provinces of Cuba were all generals, and
there were thirty-four subordinate administrative positions called captaincies, and
these also were held by officers of the Army. The position of Spain in her colony
was, in fact, that of a conqueror; yet the Cubans were mainly people of Spanish
descent. With a very few exceptions, however, to be born in Cuba was to be
counted as a Cuban, and to be counted as a Cuban was to be treated with injustice
and suspicion. Such a situation could not possibly last. The signal of revolt was
given in 1867 by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, a wealthy planter and lawyer of
Santiago, who headed the first rising. Thus began the terrible Ten Years
Revolution. In 1868 a declaration of independence was formerly proclaimed,
and in 1869 a constitution was adopted by the revolutionists.
The constitution decreed the abolition of slavery. This was a wise provision.
It helped to win the sympathy of the negro for the cause of freedom, and struck
a blow at the policy maintained by the Government of pitting white against black.
The one thing to the credit of Spain in Cuba was her legislation affecting the slaves.
Slavery was not only definitely abolished in 1884, but the number of slaves then


















































GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBA.


"l'u~





THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS


set free was merely 25,000. Long before this, repeated enactments had ameliorated
the condition of the slaves : they had the right of marriage, they could insist upon
being transferred from one master to another if they so desired, they could
purchase their freedom by paying the purchase money in instalments, and their
value was fixed by a disinterested tribunal. Then, about the same time as the
beginning of the Ten Years Revolution, a law was passed giving freedom to every
child who should be born of a slave, and to every slave of sixty years of age. Free
negroes, too, were allowed to bear arms as volunteers, a privilege denied to white
Cubans. The followers of Cespedes therefore acted with wisdom when, by their
constitution adopted at Guaimaro, they proclaimed the abolition of slavery under
the "Cuban Republic."
But the revolution was ill-fated. Year after year the struggle dragged wearily
on, but the Cubans were not recognized as belligerents, and so arms and ammuni-
tion could only be brought into the island by filibusters, and food and money could
only be obtained by the revolutionists levying contributions on the planters. The
revolution came to an end in 1878. Its energy had perhaps been already exhausted,
and this may have been the reason why its leaders so readily listened to the
overtures of General Campos, whose policy, on his arrival in Cuba, he had
proclaimed to be one of conciliation. Promises of reform were made by the
Spanish Government, which afterwards proved illusory. And the total result of
the struggle was an exhausted and almost ruined country and an appalling loss
of life.
Spain is said to have lost between eighty and one hundred thousand men
in the Ten Years Revolution, while the cost of the war amounted to 4o,ooo,ooo.
This was charged to the Cuban Treasury, and, in consequence, taxes were increased.
So the gulf that separated the Spaniards from the Cubans widened and deepened;
and many of the natives who had fled from the island during the revolution
refused to return. Some settled in Jamaica, others in different parts of Spanish-
America; but the vast majority made the United States their temporary home,
and there they organised the movement that was finally to lead to the over-
throw of the Spanish power in Cuba.
Juntas, or revolutionary committees, were formed in Cuba, in the United
States, in Jamaica, in Costa Rica, in Santo Domingo, and elsewhere. The head-
quarters were in New York. Funds were raised, arms secretly purchased, and
then on February 24, 1895, as had been arranged by Jos6 Marti, "the Apostle
of Freedom," the standard of revolution was hoisted in Cuba.
This time the majority of the soldiers were negroes, and two of the leaders
of the movement were the Maceos, mulattoes both. The Ten Years War
had been mainly a war of white men; now all classes and colours were united
in the struggle for freedom. One of the first acts of the revolutionists was to
form a Provisional Government, and Marti having been killed at the begin-
ning of the war, a Camagueyan gentleman of noble descent, the Marquis






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt, was elected president of the republic. He
was a white man. So was Maximo Gomez, the Commander-in-Chief of the
Army. But his second in command was Antonio Maceo, and throughout the
war negroes and white men fought side by side for the common cause.
And the black man was the common soldier, on him fell the brunt of the
fighting. Slavery had not bred in him a savage hate of his master; and so
when the white man appealed to him he did not appeal in vain.
The revolution lasted three years. The war was carried on with singular
fierceness on both sides. At first General Campos was sent from Spain to deal
with the rebels, and he again endeavoured to try the effects of a policy
of conciliation. But this time the insurgent leaders would not listen to him,
and all his attempts to confine their forces to one part of the island, and
then to force them to a decisive engagement, failed completely. They eluded
his troops, they broke through his lines, they fell upon small bands of
Spanish soldiers and destroyed them, and they laid waste the country as they
moved. The plan of the rebels was to make Cuba an unprofitable place for
Spain to hold, even at the cost of the devastation of the country. Every
town or village that did not show active sympathy with the cause of Cuba Libre
was destroyed, so that it was better to join the rebels than to remain neutral.
The horror of the situation for the peaceful peasant may be imagined;
for if he was left alone by the rebels, he fell under the suspicion of the
Government. Campos having failed, the terrible Nicola Weyler was sent
to take his place. He was known as "the butcher," and he promptly pro-
ceeded to show how well he deserved the name. So that the insurgents
should find as little aid as possible, and with a view of striking terror to
the hearts of the Cubans, he gathered the people of the country districts into
concentration camps, military zones where they could be watched by soldiers,
and where they were ordered to grow food as best they could. I have
walked in one of these old concentration camps in Havana. To-day it is a
park filled with palm-trees and flowering shrubs and plashing fountains. A
little more than ten years ago it was filled with emaciated men and starving
women and children. The filth and wretchedness of these camps was in-
describable: many thousands of persons perished in them. In the meantime
plantations and ranches were being given to the torch and the sword by
Spaniard and Cuban alike, and the civilised world wondered when the carnage
would cease.
Several of the Cuban leaders, including Jos6 Maceo, were slain. Gomez and
Garcia still continued the struggle. The insurgents endeavoured to secure
recognition as belligerents from the United States, but could not succeed. Spain,
however, had received a clear warning from America in 1896 when President
Cleveland said in his message to Congress that the time might come when
considerations of humanity might constrain the Government of the United States







THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS


to take such action as would "preserve to Cuba and its inhabitants an opportunity
to enjoy the blessings of peace." The warning was not without effect, for, towards
the close of 1907, Weyler was superceded by General Blanco, and the new
Governor came with orders to establish an insular parliament, to break up the
concentration camps, and to take steps to relieve the suffering of the starving
non-belligerents.
Was Spain sincere ? We can never know. What we do know is that with
Blanco's arrival hostilities practically ceased, more, perhaps, because of the
exhaustion of the rebels than because of their confidence in the new reforms.
But whether Spain was sincere or not, she was given no opportunity of proving
her good faith. For in February, 1898, the Maine was blown up in Havana
Harbour, and in April of the same year war was declared between Spain and the
United States. That the Americans had been preparing for intervention before the
destruction of the Maine is made evident by the message which President
McKinley sent to Congress in December, 1897. He refused to recognize Cuban
belligerency, but he said that "If it shall hereafter appear to be a duty imposed
upon us by our obligations to ourselves, to civilisation and humanity, to intervene
with force, it shall be without fault on our part and only because the necessity
for such action will be so clear as to command the support and approval of the
civilised world."
The Cubans have never forgiven America her refusal to grant them belligerent
rights. "We could have beaten Spain," said more than one Cuban to me in
the island, "if we had been allowed to raise money and import arms openly."
Men who speak like this believe that American intervention took place for the
sake of America and not for the sake of Cuba. And so, but a few years after the
close of a most terrible revolution which, with its battles and its concentration
camps, cost Cuba fully two hundred thousand men, we find the name of William
Taft received in silence in a popular Havana theatre, while that of Alfonso XIII.
is applauded to the skies.


A country devastated by civil war, accustomed to despotic government, with
no training in politics and still infected with the virus of revolution-this was the
Cuba which the Americans undertook to make a free and independent" republic
of. There was some doubt at first as to whether the United States would really
hand over the administration of Cuban affairs to Cubans. A few able Americans
argued that, as economic freedom was the chief desideratum of Cuba, that country
would be satisfied if, for some time at any rate, the United States authorities continued
to govern her, while removing the vexatious hindrances to trade and commerce
with which Spain had handicapped the development of the island. Annexation
was advocated by some, and these were supported by the views of conservative
Cubans who doubted the capacity of their countrymen for self-government. It







68 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

was confidently assumed that "the more the Cubans know of the United States
and of our institutions, the better they will like us." But the majority of the Cuban
politicians and soldiers showed plainly that they expected Cuba to become a
republic; accordingly, in 1902, the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba was
adopted, its first article setting forth that "The people of Cuba are hereby
constituted a sovereign and independent State, and adopt a republican form of
government." The other articles which follow are all drawn up on the most
approved republican pattern. All Cubans have equal rights before the law;
every person arrested shall be set at liberty or placed at the disposal of a competent
judge or court within twenty-four hours immediately following arrest; in no case
shall the penalty of confiscation of property be imposed; the profession of all
religious beliefs, as well as the practice of all forms of worship, are free; primary
education is compulsory and gratuitous ; and so on to the end of the chapter.
But at the end of the chapter there is an appendix known as the Platt Amendment,
and Article III. of that Amendment reads, "That the Government of Cuba con-
sents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the preservation
of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a Government adequate for the
protection of life, property, and individual liberty, and for discharging the
obligations with respect of Cuba imposed by the Treaty of Paris on the United
States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the Government of Cuba." This
amendment proposed by Senator Platt and forced upon the Cuban people (who
could not possibly have refused to accept it), is really the most important part
of the Cuban Constitution. More will be heard of it one of these days.
The Government of Cuba was transferred to its people on the 2oth of May, 1902.
Dr. Estrada Palma, who had been head of the chief Cuban revolutionary junta
in America, and who represented the Conservative Party, was elected President.
I was told by an American in Cuba that the election was managed entirely by
the Americans in the island, and that many people voted for Palma under the
impression that he was some one else This may have been so; but in any case
it is certain that Estrada Palma had worked well for the cause of Cuban inde-
pendence, and possessed a reputation for integrity and single-mindedness which
was second to none in Cuba.
Problems presented themselves from the first to the new Cuban Administration.
The Americans had cleaned Havana and had improved some of the other cities.
They had begun roads and had established a system of common-school education.
But they had spent millions of dollars on the work, and the Palma Government
found the Treasury depleted when it came into power; yet it had had to promise to
continue the sanitation of the island, this being one of the provisions imposed upon
it by the United States. It had also been agreed (it is part of the Platt Amend-
ment) that Cuba should contract no debts the repayment of which could not
be covered by the ordinary resources of the annual budget. Nevertheless, no
sooner was the new Government installed than the soldiers of the revolution began






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS 69

to clamour for their pay. These were difficulties enough, but they were met;
revenue came in rapidly, such is the wonderful power of recuperation possessed by
the island. With the consent of the United States, a loan was raised and the
soldiers paid off (most of the money going into the hands of American speculators
who had bought the debt from the soldiers in advance, while assuring them that
they were not likely to be paid). To some outsiders it seemed at first that Cuba
would really set an example of peaceful progress to the rest of Latin-America,
but such a belief left the character of the average Latin-American politician
entirely out of consideration. For one thing, the Liberals were not satisfied with
the Government.
In 1905 the Liberals of Cuba held a congress and drew up a political
programme. One of the chief principles of that programme pledged the
Liberal Party to work for the abolition of the Platt Amendment. This was
significant of the growing feeling against the Americans, who were believed
to be on the side of the Cuban Conservatives.
The second presidential election came off early in 1906, and Dr. Palma was
again elected President. That fraud had been used at the polls was unquestion-
able. The President himself was an old man, and had never been counted
ambitious; yet he had undoubtably allowed himself to be persuaded that the
safety of Cuba depended upon his retaining office. He had become the tool
of self-seeking politicians, and no one was really surprised when, in August,
1906, a revolution broke out. The mass of the people were with the Liberals.
The Conservatives in Cuba will tell you to-day that this was because the Liberal
leaders basely pandered to the lowest tastes of the mob by promising them
bull-fights and cock-fights and lotteries, and perhaps there is something
in this. But whatever the cause, the fact remains that Pino Guerra easily
gathered an army of malcontents and began to move on Havana. Then Palma
did a deed for which he is cursed by some Cubans and blamed by others,
those who praise him being few indeed. He said he could not set Cuban to
fight against Cuban, brother against brother. But he did not surrender office to the
Liberal insurgents. It was to America that he turned in that hour of difficulty,
and already the Americans had prepared to intervene. In September Palma
resigned office as President of Cuba, and on the i7th of that month Mr. Taft
was proclaimed as Provisional Governor.
President Palma's enemies say that he betrayed his country. "Because he
and his party could not retain what they had won by fraud, he was willing
to sacrifice the independence of Cuba." I cannot undertake to discuss the
motives of a man who sacrificed much for his country when he could not
have hoped to be its President; yet the public admission that Cuba could not
govern herself in peace, coming from one of his reputation and position, was
without doubt a more formidable indictment against her than any that could
be drawn up by the people of the United States.






70 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

The second period of American intervention lasted a little over two years.
In January, 1909, General Miguel Gomez, who had been elected President by
an overwhelming majority of votes, assumed charge of the affairs of State.
The American troops evacuated Cuba, and were allowed to leave without a
single mark of appreciation or even cordiality. On the other hand, a Spanish
training-ship, the Nautilus, going to Havana almost by accident last year, was
welcomed with every manifestation of joy. Enough could not be done by the
Cubans to make the Spaniards stay in Havana one long fiesta. The streets
were decorated, rockets were fired, three whole days were devoted to public
rejoicing; and when the Nautilus left, the sea-wall of Havana was thronged with
thousands of cheering spectators. Why? I put the question to a Cuban. "After
all," he said, "we are of one blood, father and son." But the Spaniard was a
cruel parent, according to the Cubans themselves. And even to-day the
Spaniards who lived in Cuba before the independence most cordially despise
the natives. Yet it is America who is the enemy, in the mind of the average
Cuban-between American and Cuban no love exists. The reason is not far to
seek.
The existence of Cuba as "a sovereign and independent State" may be
formally stated in the constitution, but the sovereignty and independence of the
island is certainly not recognized by the American Government. It does not
appear that Washington interfered too sharply in the internal affairs of Cuba
during the Palma administration. But since the new Government assumed
office there has been repeated interference. As it was the Liberals who made
the last revolution, too, and as they welcomed an intervention which they
believed would lead to their becoming the dominant party in the State, it is
difficult for them now to murmur against the decrees of their powerful suzerain,
and the Opposition knows this well. So the Opposition papers twit the
Government with supinely carrying out the orders of its "senior partners," but
no one really imagines that the Cuban Government likes the tutelage to which
it is subject.
Three instances will suffice to show how Washington keeps the young
Republic in leading-strings, to the bitter annoyance of her people.
The Cuban Government wishing to purchase guns for the Army the other
day, entered into negotiations with a German firm of manufacturers for the
required supply of arms. The United States interposed its veto, and the guns
were not bought from Germany. The Cuban Government prepared its budget
for the year 1909-1o. The authorities at Washington thought it was an extravagant
budget, and quietly said that it must be reduced. And reduced it accordingly
has been, especially in the matter of salaries. The last instance : before Governor
Magoon left the island, he appointed Mr. James Page, an American, to be chief
engineer of the sanitary work now being done in Cienfuegos, which city is
being improved. But the Cuban Secretary of Public Works dismissed Mr.






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS


Page, one of the reasons being that all-important positions in Cuba must be
filled by Cubans. Mr. Page, however, did not go, for again the American
Government reminded the Cubans that there are some things which it is not
expedient to do, and the Cubans took the hint. Other instances of diplomatic
interference may be given, and all of them have occurred since January, i909-
ever since Cuba began to govern herself.
These constant reminders of American suzerainty have called forth bitter protests
from the Cuban Press. One paper, La Discussion, has uttered threats-" Our
powerful friends will do well not to carry their rigour to extremes, for the
desperation of a people, even of a small people, may give them much to do."
Others write more calmly, but yet with deep annoyance. Still, the United
States will continue to interfere, and the Cuban Government will continue to
obey.
Another reason why the American is not liked in Cuba is because some of
the Americans who visit the island do not show much consideration for the
feelings of the people. The resident American complains bitterly of this, and
I have been told that the American Minister has expressed the wish that he had
the power to expel all objectionable American visitors. For while most of the
tourists are estimable people, some take a delight in elbowing the Cubans
off their own side-walks, and in entering the churches while the service is going
on, for the purpose, if you please, of staring, or of even taking photographs.
These show by their manner that they think little of the Cubans. Even an
American guide-book is thoughtless enough to inform the stranger that "the average
native guide would rather tell an untruth for credit than to tell the truth for
cash," a statement which is not calculated to make the average Cuban think
highly of American manners. He does not distinguish between different types
of Americans; he judges all by those that are rude. He is not a "hustler"
either, and does not like to be hustled. Above all, he remembers that he is in
his own country, and he wants all the world to recognize that fact.
But over and above every other feeling is the fear that haunts the mind of
the Cuban that one day the American will return to Cuba, and this time for good.
He knows something of America's overwhelming strength. He knows that a
struggle against her would be short and inglorious. The Spaniard remained in
the cities and fought when the Cuban came within reach of him; the American
would go and search for the rebel, and would surely find him. I believe the
Cuban to be quite capable of rising against his American protector in an outburst
of uncontrollable anger, but in his calmer moments he feels that even such a
demonstration would not drive the American out of Cuba.
Not every Cuban, however, is opposed to the Americans. There is a party
(a minority it is true) which is in favour of annexation. Thus a coloured man
who has lived in the United States and Canada told me that the bulk of the
Cuban people do not really understand what annexation would mean. They do






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


not understand, he said, that Cuba, if admitted into the Union as a State, would
elect her own Governor, and have her own Legislature, and make her own
State laws, and be in every way better off, especially as she would have free
trade with the other States of the Union. Another Cuban, one of the biggest
men in Havana, rather bitterly remarked to me that the common people did not
know what they wanted and that the politicians were interested only in
themselves. I conclude that he, a Conservative, would much prefer to see a
Conservative than any other Government in Cuba; but failing that, he holds
annexation to be preferable to what he no doubt considers to be Liberal
misgovernment. And here perhaps is the rock on which the Cuban ship of
State may eventually split. It is the political jealousies and opposition amongst
the Cubans themselves that are more to be feared than the wishes of the foreigners
for American annexation, and the annexationist aspirations of the travelled
Cubans.
The Conservatives were so badly beaten at the last election that they
cannot depend upon their own strength to win them back political power
for many a year to come. But this will not prevent them from intriguing;
and the longer the Liberals remain in power, the more bitter the enmity
of their opponents will grow. Then the Liberals themselves have more than
once exhibited a tendency to split into factions; and that a fission will actually
occur some day is beyond all question. For in spite of party names and party
shibboleths, the really dominant force in Cuban politics is the personal element:
it is the man that counts, it is individual ambitions and not party principles
which cause most of those revolutions for which Spanish-America has become
so notorious. The Cuban, like his Latin-American brother on the continent
of South America, is a natural-born politician, and his leaders are all constitution-
makers and amenders. They believe devoutly in political theory; they thirst
for honour, distinction, and popularity; and every man wants to be his own
master and the master of some others. So though the present Cuban Government
has not yet been a year in existence, there have been many Cabinet resignations,
and more than one rumour of a "crisis." A part of the Liberals are the
personal followers of Senor Zayas, the Vice-President of the Republic, and
these are determined that he shall be the next President : the remaining Liberals
are the personal followers of General Gomez, and, as he has said that he will
not again be a candidate for the Presidency, his friends have already been
seeking to find some one whom they think will rule the country better than
Senor Zayas.
There are other disruptive forces at work, chiefly personal. In June last
the leader of the Negro Party in Havana, Senor Morura, ostentatiously resigned
the position of director of the National Lottery, to which he had been
appointed by the President. His reason was that the latter had refused to
allow him to name his own chief subordinate officer, a refusal which he






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS 73

seemed to consider an affront. And so that there should be no misunder-
standing of his influence in the country, his followers and admirers in Havana
organised a demonstration in his honour, which was to consist of a procession,
and public speeches, and the firing of rockets (for some inscrutable reason,
rockets are frequently fired off in the daytime in Havana). All this was
to take place on a Sunday afternoon; but the rain coming down in torrents,
the programme could not be carried out.
Then, just a little before this, there was a dispute between Pino Guerra
and the Government as to whom the former should be directly responsible
to in his capacity of Major-General of the Army. Pino Guerra thought he
ought to be under no one but the President himself. The Government
said he should be subordinate to the Minister of the Interior. The general
had to submit, but he is not satisfied. Perhaps he will again refer to the
matter. And the worst of it is that all these disputes find their way into
the Press and are discussed by the politicians in the cafes; and in a small
country, with a disproportionate and rather excitable city population, this
cannot make for a peaceful settlement of personal or political differences.
Meantime the Conservatives declare that, under any Liberal Administration
whatever, the country is certain to go to the dogs; and experience has
proved that a defeated Cuban party will prefer to turn to the United States
rather than allow its hated rivals to enjoy the sweets of place, position, and
power. By the time the next general election draws near, therefore, there
will be at least three parties in the field, and the watchful eye of the American
will be fixed upon them all. I fear too, that, if the election is not managed
by impartial outsiders, fraud will again be practised at the polls; and this is
almost certain to be followed by some sort of demonstration on the part
of those defeated. This is why the American can well afford to abide his
time. He is waiting until Cuba herself shall have given full and ample proof
to the world of her incapacity for peaceful self-government.
What will happen then? The Cuban fears the annexation of the island.
The foreign element in Cuba and some of the Cubans (as said before) desire
it. Some of the journals in the United States openly advocate it. Does the
American people, as a whole, want it ? Does its Government wish it ? I imagine
no. I think the American Government and people wish to keep Cuba in a
state of tutelage, wish to remain the island's perpetual suzerain; I believe
that the present system of control over the Government suits them entirely,
and that the forcible annexation of the island at this juncture would be under-
taken with some reluctance. After all, America already holds Cuba in the hollow
of her hand. The Cubans have been compelled to lease two naval stations to
the United States; they can enter into no treaty with a foreign Power that
may give the latter any control over the country or may lead to international
complications; and the reciprocity treaty between Cuba and America guarantees






74 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

to America almost all the trade of Cuba. By allowing Cuban produce to enter
her markets at a duty lower by 20 per cent. than the duty paid by other
countries, America secured cheaper sugar and tobacco for her own people.
Thus America benefited at least as much as Cuba. By arranging that American
goods shall be admitted into Cuba under a preferential clause, America secured
an important market for American foodstuffs and manufactures. The preference
granted by Cuba to America, too, is greater than that granted by America
to Cuba-for there are several articles sold by America to Cuba on which
the preference given is more than 20 per cent. With such a treaty, with two
naval stations in her hands, with the Platt Amendment in force, and with a
Minister in Havana to convey to the Cuban Government the views and sug-
gestions of Washington, there is no good reason why the American Republic
should want to undertake the actual governing of a country that will not
easily forgive annexation unless it comes about at the request of the people.
Annexation, moreover, will always be fiercely opposed by a large number
of the people and politicians of America herself. These want no colonies;
besides, they will think of what Europe will say if their country, having fought
to liberate the Cubans, brings that people under her own yoke. All these
considerations can never be absent from the minds of the rulers of America,
and in view of them they would probably prefer a continuance of the present
system of control over Cuban affairs. But this system is galling to the Cubans,
and they will endeavour to put an end to it; in addition, I fear it is impossible
to hope for political peace amongst the Cubans themselves. No wonder, then,
that, to some Cubans, "the future is dark."


What exists in Cuba at the present moment is practically an American
Protectorate, and undoubtedly it would be good for the country if a protectorate
could be openly established and accepted. This would obviate all pretence
about the existence of Cuba as a sovereign and independent State, would put
the right of America to give advice on matters of policy and finance beyond
the possibility of dispute, would leave the internal administration of Cuba in
the hands of her own people, and would ensure the presidential and other
elections being conducted without fraud and without violence. The American
Minister in Havana could be used, as he actually is now used, as the medium
of communication between the United States and the Cuban authorities, and
the broader aspects of Cuban financial policy could be settled by Washington.
There would, of course, be an "army of occupation," but the Americans could
easily follow the example of England in Egypt, and utilise the native troops
for the maintenance of peace and order in the country. These troops could
be trained by American officers and, if necessary, stiffened by a contingent
of American soldiers. Cubans could be appointed to very high positions in





THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS


the Army, and good salaries and permanency of position should ensure their
loyalty and help to create amongst them an effective esprit de corps. Such a
protectorate would still leave Cuba a republic with real and large self-governing
powers, would leave to her the opportunity to learn in the school of experience
the lessons of self-control and practical efficiency that she still has need of.
Then, with order assured, and confidence restored in the stability and peaceful
progress of the country, capital would flow into the island, and its prosperity
would be another of the already remarkable achievements of American capital
and American energy.
A protectorate would solve the difficulty for both Cubans and Americans,
and the Americans would not object to it. They would welcome it in preference
to annexation, and even, no doubt, in preference to the present system of
undefined control which is but winning for them the hatred of most Cubans.
But would the Cubans care for a protectorate even? I think not. They will
not willingly accept any form of tutelage whatever. Yet, if they refuse a
protectorate and still are unable to govern themselves, the only alternative is
annexation. For America is determined to keep her hand upon the island, and
it is to her interest that there should be peace in Cuba.
The wish of America to acquire possession of Cuba is not a thing of yesterday.
It goes far back into the nineteenth century, to the time when Jefferson and
Madison gave expression to the feeling of all thoughtful Americans by saying
that the United States could not view with satisfaction the falling of the island
of Cuba under any European government "which might make a fulcrum of
that position against the commerce and security of the United States." Some
time after this, John Quincy Adams wrote of Cuba and Porto Rico as "the
natural appendages of the North American continent"; and again: "Looking
forward," he said, "for half a century it is scarcely possible to resist the conviction
that the annexation of Cuba to our republic will be indispensable to the
continuance and integrity of the Union itself." Jefferson, too, advised his
countrymen "to be in readiness to receive that interesting incorporation when
solicited by herself, for certainly her addition to our confederacy is exactly
what is wanted to round our power as a nation to the point of its utmost
interest !" All these prophetic sentiments were expressed before the close of
the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Spain was still mistress of Cuba,
but the revolt of the Spanish colonies in South and Central America, the obvious
weakness of Spain, and the indications that she would one day lose her remaining
possessions in the Western World, all caused the attention of American statesmen
to be turned to the question of Cuba's future; and that future, the ablest of
them declared, could not ultimately be with any other country except the
United States.
An attempt to purchase the island from Spain was actually made in 1848
by President Polk. Through the American Minister at Madrid, he offered the






IN JAMAICA AND CUBA


Spanish Government $Ioo,ooo,ooo for Cuba: "The country would prefer to see
it sunk in the ocean," was the proud characteristic reply of Spain. But her Govern-
ment did not rest content with this reply. Very shortly after, it endeavoured to
induce the United States, France, and Great Britain to enter into an agreement that
none of them would acquire Cuba; but the United States peremptorily refused
to be a party to any such compact. This alone was significant of American
hopes and designs; significant also was the Ostend Manifesto, drawn up by
the American Ministers at Paris, London, and Madrid, and setting forth that
Cuba ought to belong to America, and that it would be to the advantage of
Spain to sell the island to that Power. The Ministers were not supported
by their Government, yet they could hardly have acted as they did had they
not known that they were not likely to be severely blamed for publishing a
manifesto that might easily have led to a war between the two countries.
Other instances of the desire of America to obtain possession of the island
might be given, even though her statesmen did inform the Spanish Government
in 1874 that they did not "meditate or desire the annexation of Cuba to the
United States, but its elevation into an independent republic of freemen in
harmony with ourselves and with the other republics of America." As a matter
of fact the geographical position of Cuba rendered it inevitable that the United
States should be anxious to control the island, and any further pretence that
the Spanish-American War was merely a war of humanity would be the sheerest
hypocrisy. No doubt many Americans still honestly think so, but their statesmen
do not. Cuba, as John Quincy Adams wrote, is "an object of transcendent
importance to the commercial and political interests" of the American Union,
and the recognition of that salient fact is a sufficient reason for the determination
of American statesmen to guide and control the destinies of the island of
Cuba.
With the opening of the Panama Canal, the strategical importance of the
island must largely increase. Holding Guantanamo and Bahia Hondo (both
situated at the eastern end of Cuba) at strongly fortified naval bases, the United
States commands the Windward Passage, which is the route mainly used by
vessels going from Europe to the Isthmus of Panama. Thus the approach
to the Canal from the Atlantic side is amply protected by Cuba, and all the
Caribbean Sea is made into a great American lake by this island, by the island
of Hayti (or Santo Domingo), where the United States Government had also
a naval station, and by Porto Rico which is now an American colony. From
her basis in the Province of Oriente the United States can sweep the Atlantic
Ocean from Florida to Trinidad with a West Indian squadron; while, from
the western part of the island of Cuba, she can protect her own eastern coast
up to Cape Hatteras. Then, again, the possession of Cuba makes the Gulf of
Mexico an American sea: America completely dominates that Gulf with Cuba
in her hands. These propositions may be proved by any one who simply






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS


takes the trouble to glance over a map of the New World; and if the possession
of Cuba secures to America the mastery of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of
Mexico, if it makes the protection of the Panama Canal a comparatively easy
matter, if it helps to bring the Central American Republics more completely
within the sphere of the influence of the United States, it follows surely that the
existence of Cuba as a peacefully-governed appendage of the United States is
an absolute necessity from the American point of view. In these circumstances
the "independence" of Cuba could not be anything but illusory. And given
all the elements of discord at present operating in Cuba, even the existing
appearance of independence in that island must give place to a more explicit
assertion of American control before long.
What will be the effect of this upon the Cuban people ? I have already said
that prosperity must inevitably follow domestic stability and peace; but I fear
that at first, after the change of government which all foresee has come about
in Cuba, there will be considerable unrest. Hatred of the Americans will be
expressed in frequent broils, in murders, in destruction of property; sometimes,
perhaps, in revolts. There will be a deliberate attempt to make the island an
unpleasant place for Americans to live in; and it will take some time to teach
the malcontents that guerilla warfare cannot succeed in Cuba now, and that order
will be maintained at any cost. But once that lesson is taught, I do not see
why there should be any further trouble. After all, the interest of the mass of
the people is not to be found in disturbances, and they will soon realise that fact.
The Americans are never going to emigrate in large numbers to Cuba: the
American never wishes to live outside of his own country, and certainly has no
liking for a tropical climate. The Cuban need never fear, therefore, that
Cuba will be overrun by active, energetic aliens bent upon driving him to the
wall by a determined and ruthless competition. The American tourist is not a
settler. And if he is sometimes rude, there is nothing to prevent his being rudely
treated in return. American capital, too, can be nothing but a benefit to a country
that is still so largely undeveloped, and the more developed Cuba becomes the
better the position of her people.
As for the politicians, who would naturally feel the effects of American control
more keenly than any other class, even they would not be so hard hit as they
may fear. Some part in the government of their country they must have, and
there are a number of positions which they would fill, and have filled even during
the periods when the Americans were administering the affairs of the island.
I admit that many of them would feel genuinely humiliated to see their country's
government in the hands of foreigners, but they would find some scope for their
ambition in agitating that, if Cuba is to be connected with the United States, it
must be as a State in the Union.
And that the island will become a State eventually is beyond all doubt.
Education will spread, population will grow, industry and wealth will increase.






78 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

Consequently, however much one may now dwell upon the gulf which separates
the Latin from the Anglo-Saxon, however much one may discuss the difference
in ideals, in religion, and in traditions between Cubans and Americans, the end
must be the incorporations of Cuba as a State in the Union. Religion has nothing
to do with the matter-there are millions of Catholics in the United States to-day.
Traditions will not affect the eventual solution of the Cuban problem either, for
if the hordes of Italians and Poles who have for so many years been pouring into
the United States can have become citizens of the American Union, I do not see
why the Cubans, who are mostly a white people of Spanish descent, and whose
increase by immigration will be chiefly from white sources, should be held to be
less amenable to American influences. I admit at once that the man who remains
in Cuba will be much less affected by such influences than the immigrant who
lives in the United States, and is forced by circumstances to conform to the habits
and customs of that country, to learn its language, and to obey its laws. It is plain
that in the latter case environment counts for a vast deal in moulding the man
according to the dominant American pattern. It is plain, also, that the character
of a man born and brought up in a tropical island, believing that his country has
been wronged, cut off largely from outside influences, and thinking in narrow,
insular grooves, will remain unmodified during almost the whole course of his
life. But I do not believe the intelligent Cuban will be cut off from outside
influences or will grow up a simple, ignorant man. The day of Cuban isolation
is past. The day is coming when English will vie with Spanish as the spoken
language of the country when it will be taught in every school of the island. And
if large numbers of Americans are not likely to crowd into a country already settled
by people of another race and civilisation, and where the land is already parcelled
out amongst the inhabitants, it is certain on the other hand that thousands of
Cubans will visit the United States, will go there to be educated, will follow its
politics with interest, and will thus gradually assimilate American modes of
thought.
This is what is already happening. Once it was to Paris chiefly that wealthy
Cubans went and sent their children to be educated. Now it is to Boston and
New York. And as the habit of travelling grows amongst the Cubans, as it is
growing amongst all West Indians, it is to the United States that they will turn
their faces. This will mean that nearly every one in the island belonging to
the classes which count politically will in time have become affected by the
American ethos, and these will demand State union and State rights, and their
demands will surely not be denied. "But what of the negro population?"
some one may ask. "Surely it will be a danger to admit any more negroes into
the Union?" Considering that less than one-third of the Cuban people is
coloured, and that less than one-half of the coloured element is black, I do not
see the reason for the slightest apprehension. Besides, as I have previously
pointed out, the coloured element is slowly but steadily disappearing, owing






THE AMERICANS AND THE CUBANS 79

to the number of white men emigrating to Cuba and seeking wives amongst
the people, and also to the predominance of the male over female population
of Cuba. Here is the number of foreigners that were in Cuba when the Census of
1907 was compiled-the proportion of the white to the black immigrants may
be seen at a glance :-

From Spain ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 185,393
,, China ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 11,217
,, Africa ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 7,948
,, The United States ... ... ... ... ... 6,713
SThe West Indies, not including Porto Rico ... 4,280
,, Porto Rico ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,918
S France ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,476
SSouth and Central America ... ... ... 1,442
SThe United Kingdom ... ... ... ... 1,252
,, M exico ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,187

And 80 per cent. of the white immigrants were men.
The colour problem of Cuba, then, will tend to grow less and less as time goes
on : indeed, I am not justified in saying that there is a colour problem in Cuba
at all. There is prejudice, there is class feeling. There may even be what Sir
Harry Johnston has told me he perceived in the island, a tendency to keep the
negro out of his due share of political power, and out of his due proportion of
public employment. This prejudice and this tendency towards discrimination
on account of race may increase with the growth of American influence in Cuba-
which would be a danger; and yet I am not sure that, at first at any rate,
American influence would not make against undue discrimination. For what-
ever practices may obtain in the Southern States in the way of preventing the
exercise of the Negro suffrage at the polls, would certainly not be allowed to
obtain in a Cuba governed as a colony, or over which a protectorate had been
established. The aim of the American Government would be to hold the balances
even between all classes and races in Cuba, until the island had acquired the
status of Statehood; and this would inevitably have a great educational effect.
Then, it is absolutely certain that, whether as a republic, a protected dependency,
or a state, the island will always be divided into two parties, and each party will
be quick to see the wisdom of not giving its rival the opportunity of making a
bid for the entire negro vote. The Spanish colonies and republics, we must
also remember, have always managed to handle their negro question very well;
nor is Porto Rico troubled by any race problem at the present day. A careful
study of the Cuban political situation, therefore, does not seem to warrant the
belief that the racial factor will ever be a seriously disturbing one in the future.
Difficulties may arise now and then; but these will not be like the difficulties






80 IN JAMAICA AND CUBA

which have perplexed the Southern States. Negro predominance is out of the
question in Cuba. And, if treated fairly, the negro, who occupies contentedly an
inferior social position in the island, will not want to form an aggressive, inde-
pendent party of his own.
I see Cuba, then, a future State in the American Union. I see her a prosperous
island, an example to the rest of the West Indies, a great winter resort for
Americans, a factor in the civilisation of the West Indian Archipelago. Spain
failed to make her anything like what she will become. She could not thrive
and prosper by herself. None of the European nations could give her that helping
hand that America will be glad to hold out to her. And a future generation of
Cubans, looking back upon the past of their country, will see that union with the
United States was inevitable, and that only by union with the United States could
the destiny of Cuba be fulfilled.




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7205adca0f947666c867c9c92058e3d9
12206419196e7c82d9edb068dacb43f8ab94c7e1
'2011-12-30T06:51:29-05:00'
describe
'1382' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGB' 'sip-files00002.txt'
28dc47a11982758d9b67bb873390947c
13866dad73ba1783cdb0eb7ef28018855a0aed47
describe
'25645' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGC' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
da28c1f683c36b424e615b0e5e5b5cec
e48df25e7ed61b916e1e6dbc1f63cc4ef6bf4364
'2011-12-30T06:49:05-05:00'
describe
'43290' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGD' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
6300478d9f06ded280119378b066ff63
5dd8b592611deec7ac932d8312a2bca87e9b8281
'2011-12-30T06:49:14-05:00'
describe
'16714' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGE' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
be25cac1bc726b48ccd812fc303df2bc
86bc292e877a4ee1afe49257b5b16eb0060b8070
describe
'762' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGF' 'sip-files00003.pro'
1ea99ffeea7077f73a6527c0b420e78f
d91c19e9eca857a591e517168768160d4b526a53
'2011-12-30T06:51:44-05:00'
describe
'11378' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGG' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
97304d6f2cc4b8d1c08c1f1ae61b5ddd
f51497f263335697f487d8b4ad6f656606819239
'2011-12-30T06:51:16-05:00'
describe
'3363636' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGH' 'sip-files00003.tif'
72649ac7465c38a524559cba0807ac44
bf83a72a39b55938339c3fb0ee6f674d7018c1ae
'2011-12-30T06:48:32-05:00'
describe
'54' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGI' 'sip-files00003.txt'
3574080bcbc3780d9cd578981c4dc265
289412588c5ceb66522f8c99b949d122a561f161
'2011-12-30T06:52:59-05:00'
describe
'9399' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGJ' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
2b370aed3a151dfe2b1f69eeecd15582
7b88170e92ff97163186e3cb928b9320a6b04f82
'2011-12-30T06:48:47-05:00'
describe
'104523' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGK' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
5eccffaf4be6558c58a0e594f42ec31d
81e9be364487e4999508b6fc4a6519f27568b059
'2011-12-30T06:50:47-05:00'
describe
'29982' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGL' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
f6131ff0a9da69035d212caadf1aa389
ff882a5f45e29c3a4bb339c9b9e52adacfca043b
'2011-12-30T06:48:01-05:00'
describe
'2404' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGM' 'sip-files00004.pro'
8df9de67980b7d7ef90fdaf54b32ed6f
db25d148e86ffbcf0b25a94b6c49183b2c4f6321
'2011-12-30T06:55:09-05:00'
describe
'17613' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGN' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
2d058fb9a5c0dcdf30087be9d0be32bc
d81c9dfad5627351863b934f1cc886bfb67e29a8
'2011-12-30T06:54:13-05:00'
describe
'3364532' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGO' 'sip-files00004.tif'
cf387283431f77d04f63a81fd078c6e9
9f8d45af5a34d2f199f8a8286805d0d71be7f184
describe
'161' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGP' 'sip-files00004.txt'
f789c7e58046148f5e2e5d38c75cc719
0617fb7a71554318d0eade9308fd0e299e1633ed
'2011-12-30T06:54:18-05:00'
describe
'11900' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGQ' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
b422cdc866ab5d02477946004ef927d4
39e3b33231fe51387c25179b20be35402dac4347
'2011-12-30T06:49:42-05:00'
describe
'419451' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGR' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
9ce38d1e7495bb3a672e117172e5366a
67c7bb797833f55207603297ea77eb4a748879c5
'2011-12-30T06:53:53-05:00'
describe
'137850' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGS' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
5eac50eb040d25dc7a92b6166a663dba
6814492b69bfb64c6701216260cdabcef27a0ab8
'2011-12-30T06:53:22-05:00'
describe
'38873' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGT' 'sip-files00005.pro'
1c5d92e9b7638a783615f9d880ba4d6c
d2721e71caeb08056fc0dc2819d633da06d0beda
'2011-12-30T06:52:32-05:00'
describe
'53851' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGU' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
14234ec26ab8a1bafc396ce4e00e4a01
d751d468654722d4edfa18963b9760e9abc2076c
'2011-12-30T06:51:01-05:00'
describe
'3367972' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGV' 'sip-files00005.tif'
4f4751b5b76adb0295ba60b59a242603
d0c6a67b14958e922d1112c0f476c6dce5c75d72
'2011-12-30T06:55:02-05:00'
describe
'1742' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGW' 'sip-files00005.txt'
345df1bd7727f32255179538ac280cc5
67a2eed99287731668b22e5d8f657426cacaddea
'2011-12-30T06:53:49-05:00'
describe
'165793' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGX' 'sip-files00005a.jp2'
1c843cc4fe7609d87eea74507b022566
fda06b75641580a320dee76e7356074208e7e45d
describe
'7674' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGY' 'sip-files00005a.jpg'
b579bf053f8e5d7232e8e2b74ff301cb
a3748c760fc51e7be2e28a1dd1c7fff347d90ac5
'2011-12-30T06:52:01-05:00'
describe
'2233' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAGZ' 'sip-files00005a.QC.jpg'
526c24cfbc110258bbf649edd20fa379
8f8afe8895783d252ec57b6622ec1c77381b181b
'2011-12-30T06:54:46-05:00'
describe
'4170376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHA' 'sip-files00005a.tif'
6f5c754e17bcf774187c4b78b5ae37d8
e71dd434d4344fba5ad057c2e3be30aee17e0ebb
'2011-12-30T06:48:50-05:00'
describe
'864' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHB' 'sip-files00005athm.jpg'
6d10ec0a39ce8a2eafdea67509ab1f4f
4665fe970e90596ad1e6c0f1b12289155d53cfcd
'2011-12-30T06:51:37-05:00'
describe
'22387' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHC' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
ad4d95b307f7ff8030eac0e791388497
35b90a81f3a87b9598819a4f7dd83b272ce78b12
'2011-12-30T06:50:44-05:00'
describe
'192212' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHD' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
1adf6fe43f149a9a07a9e24709899929
a4ac29cf8c2f504cec215aac3570bdf1646777d4
'2011-12-30T06:53:20-05:00'
describe
'44350' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHE' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
6ddb66ce3e6e9cb8b725b99ff9c129c1
41b6bb1859832a3aef40c3d97540b1a2f0a01604
'2011-12-30T06:53:18-05:00'
describe
'11804' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHF' 'sip-files00006.pro'
7b61bd1547581da03ce358c7aa0729fc
7a1207b7f243031b73a8bddecbae6fc040018c27
'2011-12-30T06:47:49-05:00'
describe
'22585' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHG' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
4276792ec8b67f0e69c4d7fc1d0a564c
ed6c01d6f2fd407c902a03e9df8b0d10da562d46
'2011-12-30T06:53:02-05:00'
describe
'3365236' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHH' 'sip-files00006.tif'
56cbcd28f15f9fa35828a360b92112e8
bb7f6b8cd3d9ec5d7a172cf828a9d01a8719f526
'2011-12-30T06:50:23-05:00'
describe
'964' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHI' 'sip-files00006.txt'
f3a767e5b9dea75d4dcc86fbb9743b4e
3de642a0db96d0fc6d30e23dcfd9330d72f1e1f4
'2011-12-30T06:48:00-05:00'
describe
'14007' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHJ' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
3c964894ff4f60a3631760b824b406d5
ffc162ee543f597640ad01323342e949f973fc58
'2011-12-30T06:52:57-05:00'
describe
'81727' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHK' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
c9ce87fb2aef3031c41efd6f68b67711
32a867e0be2e5fc1dc903a2d9f9ef96f45e84873
'2011-12-30T06:51:45-05:00'
describe
'24836' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHL' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
066825ac0b618a8b735e7aa4dc7551fe
5a004c844dff1ac1cba420678667bf2e56533c15
'2011-12-30T06:48:42-05:00'
describe
'5226' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHM' 'sip-files00007.pro'
93020a63f12fcc9a99e87c56acc3a892
2266752004c695b42be05d20882468fe1637e301
'2011-12-30T06:48:54-05:00'
describe
'15008' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHN' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
6e9f67a60ec3335f7e2c4ca9619fd864
d0fcfbdf8f2d9c7ad194441721b67b87bc54e5cc
'2011-12-30T06:51:21-05:00'
describe
'3364120' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHO' 'sip-files00007.tif'
ef80c671b18bac974f82d1cebb215db0
422fe6ce3a2c1dec4e6f02aab2700158bc9c2354
'2011-12-30T06:54:31-05:00'
describe
'426' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHP' 'sip-files00007.txt'
d02feff8d6f7ab50743f5e4c3ee5a977
ba61bf57809d2e80a24209a677260aca88ef4dc7
'2011-12-30T06:49:28-05:00'
describe
'10987' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHQ' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
287301e5d6335ee87566403b5220c717
1752a7d4bf58e1023e9f4315cc9af4e04b09e9ad
'2011-12-30T06:48:13-05:00'
describe
'310807' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHR' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
b0a0d46dfa6d18c694ec9f64fe230fe9
39b60573114c667e395479c7c059bc144ccedd90
'2011-12-30T06:48:48-05:00'
describe
'64641' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHS' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
f3d79f3effa0e8452b2ed88a5ee43319
22aa0c2bd98aa45e9a929502a012d5a22c1dccde
describe
'22034' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHT' 'sip-files00008.pro'
beb805e856ffbf8ccfb77675df4858e1
de45a1f2ebac5ebb77c8b1a201801f2b21f7c5b5
'2011-12-30T06:50:36-05:00'
describe
'31431' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHU' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
1e1290ae9739ff58cfbc5227e557bb1b
9c264d685fc180bdd73b483466491588cf29f174
'2011-12-30T06:54:00-05:00'
describe
'3365904' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHV' 'sip-files00008.tif'
dc4fef79fe73bb5e3b62160db7cfafc5
3ac15925764de6b7a3593d7d66484c36e78fb3cb
'2011-12-30T06:54:09-05:00'
describe
'1300' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHW' 'sip-files00008.txt'
abaab6d4d2f6073ce97d138c39eda749
f2b508800eea91a823f5fe88149cb6dc2b8d4046
'2011-12-30T06:48:09-05:00'
describe
'16897' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHX' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
ab35d46ded325d8f9ed205e6b1b46dbe
f2049beff74d8681b8362045c1f8bcc76aebddc0
'2011-12-30T06:48:55-05:00'
describe
'121953' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHY' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
589b37e37bb6f0e97cc4124f7bed1502
9ef966db53b6537de4a86326e07cbb23d24eb8c5
'2011-12-30T06:51:34-05:00'
describe
'31981' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAHZ' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
826c0b3244e150442f3edfc742cadb48
3374fc1b2542021ed2d9434d40fa0a2fc1052570
'2011-12-30T06:54:39-05:00'
describe
'8095' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIA' 'sip-files00009.pro'
a5c7a48a0b2034803ed31de522fcea37
998c33fce3333d406bf47b124fa4a17d18ef08df
describe
'16845' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIB' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
9da9fe091f702d692d0abe6527335809
b83df2d79be8b6df6abdf9d84e1c5d74f83c52b6
'2011-12-30T06:48:36-05:00'
describe
'3364348' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIC' 'sip-files00009.tif'
3af68526a2f70b6b203ae8e06158a7da
fda142b1869ff663ad998b564109a41976f5cfd2
'2011-12-30T06:49:01-05:00'
describe
'513' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAID' 'sip-files00009.txt'
c87578de2a14f81ea55d038c296f8b65
73144f58c25df469478a67ecb9572c4720d76029
'2011-12-30T06:49:19-05:00'
describe
'11912' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIE' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
435dbb8e86619525c2243e5c91ba70dd
e5b3d206f17c614897a98c1a3a5095ceac4a320a
'2011-12-30T06:50:10-05:00'
describe
'419411' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIF' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
498757d943ed4415422f5a32c7e0e365
562461f35a519d099effe3493f02c0cf94931823
describe
'160418' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIG' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
63c9d581aa4b480099130dbb85a6c6b5
f3dfa5aaa04dc8967c15439ae545bd3375177080
'2011-12-30T06:52:00-05:00'
describe
'54038' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIH' 'sip-files00010.pro'
0749ab840067d4df38977550ba2a6cb9
f7806f4ca3e30b15aee26d6b663efa257a3411cc
'2011-12-30T06:51:43-05:00'
describe
'55343' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAII' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
880f1f34563fa9bf5c94d183166e95bd
e8207f401e264a8842086a858b59993b0baa90db
'2011-12-30T06:49:22-05:00'
describe
'3367600' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIJ' 'sip-files00010.tif'
5abc399a7451bfaee9c33d894ba4c3ee
37334c7bde29c113df52b46e3d786c0e48bf5320
'2011-12-30T06:54:04-05:00'
describe
'2250' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIK' 'sip-files00010.txt'
11d2baebde5dfc048b82927a4f1b8518
6ec88c3f81758948ca836ffe15d5b394dce6c54a
'2011-12-30T06:49:35-05:00'
describe
'21235' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIL' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
f3cbea78fd0281d558baee5eb7bafed3
94b7aa59b5137e726fe2e6e05b9e135737ef7460
'2011-12-30T06:48:25-05:00'
describe
'419436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIM' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
f11488eda3dcef146b4fbb30bee85951
811c5f4f2834a312fe10240f8adbeec658c95025
'2011-12-30T06:48:06-05:00'
describe
'219198' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIN' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
9a7d42819b128b8e55f9afc3c24926c6
febba0e30720b31972968d5f9a42de46ce38e5b7
'2011-12-30T06:54:29-05:00'
describe
'76589' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIO' 'sip-files00011.pro'
0fc4b6373d1622e29d5ab7ebb03f359e
48e0a6d8e07928e477a49c48f5c2ed9d85781924
'2011-12-30T06:54:22-05:00'
describe
'73635' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIP' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
811dbdf0553360dc5f154997aa8b5405
549300b888ac0cba30e47b40c36685352e7caf94
'2011-12-30T06:50:04-05:00'
describe
'3369364' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIQ' 'sip-files00011.tif'
69ed7ee457be07b1de0ac2a7687faf7f
b6441564c5115cd650d5703b38d84a389790c530
'2011-12-30T06:51:39-05:00'
describe
'3141' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIR' 'sip-files00011.txt'
68c66adb52505939a1d8baca5184f179
723e75491d051fe25811cbeb2d734f418ad54587
'2011-12-30T06:49:00-05:00'
describe
'26443' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIS' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
4b480cbf8b0c256c05df60092269202a
be7c0781ff717605c1f1d99e4d479ecd3d2c4cef
'2011-12-30T06:49:57-05:00'
describe
'419442' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIT' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
9a9a2b253c443051753d353843124953
583b6c110ae40f3798681c20a628637806dc39ba
'2011-12-30T06:52:51-05:00'
describe
'225728' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIU' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
c7f3e594f7ef88bd57113aac671672a4
f0f76e866dd52c7e051d734ed6466feba8d9e4d6
'2011-12-30T06:52:27-05:00'
describe
'79926' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIV' 'sip-files00012.pro'
e661df2f003a467aadaf2efc8f9bb17a
9361b96c056bdce9c98ecc8b4e209a30f8dd68a2
'2011-12-30T06:54:37-05:00'
describe
'74517' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIW' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
e97134be29d6c335f0a64cc140436531
e8ec5f7f585e037392dfb306ca3f3a1d797504c3
describe
'3369396' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIX' 'sip-files00012.tif'
c7c9557f9c44e3b7a16f4942a6776c52
97a69e3d4730d57b7b81b79ed1941252a4f3906a
'2011-12-30T06:50:50-05:00'
describe
'3317' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIY' 'sip-files00012.txt'
6723f8a91130e434294d802ef1826f68
c050f16d8b1d4d5d4fb212d8d77491442899d2a5
describe
'26726' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAIZ' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
95f748b4901b505a9467712cc70a927f
7e25a65bbda22d7b5e09c68ea49cb84fdd25e8a6
'2011-12-30T06:48:41-05:00'
describe
'419421' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJA' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
06815cb400ab06e69faac3af5d380760
8e78074e6753c1290ef198991bff997996a51f3e
'2011-12-30T06:51:07-05:00'
describe
'227542' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJB' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
a3350b65f244f46ddf2d4ea818acda6b
3917eea1f7f4d94510628690d499710476d5cc46
'2011-12-30T06:54:12-05:00'
describe
'81218' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJC' 'sip-files00013.pro'
34a5af555f48a92543d0e290341dd2ed
43178e809acb07c521dcca7a7b12c15973d75638
'2011-12-30T06:54:07-05:00'
describe
'74409' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJD' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
b7e705033c875b8ed586bc1eeb0c21a4
78c7cb631b80553b4397b377a48cfe9c4f27bcb7
'2011-12-30T06:50:26-05:00'
describe
'3369120' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJE' 'sip-files00013.tif'
0a0d6b09ca2a26207d388578562efd16
a4d1d07ddcaa60e12647145c8ccbde3159d3c015
describe
'3313' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJF' 'sip-files00013.txt'
fc30bd6373e31a4d711fb82471804f9a
acbb50922168ed8043eeacbe688ad68ca4b57b46
describe
'25898' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJG' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
11edaacc1c462e5656fb7046eb77523f
c125e1481025b62a04e5c6ce13773b9f281c08b7
'2011-12-30T06:51:03-05:00'
describe
'419410' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJH' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
89923453bdf9b32da99fb630c6bf97fc
90712c1995edc0dd5f4bfda771c4b02e05ad454c
'2011-12-30T06:48:05-05:00'
describe
'224149' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJI' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
cd1e48b3030b480c0e658fda5202b523
35c31475e7422d09d0e431f8acf9e1a3c1c7f292
'2011-12-30T06:52:23-05:00'
describe
'79647' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJJ' 'sip-files00014.pro'
5f42d08cc5b34c416bdf17ec617de3ce
f8f94749530ff8c7182df543e34d3989ce1b4ede
'2011-12-30T06:54:44-05:00'
describe
'74263' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJK' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
4b9d816d1dd40b3a850bc3b935ede8f8
3d30b95c489f45eb97f23b48f48c0149042bba0e
'2011-12-30T06:55:05-05:00'
describe
'3369216' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJL' 'sip-files00014.tif'
af855d8ebf43128bb129aa6dea509cfe
75b3a684c79a0803aafac0fe69202dc2237fac64
'2011-12-30T06:52:12-05:00'
describe
'3253' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJM' 'sip-files00014.txt'
cfa0b3fa4f60e5aec6a7748c7e822d58
82a7c51a388736478350a3668692876a796ba9a7
'2011-12-30T06:49:12-05:00'
describe
'26290' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJN' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
6c2123da57fc1785eea055c205c27d16
75413a701b28ae6d719c089575b0e39a62491a0d
describe
'419443' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJO' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
6cd789e326759114627e6eaab3782a26
45c0a2514fd6049b8487364609d9e7906f17696a
'2011-12-30T06:47:48-05:00'
describe
'201024' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJP' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
d8c1df567d93ebd2ad9af4b37c491252
e9b4123e87b9d41fe6d6413ea0084e8f33c43b5f
'2011-12-30T06:55:04-05:00'
describe
'70966' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJQ' 'sip-files00015.pro'
846e326dfb402258c0220cfc60cdb2b1
343f1568a75c6829c1d2e83ea4826b65cc077810
'2011-12-30T06:49:54-05:00'
describe
'69415' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJR' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
631e5869fdc737845823cea3508a9e3c
46a50de20666e5ed99e6e7b9ea92ee87994888b4
'2011-12-30T06:53:12-05:00'
describe
'3368848' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJS' 'sip-files00015.tif'
1da6c105538d274eabd117729861ff2a
30ed618f41ba2bed98d3d6910f6fba63aaee9ba4
'2011-12-30T06:48:26-05:00'
describe
'2987' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJT' 'sip-files00015.txt'
e36876317275d3abe118def2efbf1530
a5ed610663ea735bac2ff4589a91a1d105bb2dfc
'2011-12-30T06:50:15-05:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'25194' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJU' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
c8c878e5f7533d19cc943574dddeecbc
d40064b219270e9ada6b6cce46682c2b03b55122
'2011-12-30T06:50:00-05:00'
describe
'419446' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJV' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
0cc2a0fae3f34692db1ef6a7904401a9
6e013700ce0668c6934873c6801610da2aa4b9f2
'2011-12-30T06:50:57-05:00'
describe
'216027' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJW' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
92c14c8534b2cd2ef361ada55cea5e0c
7cabda5bc4d9d12931f9703ae51001622bed8710
'2011-12-30T06:50:16-05:00'
describe
'76891' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJX' 'sip-files00016.pro'
fa5a3ced684da979eb483ed72f0d6097
2110a1c25f21cb2a9615159973968cb87410c141
'2011-12-30T06:51:06-05:00'
describe
'74227' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJY' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
1c72e43fa313af211faae76fd99c0a60
83bd3b512f0d554e6af2deccb2796d23bd7ae5c2
'2011-12-30T06:50:28-05:00'
describe
'3369012' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAJZ' 'sip-files00016.tif'
ec0baf78fd283f1f48ba88d135da1bee
a64977324ea675a41cdb881f0943c68b1268027a
describe
'3144' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKA' 'sip-files00016.txt'
4d0e2512bc4c004a490a7b3e0eb50c2b
73900573ab1b09d59c98b6e52e00b1f93edeaa4e
describe
'26248' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKB' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
d4326d45db085f81b2745e21bbd7e582
b4cad1c15aa6969ee1d087fd8703c81b5d41b241
'2011-12-30T06:54:23-05:00'
describe
'419455' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKC' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
05d4cfae66143336f2ad8fe4e281aaf7
2a8d9efda69c7dc202a5f285941b801ee6bb3b1d
'2011-12-30T06:53:50-05:00'
describe
'226216' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKD' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
eaf947a1de87b79b15c8cc86beb55ac6
03a579877b18c628187b71314aec735ff496cb74
describe
'77422' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKE' 'sip-files00017.pro'
1078ab4847bbd4800879b4231d2136b9
4401a8a961369fe9a2ff77bbc3b5a6c52c5fe4ac
'2011-12-30T06:52:44-05:00'
describe
'76249' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKF' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
1e78cda629f9a527d93f9e2087f6aa42
110e7e8be8e5b9c70923d68b75921cb74bf04188
'2011-12-30T06:48:37-05:00'
describe
'3369420' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKG' 'sip-files00017.tif'
67487deb0dcd6b206575240fe503a3e6
54d5e2a53f590e16950b1ad2fc5ab1e4431ff7d3
'2011-12-30T06:48:30-05:00'
describe
'3177' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKH' 'sip-files00017.txt'
df055d53ed8eb2412a7e3374c9ab1e58
20f8cb05d76d7712ca8192b125a651f2555f5beb
describe
'26920' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKI' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
292bfed0db57d5f919f6400c320a55ac
32f1cfeb227e35275dc48720077344ace55ea9a0
'2011-12-30T06:55:14-05:00'
describe
'414513' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKJ' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
8a8eb35ccc4babf1d5d528d280e943d7
47777dce4dd8cb6b85f75e6a5c6a1a099e954443
describe
'87285' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKK' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
fa61e7bdfe7c16446d46572073031ffe
87a55a75b187dfa2520fdaf1006bc2639004ee47
describe
'3017' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKL' 'sip-files00018.pro'
da91c6c5d9fc43e4fe12aac609f17945
81d85d4e33405c231b14c6f7e33de1161aaf39d3
'2011-12-30T06:55:15-05:00'
describe
'32174' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKM' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
453929b18b08eb31abb54a22f2bfeb4c
2ffd1d6ac6dfdbe53d119ccc3aa195fd04177e80
'2011-12-30T06:51:53-05:00'
describe
'9959216' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKN' 'sip-files00018.tif'
475ac378c173f2b074a40584f7b7863b
df2d17d6afa86da85ad0831a31a4c435d3a4eae2
'2011-12-30T06:47:47-05:00'
describe
'138' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKO' 'sip-files00018.txt'
97e418011b5a1541cbeab1cffa2ea5ac
83c9fa9ef7f5411ababd478a47ec57ccb97fe436
'2011-12-30T06:48:24-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'18085' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKP' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
7ff0d6394651574d61c68f6e8539fab2
a44597a4e6dd52ba29d727dc8762a0b00849ae1f
'2011-12-30T06:51:51-05:00'
describe
'419424' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKQ' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
f78e16d1ff585e3a8fc3ec66efb3c900
f8e2838b5ffd0ce621d5250f525b1972e17281cf
describe
'233574' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKR' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
aa004e4948b60354ae8ed056804516fa
cc1a33030dce1900e0d1e96a7bd5218f1e6eb782
'2011-12-30T06:49:45-05:00'
describe
'78779' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKS' 'sip-files00019.pro'
4df81a3ad6b1ead275c82a88100984cd
de74e21ef55bc28491d5e70f0828e2801b2b590d
'2011-12-30T06:55:16-05:00'
describe
'76980' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKT' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
5d8a09b21e51d4e2e0245f6d770c7d62
03da489e20e25eb59cd5ac3879e4e2a0e6c07e82
'2011-12-30T06:54:27-05:00'
describe
'3369536' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKU' 'sip-files00019.tif'
4e5ba3cc4837a060a7d8b4ae81d85721
607fecb5a5bf2335a835d1a5bbe08e0c935997e9
'2011-12-30T06:52:47-05:00'
describe
'3246' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKV' 'sip-files00019.txt'
9063fe102f767f636d395403d8227197
abc97749f21ca82510e3f6444dc5db80efef2ceb
'2011-12-30T06:51:10-05:00'
describe
'27154' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKW' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
f8e3ad316d9285dd5426a83e00941d55
f500f621dd3b0c2ca02e1b54529909748a667315
'2011-12-30T06:53:14-05:00'
describe
'419454' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKX' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
14980aaeab45b8f30f6365e000bce5ee
23d2d8c0b316982f96c72207ee648b39ceb0c87a
describe
'211670' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKY' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
072190212f37fd999df375ccfe984db5
38130c2a994d18b47be353e00648ea1ebdd1c899
'2011-12-30T06:47:39-05:00'
describe
'75648' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAKZ' 'sip-files00020.pro'
d31eec3227f0073c5d24a079498c2900
6ead3baf8ca92cd07685ead45949be64b64cdd82
'2011-12-30T06:49:32-05:00'
describe
'71839' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALA' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
28a2b95fbbae33fa1bbe23754efb6844
3b5daf1b582f67919fdad59adc526761f6f89896
describe
'3369088' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALB' 'sip-files00020.tif'
6cbe5b5bd638956ac5f9ac33048003f4
9001e6ff5d4a92c1088e6d0ee0cba95a77861183
'2011-12-30T06:48:57-05:00'
describe
'3138' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALC' 'sip-files00020.txt'
f0787187a51752526d7a6a5f2319561e
663feb453cdf9f40587dd9ff8264cafdb521931e
'2011-12-30T06:50:31-05:00'
describe
'25894' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALD' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
74b8b8cf8577e830e8944325dc95ee97
4f0a43ac28e225a2c93cb9cda836fa0afa749650
'2011-12-30T06:53:08-05:00'
describe
'419432' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALE' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
445c85d1feeb5f791f90ff904eca22cb
d2c56b38e245381cb7fe8a75009d21eb5d5c8765
'2011-12-30T06:49:04-05:00'
describe
'222974' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALF' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
7db42b98eca07c6c016a3b1025cb00b0
f9d418d3cf0e04892c1e23ee2d8b9c14a06b3bb4
'2011-12-30T06:51:15-05:00'
describe
'80038' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALG' 'sip-files00021.pro'
300e9b7e6f08b190b6df2dfba897c88a
8ee758bc4d4e0ccfc59b86cac907e25867a09224
'2011-12-30T06:47:45-05:00'
describe
'74123' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALH' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
e29837ec91b7fd0c80a4661ee554b91a
d0e2c61beaf7a6c879ac73287c891e07908360f3
'2011-12-30T06:53:46-05:00'
describe
'3369308' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALI' 'sip-files00021.tif'
766e1fed0b2a5f9b46ad959f29938ee5
6b046ff9c93e70f84efc2c41d895795ce7aa7956
describe
'3276' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALJ' 'sip-files00021.txt'
9c886dac5ab6c403581a6f7edc639548
c49df75b8c7caae3d9f4056632439b422d8182f3
'2011-12-30T06:50:33-05:00'
describe
'26266' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALK' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
43307ac9098d49986cc09ebff49c2c3f
a781df3a47a7340a27555d8a0c93412ed628bcbb
'2011-12-30T06:49:36-05:00'
describe
'419422' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALL' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
1f42884dd5f2d4bceea24e9bb70077a2
339c61e5d78a29f781a10e6ffd55153adf82cd75
'2011-12-30T06:48:33-05:00'
describe
'224876' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALM' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
0fa1803310c954dfbdec5622af1a883e
fce059fc0202c34b6449b58c3297783d4225a400
describe
'82231' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALN' 'sip-files00022.pro'
c1f255c9303870f3560d5227f3d68d31
744596ef5ff8d98dafaf0d61aec5e9ad7cc548b6
'2011-12-30T06:51:28-05:00'
describe
'73903' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALO' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
a0e52b1bd173eec59543fdcb57924b2e
5f603a5448f962915ed2511f16a520a312919a03
'2011-12-30T06:52:37-05:00'
describe
'3369268' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALP' 'sip-files00022.tif'
9a60a36ce6521fbeba6ff06713e79236
c5fbb4db8c7afc0ff21168a0caead00b87290546
'2011-12-30T06:54:19-05:00'
describe
'3377' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALQ' 'sip-files00022.txt'
db6eed1af614188e47cfc4b32507be54
235ed39c9f05afff376a5dee2c7587735995c625
describe
'26139' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALR' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
1423f592b6045733104eab31dbfa9d0c
bf7a5338fb9d86f9a021a119038f8939588b4113
'2011-12-30T06:53:26-05:00'
describe
'419437' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALS' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
1e1422462ccc12fdc412b0dee2620ed9
9d568ce480393bcc3a29b2292ab62af825a4b010
describe
'213880' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALT' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
36adb785dad1a9559c45c80b2dfd4eab
b29493df0e31ff9a66c872467f951568207e2217
'2011-12-30T06:53:57-05:00'
describe
'76387' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALU' 'sip-files00023.pro'
b9f51e4255c21e8428106db693180411
c0d7181538dc93563749651366b58855f885c9af
'2011-12-30T06:48:22-05:00'
describe
'71209' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALV' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
f236184693f0611e76d8f0459a2e2e5f
7d71da0c6a66949ad57110e9261eec3b11753c08
'2011-12-30T06:52:30-05:00'
describe
'3369196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALW' 'sip-files00023.tif'
0872811d22b24f596528795c90d590c8
3a6c58ca757b60679098cf4f50794914b675cbe5
'2011-12-30T06:55:20-05:00'
describe
'3134' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALX' 'sip-files00023.txt'
362037bb99830637b6ef97a81ab1b1e9
7a81971d53379c07e895faa45bb8445385876487
'2011-12-30T06:54:53-05:00'
describe
'25747' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALY' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
fc2c48aef46fc1510c6c75457167b171
e6d2a5cf1a859fc96ffa7034b2039b8c6dcfbd32
'2011-12-30T06:54:58-05:00'
describe
'419400' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAALZ' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
ddcdc84dc29a1c7a4e5a0ea242bb0267
5b629e7f7a571aa5a49c4a16604ce43dff0a3903
'2011-12-30T06:52:04-05:00'
describe
'228009' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMA' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
ad3303fafa40a9646bd24875ad6dc8d9
191a94b798bac8aabeb4e91828faa36235b778ef
describe
'82134' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMB' 'sip-files00024.pro'
97b3ac62979213685e07995c40f77931
d3951e6ab0ffcc95914969542b24b27eaf28f13f
'2011-12-30T06:51:31-05:00'
describe
'74066' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMC' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
405e32f5f45d192ca0a160f441d5eb7d
c3184c54563026826a7dfb44c605ac97b291ff77
'2011-12-30T06:48:03-05:00'
describe
'3369256' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMD' 'sip-files00024.tif'
21345c5d76bf99bfad78f8c0057e834f
ad64801e82687dbaf453a9e294bc9e679b4830b0
'2011-12-30T06:49:07-05:00'
describe
'3399' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAME' 'sip-files00024.txt'
a7d761e2bb25e1428091e87c2787940c
eae982609571da52a8a90b1c50cb8b24945c0ce9
'2011-12-30T06:52:07-05:00'
describe
'26455' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMF' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
78761bff39a011f336842678b2ea3f32
d459b652a47dcf466fb2094b7787ec322c8abe0d
'2011-12-30T06:54:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMG' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
d1bcb046ea10e33c9d492a4ce043e6b6
131d1f655924b46327a12073f1d74baacd41e095
describe
'222023' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMH' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
f754096895fb17458cf45903be941d81
08ff9459daffd447b2268007c34599f06f9d5f72
describe
'79109' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMI' 'sip-files00025.pro'
3f94ea19bc18da79f1b85f03065eb7a8
b595d7856f8a20ec063d58bcf5f475349772b0ec
'2011-12-30T06:52:36-05:00'
describe
'73456' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMJ' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
4b3c4f8231070bfddb2af75aa429be7d
d99cefe72d5e1d1523aab8b480551ca896eaf954
'2011-12-30T06:51:04-05:00'
describe
'3369296' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMK' 'sip-files00025.tif'
a3f3a65098577243e2657d87279ea0e4
21e92f10cf654dcefb8b7e4d8de079bcf403f863
describe
'3302' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAML' 'sip-files00025.txt'
bd5c83aafd4a5bf17230bc2a36526c85
99b168259077dce10b1537932f2870489dd75183
describe
'26300' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMM' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
0381076413c7acc16b47b07f8a5bc84b
399bc4175fe9e3b293993f0745b63c1a3e287d95
'2011-12-30T06:51:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMN' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
f566cb31a94c54f2f88104dc7fa8b3ee
6fb6494ca2d207cbdeae02fef62aac4adda4baca
'2011-12-30T06:55:11-05:00'
describe
'230932' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMO' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
c43a5911104b9e271c80600ee5c1c2be
d26179e85f42e8c9d994122356c5a3273f7a2718
'2011-12-30T06:50:51-05:00'
describe
'78276' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMP' 'sip-files00026.pro'
5847177ac6a83354c73d7fcc39b12a85
3ce8a5accce8ea86ece847c09d35719a00042fa6
describe
'76968' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMQ' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
5ec62adbbce1391c293597996e5d1795
f4c5dd159ebbf20f4b4e73b7510c6f9d237086f5
'2011-12-30T06:48:45-05:00'
describe
'3369704' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMR' 'sip-files00026.tif'
f211da88784d7242763c53eb6b30611c
12be6dcd8f477ac17871c69221e25f1748df7db7
describe
'3227' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMS' 'sip-files00026.txt'
53227b0f89a56d846c40845bbf9719ef
69552e0c35844ce03f3e214d041caed301d2fc5c
'2011-12-30T06:51:42-05:00'
describe
'27446' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMT' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
dfa351810515740f6b8b31e75734fb52
530a1c7c3ad816e1fb9b0904c3c38db6bf86cf86
'2011-12-30T06:48:07-05:00'
describe
'383090' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMU' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
40cecd968f9a8d1127d0b50803f1ffa3
4140bfe90998c250d8dc751f7bb13c8a84bbac1c
'2011-12-30T06:55:10-05:00'
describe
'78580' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMV' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
935650f326b3b9187d56013790b33e22
bbc54907e1496634d2496a3b0f8cb7655a61afd7
'2011-12-30T06:53:04-05:00'
describe
'1752' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMW' 'sip-files00027.pro'
30e2cc51c5bff4d4f925a5c70014692f
2c958d9081204714e4a67604ed221e3dc39513b8
'2011-12-30T06:47:56-05:00'
describe
'28780' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMX' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
8fe2f5ad5bcdf558732b4287b13d706f
1348cc3897d56827d6bea0cecdeb9f1badbef5cf
'2011-12-30T06:52:22-05:00'
describe
'9204268' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMY' 'sip-files00027.tif'
895f869975713e7da29dce0447574c58
9716435162df810a83599627d4c62d36ec263f5f
describe
'98' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAMZ' 'sip-files00027.txt'
72dade0f79120e83fbc5928063645d4d
10e7a20825b7bf4ea5963b70aced82df5d894706
'2011-12-30T06:49:11-05:00'
describe
'16965' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANA' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
43a725e051218f8aa74039d4a8656928
464dacf2dada720a8921a8cac2bf71553f8e6e29
describe
'419445' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANB' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
50e945ef0e44488e47ea0f2048674518
90d919a347c9e11e454ed0be79a68b3d450cda8e
'2011-12-30T06:49:38-05:00'
describe
'240821' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANC' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
7f616c5f1ec67438a6dd53d775d2030e
b12d1f494effe455cbe151c1fc7611dce11e97f4
'2011-12-30T06:53:10-05:00'
describe
'79921' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAND' 'sip-files00028.pro'
b812a18089707339a450732ec4fed756
10f0f110ae8304ef8f4cf047077cc2227a92d7d1
'2011-12-30T06:52:33-05:00'
describe
'79936' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANE' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
a9aade3d7d6625a85e0ca7e263370cc7
abc11ca5bce95e3eec31896003361538f677b8ab
describe
'3369940' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANF' 'sip-files00028.tif'
03a5baf82c1c6ba7871c267de083dbc6
ab3edab7ef87c0d207607e9020dd3ad9b717e1f5
'2011-12-30T06:52:29-05:00'
describe
'3281' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANG' 'sip-files00028.txt'
b91c93a7edfee64ff8e8d1cf891ea0d2
c7cc4a5f5d36a6877841de168df756631c718ff4
'2011-12-30T06:54:57-05:00'
describe
'28097' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANH' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
b88c2e67b205998f9b8c46e32eed9037
efbf5eaeead19023ff813eead103b6ceb6e17b11
'2011-12-30T06:50:45-05:00'
describe
'419409' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANI' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
c3b7cdeb4604141adf07ceadf54eec61
20f43a72f437f270fdbd8cd759320ec00dcdae0f
'2011-12-30T06:49:29-05:00'
describe
'226109' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANJ' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
65de61801ec1645639982acc3acc48e4
6d53acaecafc0d7a8a1deae84da03e9aac5d6230
'2011-12-30T06:48:51-05:00'
describe
'81168' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANK' 'sip-files00029.pro'
14499b0e302f2b093332a3a1ff35fefa
a4478c70e3b2bcd6d33037aaa44247c77364e4a1
describe
'74550' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANL' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
04e316fbf1888ecfd1c6234e9d93c620
71238a7978b43fe7d49af3cf9769ade693d28c5d
'2011-12-30T06:51:19-05:00'
describe
'3369376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANM' 'sip-files00029.tif'
d7cde98b5f47badc3d16ddadae29d792
81f677a5dee5b43a21a58e7be932a3b2522c77e3
'2011-12-30T06:52:13-05:00'
describe
'3362' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANN' 'sip-files00029.txt'
6777fe2c969fbcacfed31e7045ce5d24
022d1e742f7e497f8ba58e6a49b354c1757ba957
'2011-12-30T06:48:14-05:00'
describe
'26550' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANO' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
ad30b1c2e77d9e0034de244f29799247
70c4f0fd53a34a93ac473e9df1adc2e539b70f6c
'2011-12-30T06:49:10-05:00'
describe
'419448' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANP' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
4fd49bc16c562a9685c2d4cb4145df06
df5930fd65405df46cb094b8c220d3b86a715978
'2011-12-30T06:49:53-05:00'
describe
'224786' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANQ' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
7d2d19468b84e7b190b1e6c477943946
a23a76a6345bf1598940529721c112a98aaefbe4
'2011-12-30T06:48:20-05:00'
describe
'78973' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANR' 'sip-files00030.pro'
868ede22001ad42b73b3c1f72e538a8f
7e30c1b90e0332a9c2c2385a7500eb7ac29e479d
describe
'74720' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANS' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
22f99ca01fbbbdff8ef469798bdb3204
68d94ee26413adcec675aee45d8a15460a833df3
describe
'3369560' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANT' 'sip-files00030.tif'
bb82bf62b900e7e00624b5d10d703848
3d6cf294ec52d283c02f6c7110a42c61d83ade4e
'2011-12-30T06:54:55-05:00'
describe
'3236' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANU' 'sip-files00030.txt'
e619e2fa4f116a7c40636a3c6707eb2b
fde9399b3fb656435d815e1d46f87ac1f276e5d4
'2011-12-30T06:50:06-05:00'
describe
'27155' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANV' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
1b4d87c5d4c11b910d74a8ad24fb82a2
7da0314e412ad1340e0f2acaa9dd54e3e9a1f0a5
'2011-12-30T06:51:09-05:00'
describe
'419404' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANW' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
ff70cb45a3712f1d0960c1be4af2db0e
515de1c2d99700469dfbc15353e914a701d94221
describe
'220681' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANX' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
ea46f7ea4c0d96f550443a910bcb5234
53234b033ee0e786b7a6486335a490ca0e5b1a8d
'2011-12-30T06:55:08-05:00'
describe
'78707' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANY' 'sip-files00031.pro'
f6d4592f975c6722dda3552b6e4e0193
8f10d307c7df3bc0c7238bffb3def18c09430d19
'2011-12-30T06:48:40-05:00'
describe
'73800' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAANZ' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
92509533d62e24e2a4fbac98622a8e1b
64fadd7773342226346927c8a11cf739e2ae9c1f
describe
'3369280' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOA' 'sip-files00031.tif'
0b984512b90c3e28e9aff6f7a2cb4f6f
7900681890a7b265212cee109b373d54d9e7e1fb
'2011-12-30T06:50:07-05:00'
describe
'3260' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOB' 'sip-files00031.txt'
912709b120b94ff2e762b6af0ec0df2b
ec5eaab87a39ece5c6203ae6c02e8cad9c8d2543
'2011-12-30T06:49:25-05:00'
describe
'26413' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOC' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
b14b1517ca113584eb7442e0f9ffb4a4
e20e753630030f35eeec8ab8ea05858d0b13d82e
describe
'419434' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOD' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
f11cd23c20bee97307eb72db61b173e9
3028797e23879c3e6d130cea2c34464cc5a30449
'2011-12-30T06:52:41-05:00'
describe
'216689' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOE' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
97c358cb589fcbaaaf4bd95689377d94
823bb013523038893ad403b84f0905933d202e00
'2011-12-30T06:50:37-05:00'
describe
'75970' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOF' 'sip-files00032.pro'
f28cd8d94c4d5d03b66a7ae473934e8f
9fcd09629647935b167ddb1401a828844c24eb50
'2011-12-30T06:49:48-05:00'
describe
'73840' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOG' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
c1bf8acbeef1035a45cd9972c800bf70
b5ac7cda20047218ed6dd36105b39de4cfa12a59
describe
'3369204' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOH' 'sip-files00032.tif'
140cb6d8294ea6ef1b7445efcd632fe5
03bb7f3fe0fa303ff42cf4a317b7283ae85f75b5
'2011-12-30T06:51:23-05:00'
describe
'3126' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOI' 'sip-files00032.txt'
34ae711faed9f69d37d502e40402f515
4db2fe860ccb56ba766f967a693e66c8d6e0198d
describe
'26376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOJ' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
f5806c9c2bcfd781b4bc30265cdb78ed
a0a02e496322b1f7b8ee08ff63b085debef65ead
'2011-12-30T06:50:24-05:00'
describe
'419367' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOK' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
affa915d5026c1a0e08216b737d3766f
564eeb3f5eb1229ca6807116245a4926e95f788e
'2011-12-30T06:54:20-05:00'
describe
'149408' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOL' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
3619e11d1a8ab8e4fe449ccdfb07f986
3d76dad1a9cd451fa042bebcd27e4c1864d6bca8
'2011-12-30T06:51:54-05:00'
describe
'50425' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOM' 'sip-files00033.pro'
8cbe03d4132017331f33fcd4a6c2b4ac
daab08877b63a73d930b6a05e6cde386ea6ba9f2
'2011-12-30T06:51:46-05:00'
describe
'52247' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAON' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
170d3ab0a4717f964e64ebf3ad21ddcc
88bd7e3cee3909d30206e41f8e45da5d9a9b665f
'2011-12-30T06:50:49-05:00'
describe
'3367448' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOO' 'sip-files00033.tif'
6d10286b71f7cad3693ba9d3b4463d1b
1f21773af418062e33f699e95383e0913adb4e63
'2011-12-30T06:48:44-05:00'
describe
'2063' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOP' 'sip-files00033.txt'
4b08a660f7b797aa5b6fef6c3464c33d
70d5a42563e97af855c9150a02761be32583cbf1
'2011-12-30T06:50:27-05:00'
describe
'20570' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOQ' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
5546c263593f046a77dd807f4136d7f1
9c64adbf07cc29bee3dfa0132c3ce6cf2c1a4187
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOR' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
2dd7a1041bbc098dbc63dff7ab69dad8
8358d01b704754632a49bf53084babd28cc6833a
'2011-12-30T06:51:56-05:00'
describe
'160578' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOS' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
650c6351753109552f4b8d6bd51454aa
5195f4780048fccfc136c8dbf3077ed64a47147d
describe
'54503' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOT' 'sip-files00034.pro'
9c1931b9af130a1210fda87133e6db21
4c5b34b6b748962050935a8b7699f21c7edfe206
describe
'55485' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOU' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
a5f7b61ebee63a947afd320e4903e37a
9e1854f109aa6dfb9c9a13e002f71b95fea5b9e1
'2011-12-30T06:48:31-05:00'
describe
'3367724' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOV' 'sip-files00034.tif'
e730bc3b96eebe65109828fb65509e63
bcf7fd1de13e03c263cf956e16e5965108dfb37d
describe
'2273' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOW' 'sip-files00034.txt'
c0940ee5a0333a2febc4eda21ac7cdeb
c5d310f4c2fcd3d62d9ed6e4cc8d155868e8855f
'2011-12-30T06:54:42-05:00'
describe
'21640' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOX' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
9e8790ebd453aee2ca649500ffbd64ca
47bb26c284fb9c6676527bfd2d29302969771345
'2011-12-30T06:51:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOY' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
580ed07673c51ac2aa89d698c49831f9
23255f49d7d5537a7bd887f1d593f12de1b0fe26
'2011-12-30T06:50:05-05:00'
describe
'237226' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAOZ' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
35be67479a5b92096d0bfb575148cc15
4436dee562dfaa18cfa732c3a90f61ac93226655
'2011-12-30T06:50:29-05:00'
describe
'81858' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPA' 'sip-files00035.pro'
f7f40f702877e8173c4d3d2c5311578c
99a94d2f15110da5295d8361a0ed4ac43cb5acf5
describe
'77997' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPB' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
cdd22af502cea73b9385ed376489fdf2
7697c911b99f438c1425a2be9a40be812eba71ea
'2011-12-30T06:51:47-05:00'
describe
'3369628' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPC' 'sip-files00035.tif'
4315ec8117d4cd6a1232a88e8a28aa6b
c42adbc4a9b44894f12193c2ca2608deb3d57c62
describe
'3352' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPD' 'sip-files00035.txt'
431d44bf5f2c9b31d7090eaed4538f67
bafdb89c59899cab63a129e0b9d70d0484e6cdc1
'2011-12-30T06:48:16-05:00'
describe
'27206' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPE' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
3dcb01e4cb1e025e443cf7baaa8e6179
2c5c4475ebfb4815df78d2f9382489e784297131
describe
'423852' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPF' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
624e78cca54a9656e1db03c8c53c9030
f909167517b8773845b20fc20c89099be8885656
'2011-12-30T06:49:13-05:00'
describe
'90305' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPG' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
ba094cf2e6345cfd1eea14a29f0ce1a3
5826c9390fa36812861056b9eeafa3d1dd501cc3
'2011-12-30T06:49:59-05:00'
describe
'1274' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPH' 'sip-files00036.pro'
4a24e3dc149c442b4c22b38d0261a003
800a424a037bd2f78b25451365220b998407d197
'2011-12-30T06:55:07-05:00'
describe
'35209' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPI' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
1b64fd01b9673c5fe560449b9b504151
1214690b7cb7bec89f1844609273919b8a1aecd8
'2011-12-30T06:53:32-05:00'
describe
'10185196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPJ' 'sip-files00036.tif'
0d57fa53b457221037362d75cc47e89a
6f726caf66cf6e668915a1ab95e5b96f034583e3
'2011-12-30T06:52:45-05:00'
describe
'94' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPK' 'sip-files00036.txt'
bd919b0ea8f63cce33536c409e8cdd47
2c8acf3b0cdbc130ec10a050fb11ef135833ca8d
'2011-12-30T06:50:48-05:00'
describe
'20078' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPL' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
2c3e765a9afb640d711b8dabea4d496c
67cb5d24f5e1aa74c6f6594efce287993eea45c4
'2011-12-30T06:48:08-05:00'
describe
'419414' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPM' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
aeaacf3d77af73199a3d970869910923
9a5b824da97d10e46ebd004f6531e9e00ab6ebb6
describe
'234434' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPN' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
25fd2d7c0a0b6396e59d81a3ec6f891f
acc53326cb4f47b49649d1b9ccaa93f12045c6f3
describe
'79654' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPO' 'sip-files00037.pro'
a94be6ea8ae6bbda1bb62bf5b1cbf2cb
a3b7f67e098334b8fe0c375f83e5060c1c86ad9c
'2011-12-30T06:47:57-05:00'
describe
'77115' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPP' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
7fefa722d9805c34efc293c403f8eedb
664ce71884326cb549781570f77bd69e609667f1
'2011-12-30T06:49:47-05:00'
describe
'3369764' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPQ' 'sip-files00037.tif'
479d6e4458c6f94a7cd74669530d1b8b
9d7f31479badb2b03079910e345cac221e4ff139
'2011-12-30T06:52:02-05:00'
describe
'3287' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPR' 'sip-files00037.txt'
f829f9c6f51ca81745b8e8a9afb8eded
2d85652eb5efdce2aa7ad2bc72c9edb837e9a605
'2011-12-30T06:54:50-05:00'
describe
'27764' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPS' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
ada57371182bdef2ee2f8c23a1329590
1318143972dde6c6a1259da7ed7b591e45ce485a
'2011-12-30T06:48:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPT' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
556850a2ae3e3f777d10c41c955197f8
5eb45a61e05aaa3ac0a568cb88253aded8a648c9
'2011-12-30T06:50:53-05:00'
describe
'221913' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPU' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
968f512b211d827826bf0d80522a0d62
ecba3111889bec33d103fd849515e993d7a4436f
'2011-12-30T06:50:22-05:00'
describe
'78958' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPV' 'sip-files00038.pro'
a6d669476d1b26f3bf376693d7e8ed74
ab53cc1288742157d1cdbd3347d425b2d4733eed
'2011-12-30T06:47:46-05:00'
describe
'74150' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPW' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
b66cd788781addc6f4bc80a4c3526c18
8549ab7ab87e2fdb0ee4ec0b93590363bee245e0
describe
'3369428' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPX' 'sip-files00038.tif'
a7a3cb61cef663d333f66f85cc058483
0632a3fa94f1ec64734e106010c0029a54cb67b6
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPY' 'sip-files00038.txt'
f888fe58c18a9ba3a3a7cbc5ee1bb82e
9cedadbf7060b8d41bc7270d2b5162c976e3e990
'2011-12-30T06:53:05-05:00'
describe
'26668' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAPZ' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
90e4fa002a21fedea030d39e4ddb8416
deb8197ba984d9be4c053cb2e5ceb119997d6096
'2011-12-30T06:50:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQA' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
5edac755bde12454931460b2fea41945
adb7dd3e69691593bc74df210e35fe778093316d
describe
'211098' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQB' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
65d1a77b15b73af12110daf9a4104ec5
fb586601cd6271fd49728438cb09cc4ed30d2921
'2011-12-30T06:50:03-05:00'
describe
'74233' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQC' 'sip-files00039.pro'
9c61691f40de01923b43c208a2cb080c
1e8acb58f879e64138f735d10446c59969af11f7
describe
'70942' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQD' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
364e66c27c53f6d1fb56f758978b2946
8f86d8465ebde36f6bb7b8e341b5963abb69d0bb
'2011-12-30T06:53:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQE' 'sip-files00039.tif'
cfc8c8e77952f42ebf6b9e76eca9d9b7
641a130956f7bca21ad92d7b16e33119e8489e35
describe
'3043' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQF' 'sip-files00039.txt'
d8439529eb191436f68d399fbc3a7f7d
eafe03616b0097cad75a4e5e5cd9a841a6eea0b9
'2011-12-30T06:49:51-05:00'
describe
'26207' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQG' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
63368a3572afed748ce1fbfbc3a118d0
cc5e77c722c6cad834e291eb5e9c21187ded868c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQH' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
e061a88d41726ee9f7bb5e674539b133
670bc591e68189f43f5793f6f29ce6b518b048f8
'2011-12-30T06:51:38-05:00'
describe
'237009' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQI' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
eaa0b2162be2eb7af28b50cbc41df79e
eda819b5e8c01aa8cdc6fd35871d034e59e64855
describe
'81991' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQJ' 'sip-files00040.pro'
4e4c80747ec03a6c0a8dc759653a63b4
b2201c9612c97121867e660cc5aabd68b875c29e
'2011-12-30T06:53:48-05:00'
describe
'78349' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQK' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
4af5b2687e44c98e9463e342952d417f
d908106a851150e0f331c18da7221717358d1a38
describe
'3369540' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQL' 'sip-files00040.tif'
65b52d5f480c52b114ccc4446e7da304
18ed58800ca140da4bdc0576d648d9033666fb0c
'2011-12-30T06:53:47-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQM' 'sip-files00040.txt'
d911c377de139fb7f27d583af7e842a1
c64452373319d3bd8f5115808609de1314d16b99
'2011-12-30T06:48:46-05:00'
describe
'27287' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQN' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
253e6e88d2fcbde32e7bfc52e241ea01
7ac1563c554b80a22e379ca8dfd05b1dd30a9af2
describe
'376080' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQO' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
6d2906db4b40419b458700f180ffe30a
1b603f256f87edbe52ef35e36683099cd291b1c8
describe
'138380' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQP' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
f36a6608d5f92a7354bd3a4a6f8bc597
0e6b24bad6c4a4b0a22979c49ec5febb904e926b
describe
'2329' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQQ' 'sip-files00041.pro'
acd8e1634ada45825dce1ae0729d14f2
d62c95b1fc3ef0a9a0db823bd61bb4b40397dda0
'2011-12-30T06:51:52-05:00'
describe
'44315' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQR' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
5c34a70962deaf905a6595c0806df2ed
edcc3ef3a405bbbc8ba761a68327754fa84d8b3d
'2011-12-30T06:50:19-05:00'
describe
'9044548' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQS' 'sip-files00041.tif'
1771e2e057b3221ee9db4160c1061880
6b18897ef986f7a397a316a22c3c9dbff103337f
describe
'183' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQT' 'sip-files00041.txt'
3b9f923b749b28be2092d5089e176376
9b0a7b35d8eb75177b56a38df609b4ab6f567f77
'2011-12-30T06:50:25-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'20531' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQU' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
16122a56840d828dec5d5be3e247b982
979c73f3c3ff1dba87623e0c062a88f6bb162d0c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQV' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
fe13675824cedb03a877438510783f86
ca5178da03219ec937d51fda5d8b81f6a16355d8
'2011-12-30T06:53:06-05:00'
describe
'227481' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQW' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
702cc3a53c6fbe3ce676b51b8c2c0a53
c2634237f5fe38767cca5476e1907d6c42443b1c
'2011-12-30T06:48:23-05:00'
describe
'76099' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQX' 'sip-files00042.pro'
6ba4600dbfcc0643d5d35f10aa2bd27d
54447419a524fa9eca0ee5b046f61c119a9354dc
describe
'75354' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQY' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
cde07370b5cb7defcd5d5ad10f05019c
4165c54e1c34fa6cbc19d5642eea1a59419384ca
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAQZ' 'sip-files00042.tif'
1b8f178b5b70de6147c111c090fccac4
f392986e7f0eb2658f3ff7e06ef4872b0c1cb5aa
'2011-12-30T06:52:24-05:00'
describe
'3180' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARA' 'sip-files00042.txt'
8be9ade97371d480a08948a393d67a7e
316efb6028fe906fffa43a02806e26ad08e3fbfe
describe
'27341' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARB' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
cfc890c62d44fe396516183cc20b4218
bacfec1bd667aff3225ab77fe9ec82c92701c005
describe
'419453' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARC' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
5f1c5d172b0d3de84e7976bf35249ca7
2d9c8e4f508938c3abbd8367997eb7bbb7669f14
'2011-12-30T06:51:40-05:00'
describe
'228571' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARD' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
7eac612624a6f5f0cb45484d8970f548
7f29cf35baf619379bdd28f43427c1161eb13776
'2011-12-30T06:50:43-05:00'
describe
'80212' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARE' 'sip-files00043.pro'
63dbe768829281e87943b2f6eedd4e0f
a8707229e877dbb455d0b9fa96d282d7861cd514
describe
'75155' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARF' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
8a44527f9f363c32885cbff3d1bb7e84
2924aca03c716ec29cc90e0e1d87d7861851ef71
'2011-12-30T06:53:36-05:00'
describe
'3369444' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARG' 'sip-files00043.tif'
ab5574cff3092ca4840413d1adfca8c7
91aa8887e3110e9bdfb87979e7a88015bbca3b19
describe
'3284' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARH' 'sip-files00043.txt'
079cb28dbe905b554a0437331885f6f1
b6c41feefdf0b6e4a4e426f4e69f8d090edef3fb
'2011-12-30T06:53:42-05:00'
describe
'26574' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARI' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
207b221f53c334ffdde8f524bd7770ab
1ed500fafeadd6d97603ac0737043b22040c2d5c
'2011-12-30T06:51:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARJ' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
471a0d0bdaf3b4466895aff5d14d6096
0da04c34112e199d614eb638e4d21829d3c9c6d6
'2011-12-30T06:49:39-05:00'
describe
'223321' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARK' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
760c2d735299c811dde0f2a88023ec14
4cbdbb594cdc70207154f8a95385b0e0c8046012
'2011-12-30T06:53:56-05:00'
describe
'77801' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARL' 'sip-files00044.pro'
32ad4e94d9a3bd30943c4f578cbb4e79
38c59abb632878164c9fd550336f4b0934da1c9c
describe
'76275' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARM' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
5ae41cadefd04ce083e56b6dc38da3e2
269c3ed28faac350b3d46117f683b638d183c428
describe
'3369512' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARN' 'sip-files00044.tif'
f8685df882093e4439e92fe1e0edf370
6f3c69d3dcdbc82e061be3ab15d018506311ae75
'2011-12-30T06:47:38-05:00'
describe
'3231' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARO' 'sip-files00044.txt'
3bb461f14f29920546a546f94b958114
2a6f0f419d3d0084141f06044e089c8e2e7b7b64
'2011-12-30T06:52:58-05:00'
describe
'27038' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARP' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
e30689fbb5f6410b19f2f9584549f013
65eae1abb545cd690b64506b5cca0e89e6d254e1
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARQ' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
0830c69147e324011c84e2ad39d23268
70e639138e793a4be736dc2d661e8f8839ddac72
describe
'230627' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARR' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
186ffcd3577e4a36c3bebdd3cbb49b86
81525c7d6ca99cca78fc19ff33df16aad616c8b7
describe
'76256' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARS' 'sip-files00045.pro'
5a715743a34f6b8d0abbe67b51551d91
74decd1fff9f000babb2c4d8fbc5c9c067f1d132
describe
'77262' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAART' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
98b596081d4e91f6221b4f12179db65c
f34bd0b2a4e514bb203a8c6fdc63a69fb828a97f
'2011-12-30T06:50:35-05:00'
describe
'3369768' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARU' 'sip-files00045.tif'
c83627231e831db77175011dacda5d2e
90e2df23e0b15ebe74b883da34a237f6147e76d8
describe
'3162' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARV' 'sip-files00045.txt'
8f692d01e48ed82bac10110e2eb89110
6a4cc57f3bae51ce89f2bc54e7d16b2255dbb47a
describe
'27768' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARW' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
c2edb91c98227267e9fb462bddf2b0e3
adcb1de718415c7a97017f6b55fec6c3181c6049
describe
'389243' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARX' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
4de3e23d12e9c057b35d61d2c2461a9a
6cade93d8d710fd3c2d4cc457af8306a11b0efb9
describe
'85143' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARY' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
a216f2750f7bb8432c64c2314afa5a97
1dc9860ec65b8d174ca6fd6e14a408ea3d0758a1
describe
'1319' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAARZ' 'sip-files00046.pro'
004a3b607fff4f179e477a98d4c291e1
f256c1fa8357f16a1f0eecd799a136ca50e2dd9f
describe
'32624' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASA' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
202f4c53c6006305cbc66ff69cb2a102
1f1417baf41f10f705ba4d0f065c75caba795049
'2011-12-30T06:51:08-05:00'
describe
'9355816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASB' 'sip-files00046.tif'
2086bb7db23a37d75906127039eba9e9
c43f43943eca45ae6ea05f9f8a70f2afed602cc0
describe
'60' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASC' 'sip-files00046.txt'
a510526f6fe3158cce85c5d743cbaf05
8e14f735e2f664f46481c8dcdeb0f99f3d96e2b9
describe
'18782' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASD' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
2601301acc17f5eca2f4bf303bdc209d
325baeced49670a080d29a912c1545267a37045f
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASE' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
389b543faead62b29f9568ab0da0e879
89460da4266c6721dd2223ada02da3a81c91709c
'2011-12-30T06:48:18-05:00'
describe
'236053' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASF' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
34e872554e079c3cd636aa705127d43e
cad2ee6a1a0d62d3ea60a94cc7553a8c4a086dce
describe
'76393' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASG' 'sip-files00047.pro'
aa59c3c90d2f177a030f61ef8aeed685
8b0d358b8021d55f5316c9e32dd09f59b36a7d73
describe
'79776' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASH' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
3f55ab595d102cfbb8391694f134d0c8
f3394706ddd058db9a0330220222bfd8381cdda2
describe
'3370320' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASI' 'sip-files00047.tif'
35b9748be590cb0045e703bc21c35a83
fb33ba5a36d742bc1ca224d9d44f26125d78890a
'2011-12-30T06:53:01-05:00'
describe
'3165' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASJ' 'sip-files00047.txt'
92ba791b6357e29ebf1d653fc3823560
1fb9dceb24ccac0e0a16a1d0f8077b46c5d582bb
'2011-12-30T06:49:58-05:00'
describe
'28812' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASK' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
7fc70dda146125914c17531263290c3a
d32e029f531cf7d8c0ab45ba9a45f86b70226680
describe
'419439' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASL' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
2f9d660420724aa60abdc80bf18e8366
230ebf102be2d208576ac918f4b4e672ad5ba06f
'2011-12-30T06:55:06-05:00'
describe
'214750' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASM' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
c57b795072c6b66247779b581adc6d2a
7c27b1b8b4ff61a0cb3d2a29488831da709a9ed8
describe
'74314' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASN' 'sip-files00048.pro'
175a65d0384cf62c1dec7d5461228919
01c7eedd1d99e9077518c061f19edd75e1b94b14
'2011-12-30T06:51:49-05:00'
describe
'73089' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASO' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
de36aa5e37a94284e2ffd7f880bd8ff4
968dc0a3c33b8568fd1d6438ce6bebf9301792f2
'2011-12-30T06:52:56-05:00'
describe
'3369356' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASP' 'sip-files00048.tif'
629eafea8c42cf60dd881fc01d85da43
b85376b8c1d38bfde5674c3d967dcc22c93fe460
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASQ' 'sip-files00048.txt'
bf3afa8b2d8a252dd6ba5fed7b094407
5e4f56472ef282fcaaa4ec128ad2a6caa7a76acb
'2011-12-30T06:49:02-05:00'
describe
'25945' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASR' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
d2e9ac36bce09b19ffbeeb49e5f6e514
48334663c2d6c17baadb32bd7e8dfd972dec65f4
'2011-12-30T06:47:43-05:00'
describe
'419403' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASS' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
94a8741fbc58f59b3ad9ded260bdf9b2
c7a8091be47268b66f46289af1dc1acea5bb6ae5
describe
'222357' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAST' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
61384c5bedc1dcc5a38c0501452b6732
4a4839faf753be89a4e5bd61c3340c0384edc1a7
describe
'78196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASU' 'sip-files00049.pro'
9e975e1ecd0e2ce3a64599a7689aaa57
b8dd02e89f09ebfcb6d29c027d83fb330217f2d6
describe
'73901' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASV' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
4ddbfd136eb00b7e9f6a784eb17e4f54
b6aa475bee3c8d53b5d2998c7d93192ad1b80932
describe
'3369436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASW' 'sip-files00049.tif'
7623b4c222eb78dfa63cf825476812e5
eaa543f4d5c7f3ad6615154c4d1eb51365d57580
'2011-12-30T06:53:39-05:00'
describe
'3215' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASX' 'sip-files00049.txt'
06ee6724b32eb0aa060750c7a41116e3
a2ead524a3eae5bd96058d7dc76b053deead6b72
describe
'26699' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASY' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
4a917053f50b6f49a1587c642c5af2e8
6d5b1d3e6f6ad75deb521a9b0398d2f91d24b65e
'2011-12-30T06:50:20-05:00'
describe
'316768' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAASZ' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
f147547bb0fe366561bc696356d8310d
7602efac5542120e6b7dc95397da766a0ec24d63
'2011-12-30T06:48:59-05:00'
describe
'68147' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATA' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
f718484a94f74a06995b488b11ed6dc3
439af1d74457809a56d8c6b425e66a8508497ef3
describe
'20215' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATB' 'sip-files00050.pro'
661ca2412b3d181e50e91b9a87c4174c
0ed2c1f7f1d8e2b5a34138b7690ed092502e71d4
'2011-12-30T06:54:21-05:00'
describe
'27404' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATC' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
e72ea044aeaf7bf1d16932e0fe93ce1c
7562e90a0e125c275a18e8963acc4d5dd18ee172
'2011-12-30T06:47:42-05:00'
describe
'3365036' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATD' 'sip-files00050.tif'
b2cd00d6ebec606f4d8c148570c7bb3e
89f46a1ddcc3e62b1c6eb23d3a711da6e60a4730
'2011-12-30T06:50:55-05:00'
describe
'845' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATE' 'sip-files00050.txt'
1924f06dc411d429ef17fd4b65cef73a
5faeb12273441287ad2755d5d0733363ab440175
'2011-12-30T06:47:50-05:00'
describe
'13816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATF' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
cc678e833148644e1793be7bf35ecd99
4bca1bb7458c1bde23715da2d3f6db7e3547e8b2
'2011-12-30T06:51:59-05:00'
describe
'419406' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATG' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
99a9c7dc1b31e071b25cb16dc8b21cf3
3e0b6d8e0df5d351d9a836d458fc47c8d9511f9e
'2011-12-30T06:52:03-05:00'
describe
'163384' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATH' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
0f9bc2960c50e7c5535b63fcd4c566b1
9e27017aa4cf32e3dc01aebc2b1a76dd125c1c4b
'2011-12-30T06:50:30-05:00'
describe
'55963' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATI' 'sip-files00051.pro'
0a874ae18af287f6dbd6013e84b5afdf
569688e40ff00feadec2375ae2d3cb94b7375bcb
'2011-12-30T06:54:11-05:00'
describe
'56521' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATJ' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
0e5e2b28c256bd5bfee28488ba93e3d1
8bf6fac683ccaebca3e0c2c7f899a5725fd5b525
describe
'3367820' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATK' 'sip-files00051.tif'
3cbabdb46d6dfee7fc538a769d69b354
35990b285197b4831d9860b53266d7b9a59e1d29
'2011-12-30T06:49:21-05:00'
describe
'2326' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATL' 'sip-files00051.txt'
2d4d6df63c7e46eccf4c75d911964220
15ad8535770d9a1177c32718ece22b17cb389d62
describe
'21733' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATM' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
ceb3bd2a88e64c874408fc24790bd2e5
c1e451420f2e8267acc9d83475a0a29238ed42f8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATN' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
1b0823f023f8a34816fec23f1f0de40b
f321acf3fa243875537df9da2fcc2ee0c28910b1
'2011-12-30T06:51:24-05:00'
describe
'223398' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATO' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
72d1fabc9d1911408ec9bd7e01e4f6d8
a61c15b2b2e1b589cc83727264b84ec87faa90f9
describe
'80149' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATP' 'sip-files00052.pro'
8eb5779456fd260c6751ed1c2bfa689d
756813c7a614510b798638e81def17e5696fe52f
'2011-12-30T06:54:28-05:00'
describe
'74637' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATQ' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
5571ab92f1d69fdb3907992e37200fda
ae1c90451c0d4a362db71f0545577c5e5bc69465
describe
'3369504' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATR' 'sip-files00052.tif'
b50924e0a336a2d76f9c04a71d157135
cf0e2311a611c09de17bad14d86bb3a12e7be05a
describe
'3289' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATS' 'sip-files00052.txt'
57fa817d9c4c4c1f5d6f92a94c00e4e2
b4a89cf9b5ac1cbaa35bc2b29df9025361cbbda2
describe
'26591' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATT' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
31ad84bbbb4ea1581c70f42a4b41a79f
12e946bfa7093b7b63606a1fe0c9444d1784b428
describe
'419431' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATU' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
f41282397f8e790ddea558563f4bf297
f22dd7a6a8d0681990b94fe7bd5de39365328af7
describe
'226355' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATV' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
56b00bdcdcfad67d79e6d0652d6c9ede
2258a677532c00454390af82cd8e81aaab27ebb9
describe
'81230' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATW' 'sip-files00053.pro'
f33e28409fe818f71470761e487b3774
4d05c169679c8b2048bf7bdc03571f3ff8081c5e
'2011-12-30T06:55:18-05:00'
describe
'75152' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATX' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
b5d31c6ae13ec0b501a452915f121a23
a57beeff0c86ed19d92cce971d6e1701a290676a
'2011-12-30T06:51:33-05:00'
describe
'3369424' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATY' 'sip-files00053.tif'
56072e309ee4d2a264bfc41e0d01aeda
719d6f8263f8fff08b5a9612229491a60862c9fa
'2011-12-30T06:49:46-05:00'
describe
'3321' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAATZ' 'sip-files00053.txt'
ece7c95144970741c9495ca8405e5250
fc19bdefe130e737b7d68bae5fbd50646b5f153d
'2011-12-30T06:50:58-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'26766' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUA' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
4768bc92020c363a2c1856c8c122d63a
6485d6a68bbd8524b15545d7126f2a0791f93527
'2011-12-30T06:54:45-05:00'
describe
'419452' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUB' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
82b45bd20cb47f4087421c1c32462230
bfbfef372a5a68456564194a048dc57df5ff3cc0
'2011-12-30T06:50:09-05:00'
describe
'226819' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUC' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
0017535a13d3ad711f3ccf89c299eba8
e9ea7b88e5e67e38f3817720f86f7797ce2c90b3
describe
'77724' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUD' 'sip-files00054.pro'
3b71ae446cdbf62021beea2850ae3c1f
b2105795c6e791689d62767e2b37751962e8a0e8
'2011-12-30T06:54:40-05:00'
describe
'75056' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUE' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
a119d2297c7ae0f47cb3db1b2437714b
e54731dea452fb30535f0095dd74a127de9065e2
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUF' 'sip-files00054.tif'
069c51a9436742ffa68c0ee35070c795
531601d8aed0be1218c10c13c5e3b1e91b1564cf
'2011-12-30T06:54:35-05:00'
describe
'3196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUG' 'sip-files00054.txt'
e0566e4b175bfa98519dbba87b15776c
d6c8c8845e0db139e3db7c84311ffc76838ea949
'2011-12-30T06:53:38-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'26893' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUH' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
3ec818763e22bc256510ff2d9732222a
4365f855e1685e6f853cdffd132cf8f62cfd5aea
'2011-12-30T06:52:55-05:00'
describe
'410683' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUI' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
99b3852f14e295521f4548cfbbea5629
3bba2b03756c28d2b7af58bfae5b35058de68fc6
describe
'81303' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUJ' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
0ed88ed745c3a7ef663288915c5a5103
f53d6d625e32c2da72422b76f79f6cef2408b21e
'2011-12-30T06:55:12-05:00'
describe
'2145' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUK' 'sip-files00055.pro'
996c614cdb77463e090838749eeddd22
a462368d97e77c9afb88f2e094fdddb5ef2bb314
'2011-12-30T06:49:41-05:00'
describe
'29545' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUL' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
dccd088b1f92279f6bc1620f940f84b9
523baf252a90b0ad3cfe9ed8d6b7b88fd924fb18
describe
'9867752' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUM' 'sip-files00055.tif'
306025f3f27d104763ee86e97c04f846
3dbfa9893eea118a7d2cd0d81daf04a76ad315a8
'2011-12-30T06:50:52-05:00'
describe
'146' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUN' 'sip-files00055.txt'
63c550d89c3591802d3d74d60163d17a
95badec7dc0d22029896ab169bd4b21c836bbfec
describe
Invalid character
'17315' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUO' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
f5a30aa45040af723732ecf9752d299c
850115c9730d981a3b509ab6fb1a25497d257b52
describe
'419440' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUP' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
2975cc7af019dc2af5090727e6d0ec65
986168eeb6e1774922066df358933f76569262ec
'2011-12-30T06:50:54-05:00'
describe
'221517' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUQ' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
78f0a81bb54f6fd173067edc16d4e2d9
77af1cde3aa70c707bafe7dab3cea663682c7cc1
'2011-12-30T06:50:08-05:00'
describe
'73472' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUR' 'sip-files00056.pro'
d7739e2027c84855c26afd92bd347f37
65ab414cc234915045891856423297b059675bbb
'2011-12-30T06:54:16-05:00'
describe
'76663' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUS' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
95b17d828c78f7e27e6997aa375b9241
1b7921c51a586eb353228247d9f4560d7770c989
describe
'3369796' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUT' 'sip-files00056.tif'
4a73666e0385296208288811ca5a132c
890945faf1aa2601ba7be858ac292aa1f9d6cf5c
describe
'3036' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUU' 'sip-files00056.txt'
ccb0c0656c1a3e39c4fa0bfd0e609a62
a6ae11654bc0b454f6d561a2351208bc5309e693
describe
'27831' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUV' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
bca77b97fd6820b06e05268c16433a08
f65909a0d51568d7809aea888bf4f3e30acbd44c
describe
'419457' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUW' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
c955d5eac77805fad9631005f69bd6e2
b20007b3ada55b9dfdbdaeeef89539d581e72b80
'2011-12-30T06:54:02-05:00'
describe
'222659' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUX' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
60b3f9ae2c7d9f30526cb7c45a580207
acf4ef27b4f949766822f220a66df4134bc80a5c
'2011-12-30T06:49:52-05:00'
describe
'78838' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUY' 'sip-files00057.pro'
3d43366cb0ddb1f4ddd766dc8ed944be
388a0b2fc701b6ca63c2d89c932b220dc4280d88
describe
'74849' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAUZ' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
7619adc3f81f4d194ba61b6da4946678
a8e7b43f035cee4d015eaa8b3f678275b9575903
describe
'3369488' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVA' 'sip-files00057.tif'
742d36cfd58847af41ec1c4715ee556e
07844f5dab78581835966b33baf1b8f15f585fad
describe
'3233' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVB' 'sip-files00057.txt'
4e765ab4df09b1b7c430adbd714b0e02
efe66b734e91d8e32ed96b1e0901b3fcb8c09035
describe
'26626' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVC' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
d79d7b89e7667f551435a0db7a92b0a4
db1481485f75effbed6adc215d802494e68f8fbb
describe
'419450' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVD' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
6830f30fc053c09317b496152be28cbd
b02ef863e7255777527cfb7e01de4c51be516130
describe
'213609' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVE' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
f8d3a1fbb7aaf413d49e756105e613f4
8741a5a3ea97d78616f887730f980a949e093730
describe
'76059' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVF' 'sip-files00058.pro'
5aaead45d238e836f4b03ed7845a466c
2c0bbe573fff8b73f4a4181a9017ba3e21a531ce
describe
'73260' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVG' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
4852fa67a9eeb64fd8485f01862203d4
872ac03d7c046f2face6c103751d63f749b6d0b3
'2011-12-30T06:50:12-05:00'
describe
'3369312' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVH' 'sip-files00058.tif'
0339544c8b0395cfa25aac333a9dc457
183d462184b7d2c6461b62bc8edf23bbd68e61ce
'2011-12-30T06:53:15-05:00'
describe
'3116' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVI' 'sip-files00058.txt'
1a739d3c024d8072fc642771dc57f116
512e0ba95ca468ee538fb1e6b4b54279adf13414
describe
'26405' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVJ' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
2d19ff950ebd3a9c3cdf667a5bd46db3
c38422d63f21196a6f77dd2c9f549beba357b61c
describe
'419416' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVK' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
39bab26601bf5d3d23c03ce924389776
f5a65c601eb2718d213b880068ec2af392875c7d
describe
'233833' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVL' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
23d15ad755242b6c2e52070656874889
fcd7db1af03170b20a1fa416454912cdce18ec53
describe
'79833' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVM' 'sip-files00059.pro'
d763a4e8ffbb9815198498e1b527ee86
4590261589c3250975c40622b4567a6405570209
'2011-12-30T06:52:43-05:00'
describe
'76219' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVN' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
2f04ac5e5624bb824973f439032c56a4
93e0b011b1b0749490c744db06fdba676b43f215
describe
'3369660' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVO' 'sip-files00059.tif'
ab9d9c8c58d24f43489efd3569d796bc
8dde7de19f82c6964509d6327f7cad10dc16d92b
describe
'3297' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVP' 'sip-files00059.txt'
3cf352f28c899f0219e3594cbc2006cc
ef37f193464ebfcb69f1ea195880f8989750b89e
describe
'27208' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVQ' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
d012e511b71df65641064796a1c06261
60ba55f44bb59fce6be89a4ccf6a3e8cb5557160
describe
'414295' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVR' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
21a3054548c1dc14b6a6cf3b9228a4c5
1abc7c46da32f04fe89c6b6a0af89e8ff9f797cf
describe
'159669' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVS' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
6c52b8ed05e3a2424cb2233480506fc3
e2e67179a4386270dc159f062820a765b38db9b6
describe
'1534' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVT' 'sip-files00060.pro'
3dcf22b274ff24a1d2ef16da0adddfdd
f1ee3a02e77288bcff1ccb07a2bb2ca161dc8d29
'2011-12-30T06:52:31-05:00'
describe
'50148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVU' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
c0a07af6e2eeaa77051eee1f39278092
7012734df76d3a960b8243799e1eb0f2ef34e767
'2011-12-30T06:52:28-05:00'
describe
'9959712' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVV' 'sip-files00060.tif'
564b7a1cea4da156b39086994734dda5
d51ffc7f6356253f1c2a8a3927dc6da0938497c2
'2011-12-30T06:52:35-05:00'
describe
'167' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVW' 'sip-files00060.txt'
effbb167ac8617bb6c88613389f3007b
60fce0ae60bee8cd0baab04f069ff611ad3817b2
describe
Invalid character
'22435' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVX' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
00bab01a3918c0c4f2e0f9743cdb82ff
ef66cdec9446cead440b8190ebf1c45f2954b005
'2011-12-30T06:49:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVY' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
efdc58988dcc1e4419de1c5dc190afe0
29a99206ce6088295a79bdabe4820f57a76076ef
'2011-12-30T06:54:41-05:00'
describe
'240183' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAVZ' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
71a6ac60653ec1234f7f41e7ed0a48f4
4df3e73582703f8c00780299ecb5396087c688da
'2011-12-30T06:54:14-05:00'
describe
'81853' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWA' 'sip-files00061.pro'
411de33e5fc627902619d9749f21706a
38ce773fc7b06b186f7bd3683bd5d2a163d5945d
describe
'78668' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWB' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
d11c0ac3925c6e5b4f9601f54b357b81
c7ac44193943a788df26fa77557b4418e3a11dbe
describe
'3369984' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWC' 'sip-files00061.tif'
329639242fa88c5d587df7bf5fda08ed
21abe9b0ee45645a903580500cf35c10569a4b7d
describe
'3380' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWD' 'sip-files00061.txt'
b5efc945b7f36f2e99a090f1ea9c3afa
48d8b4ec566631af0f0a671169dda6afbaa5f94b
describe
'28177' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWE' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
3fe3abeea485fe819c48fd47f36d3f29
71f2535729050ec253ffda5f4236f2a0cdb954a1
'2011-12-30T06:52:20-05:00'
describe
'419419' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWF' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
2027b40786ffbf78d85053f3cd95d6cd
d5fb96d78e56a900c7d7c0e292f8bd0a56c23856
describe
'219878' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWG' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
d97dede5d22bff9555ca65af94e00c2b
87b059201be9301dfdbefdac9468b1a09764dea9
'2011-12-30T06:51:50-05:00'
describe
'78013' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWH' 'sip-files00062.pro'
fc030db982edd35503ba3bd9f04eee6a
56c6efa6dfd1a9999afdce7ddf16bb694ffa6d9e
'2011-12-30T06:50:14-05:00'
describe
'74609' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWI' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
87b877bccbc04afb2fbfb05f04ce1d0d
fc1f1f430a48d529eb1ba36f8c0d5df95164c4c2
describe
'3369440' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWJ' 'sip-files00062.tif'
c6fddada7df512de29c05561d5deffb7
2d6f13e261578affde5f8b51aca87fdf7058f851
describe
'3200' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWK' 'sip-files00062.txt'
190397248edc0c18fb550635fd601ab4
ef84b7c156a8abf2ab2e7a77bcbff7dced3a6ba2
describe
'26735' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWL' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
d09c5509d915029743b0dd50a5491500
393db28322b3678070a3cb9d1b54c915dc6cfb83
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWM' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
6bdd4affd53464bbe760a8f001427643
97fb2f9492f291a3f142a179eaef7b99a9784432
'2011-12-30T06:48:56-05:00'
describe
'227152' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWN' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
20dafbfea7481746ba3da9edf77597da
c390f3f22bacff1a8421d9761519817988cac1a2
'2011-12-30T06:54:49-05:00'
describe
'79310' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWO' 'sip-files00063.pro'
55f6f6904935bd5b273bef46a7081d68
8bfbde019a51e4fa80b606b263859fcfb8253ff2
'2011-12-30T06:48:39-05:00'
describe
'76469' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWP' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
961af323196cf87bbd39a1e558283df2
359503450d42e232cd9a6b3b14a5ffba3813395a
'2011-12-30T06:48:28-05:00'
describe
'3369596' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWQ' 'sip-files00063.tif'
6f5ce8e9a65021f8fd821f61be4f1a15
78a79b5c656525b4b6962149c44658714b234b93
describe
'3258' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWR' 'sip-files00063.txt'
af40b0ff159a59c6cefe835523a29d80
9547210b71a6c99f51facc2350209a87068e9bfc
describe
'27136' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWS' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
1ee7cffe458f6ebde342ac25632f766b
b0146314014ceec886c03f0dee764c55019538b3
describe
'419444' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWT' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
6f39fde6a034ba9c2506a0cef1f285c2
8b74ac946f650ee4c60f61b57df932057725a1b0
describe
'232916' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWU' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
fa8c81abf4e8d06901db90b7dedae8cb
1deab3dede8c840c2a11f6c75fa37eadb188dd46
describe
'79933' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWV' 'sip-files00064.pro'
24335df6dc8cc0c1017f07abb08dc663
64a07572f654809ecd7245c3918d6b75d0c7cc9e
'2011-12-30T06:53:17-05:00'
describe
'77796' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWW' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
65905493d6cf8e40e5cc0c45f81c947b
f7b8e27b2a039a69c23100094fba17724425b4f7
describe
'3369912' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWX' 'sip-files00064.tif'
0d2eb77fa10d540ff7eda93c73f2e5b7
5ae405a9d175ed61bf058aa760c32fa7b364ba70
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWY' 'sip-files00064.txt'
c5cb4a9712005cd7bdfc7d23edfe2f8c
170c10942ae883312c78af1bd1cbbad8d2e4aa71
'2011-12-30T06:52:21-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'27576' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAWZ' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
0349dd76caf7c8ddbcce7d6ea6a85725
7b4e0e39f5294c4ef3f33a33a0b38c90ae0773ca
'2011-12-30T06:52:16-05:00'
describe
'393180' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXA' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
5930ab77ea96fa090c4eac02cd5e9f21
789eba012dbe20a46bac203a5abea503eca040e5
describe
'84895' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXB' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
aa7e0468218b22d0debe61cc29f18a63
6fc9c91fd218a4ecf2621a2221b7cfb1ebb471d2
describe
'1907' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXC' 'sip-files00065.pro'
2698ae5a228aa4978c2f0961c18e68e3
d1c445dfbbaa56b8942d22287762468e58e2564a
describe
'33645' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXD' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
c78d0f4aa526077767a4195881674782
ac743f48960556e7e8e32dec6803b96798658bcf
'2011-12-30T06:50:42-05:00'
describe
'9449652' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXE' 'sip-files00065.tif'
51b0b0c1a7cb5cff5128a6505e03a623
e1e0e28d719def9b12c48b4498e2556100d629e7
describe
'84' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXF' 'sip-files00065.txt'
d69e785ca335ef23df3994e26c817385
3c45b937835c313722464a1ddaa7e9ef123183a0
'2011-12-30T06:48:02-05:00'
describe
'19196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXG' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
f38aa85f95a900e36057f8cb3a87a5f7
165bdb9a074d2517bd9db2b9e0ccce3c71c2db44
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXH' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
f6e3b3f64f7eb51cff77d423464f45ab
ab5bccc367cf92e42e51b611358cadfba190bce5
'2011-12-30T06:53:59-05:00'
describe
'228679' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXI' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
d3f7824bb6ae97a0d03664b7525a2652
a9d0736068580df90a77e6bb9cae85a14eaf0337
describe
'77343' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXJ' 'sip-files00066.pro'
0fcc8e7e094411ddc550e76dcda2aa9e
c0e6bee8234e6faf391276b00497024855a6eefb
'2011-12-30T06:54:01-05:00'
describe
'77560' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXK' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
f7bdffb4595f45abaf393bb4d94bcbeb
ae4a768a4a10dd723f4911e99000eb0ef59d4c0b
'2011-12-30T06:52:50-05:00'
describe
'3369876' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXL' 'sip-files00066.tif'
e679f8dfa8b360069abcb10236870238
4e232835f6b3fc216b639641ded6a4dec0316d72
describe
'3195' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXM' 'sip-files00066.txt'
1eb291e30437f48dd7143391819e491b
185d20100adc1f0448b3bb52e686ba23e41325d6
describe
'27777' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXN' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
00217923a55016493c55406e900bc7e6
d4758762078c0642336210372d2a9bb3e7adda0c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXO' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
59d7275d2c3e2686975cfff832140e85
91b0bf6e68d20b7942aea0206e78b9318e13ce11
describe
'205178' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXP' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
912df54e7a1173f24621818225610b6c
20dd0d198e87261790ddd8723a4c903b378380d6
describe
'71463' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXQ' 'sip-files00067.pro'
d010c9e63bf66709049629ba67f102e1
8cf600054a1d42b4c8c4e2b75a121b82a1617b3f
describe
'70515' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXR' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
202d8bac3e29e8690d5a8e9af61998ec
3ab493e51840f7431ddb5aa869b9de76203f58bb
describe
'3369144' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXS' 'sip-files00067.tif'
f701fb0e3fc5aabc2fcd17c705ad7002
612d5b3c50d47c401a888a11a3373abb1d691ddc
describe
'2979' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXT' 'sip-files00067.txt'
434643322b1a787de59165a331396d98
e641488735e87bcf5e9333cfd800ba09a8a10643
'2011-12-30T06:54:38-05:00'
describe
'26031' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXU' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
d13da1925922c075aa27b26fb2d1d2b3
603ac228f7c18092c883e818eef23d115e687634
'2011-12-30T06:51:22-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXV' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
98b916ef119a85da7fdbf0801a668299
86bff43715c0027e274ec63aee651814827cca17
describe
'226095' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXW' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
3c79945f400863c2d6168dfbe53fd8f9
099146fbeb22606b894e44d4f307b64d77ee11b5
describe
'79863' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXX' 'sip-files00068.pro'
619d9230fdd845ff5e69949fea42403c
02012231a835dc3d25353cf5d66612d19443c17c
describe
'75835' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXY' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
09dd4a203b2a29cbbf8c4ffae3c1ae8b
fd7a46f0d6c4b1cd3d450c7f4b551cf0bcac6dcf
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAXZ' 'sip-files00068.tif'
31e5a6bf149def24409df9e0aebde783
c3686a8e79efe046758698c0d7e0158914e3ef79
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYA' 'sip-files00068.txt'
75b811f220cfdb1905474412f9535415
dcb17b039e10bbae9873ea85d21ac9be4d120dd4
describe
'26922' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYB' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
a97a899177bd2b11a9dc77468d95f505
717e96fa6e34d188e0793428de4f9e96b3d7bf9c
describe
'419456' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYC' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
f37f952344ef29d4af428825bfccd5d4
fe87ebd47234e4204c2054af578b9fa96c1b89f4
describe
'221962' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYD' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
716f2f47a335d0f85125818d782650f2
53f79f6fb94426684447657f63f9d85f723c0213
'2011-12-30T06:50:18-05:00'
describe
'81062' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYE' 'sip-files00069.pro'
57058deac30269e6c1d5e34619d66c7d
e9315ea4ea140b83899fff98b562218400a99ca0
describe
'73641' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYF' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
32de8de96926f1b255fdd52a6f966bbe
e31bddc3ffada4778d73218258f519c4b353c35b
describe
'3369164' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYG' 'sip-files00069.tif'
e318e160ee737b02ae8edc5a7e5ce267
f7d395fa264a64070029291fa65564b1b98836cc
'2011-12-30T06:53:09-05:00'
describe
'3323' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYH' 'sip-files00069.txt'
d97d7454563725bd0f0b1bc0efacef95
214e26f29eabc36971a50492cde4eef07f31a278
describe
'25900' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYI' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
87352600b6e5af7d73e947c3579945d9
0b09cdefacde339a5d2e68c60218a1e8888b860e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYJ' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
abc01314b823f88b094dc2ca9982caa8
7710fc3cfcae7c8f76e36e7e92325e6c0acfb0cd
describe
'215608' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYK' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
d0d0b4d9ee6aa1fb087f1a89d9d26e23
d22b0bd6cf58fddb7e30fda9c973f6264fbd88b6
describe
'77393' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYL' 'sip-files00070.pro'
da2eae3560d5343cc9e8e0c3028c2021
4827f83463388bff737ad9cc727ca0a1ab994244
describe
'72376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYM' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
8eb5b8355c55f3f8e5018a6addd3ba46
864abe73a320fee756b2ebff0eb69efcdd6d5e00
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYN' 'sip-files00070.tif'
c0a8c8632472aea27995c7f56a46dc42
29400f10de8d1d5eba9320d78e0dc2554e96d652
describe
'3208' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYO' 'sip-files00070.txt'
4a7aef743325556bf7ef88544d94f2a6
318cdb97f136b2649ae94c8137ebcd8598345f2f
'2011-12-30T06:54:54-05:00'
describe
'26327' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYP' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
da91474f995d21737b7d5f5255da6a59
a655727907d7dc7a49d4f7de28bc2d6630fff9c4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYQ' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
8ec65ada5757e188edf6b04432c9e8a1
765a648f702b3500589afc445141482b1b2ff80f
'2011-12-30T06:49:09-05:00'
describe
'223460' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYR' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
0f6ad9f553ab98e364bb0247133fd7c2
31f9e85613afe4ef65e13faebe29b467ce67e59b
'2011-12-30T06:52:39-05:00'
describe
'78578' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYS' 'sip-files00071.pro'
6ec8ad8627ef22f0d7a509f5b5f19e89
e68fd8b066426b1766fd7e6f5305bcce1165effb
describe
'74489' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYT' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
5a3a325a325732eb564d32ca89e8075d
b8ab731b199a3c12d1e65fb066965988a408b676
'2011-12-30T06:52:14-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYU' 'sip-files00071.tif'
9a42916b8f376a81982dde1950ef0c74
2fab6de84ff1fed4be432cbc55ca2a46216ffde7
describe
'3239' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYV' 'sip-files00071.txt'
6f9ff7eea1fd1fc6b32241ded740e0f2
6bbe9a3d59131371144bfca2db31e545e3ca8605
'2011-12-30T06:52:52-05:00'
describe
'26507' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYW' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
84f95b7ef49f1bb8c4570ad283491e14
73cd4f14d992e78c82d1ea53ebe4248896c7d5de
'2011-12-30T06:52:19-05:00'
describe
'419435' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYX' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
5965d423efef90dbf67dd5a59d71457b
e18f3dd5fd1fda860878e049741fcbb1f7ac044d
describe
'225942' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYY' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
eca74379a1bae4881c46567238e92abb
75a44203b04e4ef6d6dd454232df0a90574bebd7
describe
'80192' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAYZ' 'sip-files00072.pro'
f1a85044c2d26752de52ca1345e03730
c8badd0f94dec68c02364d434c25a011a74779f6
describe
'75429' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZA' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
0a42f789cba9abe7cc28659db215bd76
9b01b494bd67d1eec74b02637091b86b898858d7
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZB' 'sip-files00072.tif'
e18344ecbc2ca4b8fb83626f5dc4ec16
3ebd60a971b859d16551bc5ad23e7488c4e0397b
'2011-12-30T06:52:17-05:00'
describe
'3298' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZC' 'sip-files00072.txt'
48b089e9a9153fe3f9ba47ae8c490d6a
ff3cea77ce382442a478405953447dad114dd25c
'2011-12-30T06:54:30-05:00'
describe
'26649' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZD' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
06659bcba196d8dd63ed32929588c983
c3bcac4fd54debbee948be6e70c243c2da78b9f1
'2011-12-30T06:53:43-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZE' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
521475214b49301a9f7f0348d1539d9c
31ae6a73fb691ca279a56aacaa2d86ecfbfc23eb
describe
'223539' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZF' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
48c0ef861d7da3c66986ed0210c3d850
d06e467b54ee675e2daa6356b078a0a47c14f5c6
'2011-12-30T06:54:34-05:00'
describe
'76837' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZG' 'sip-files00073.pro'
fa2e4effb26f24b608eb80745cf79cf6
b75564b618ac5466e5485160b9fc6109eae305d7
describe
'74225' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZH' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
4743cb8c5243b4824d1891a62fa12f5d
f4e97fc469a6179cb6cc8ae6acabd05dff061904
'2011-12-30T06:49:27-05:00'
describe
'3369476' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZI' 'sip-files00073.tif'
ef94b43407ba664ab5f54ab6492b5d85
d6475456003d40711f3e6a2536d51fdd5cebdc40
'2011-12-30T06:54:03-05:00'
describe
'3173' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZJ' 'sip-files00073.txt'
91bab8e948c15ae58352059911f3c7db
d0718a1e76d60241b41ead6a63ff23521bf3d60b
describe
'27012' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZK' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
2064fc1ecaf0513d5bc8366453c3bdc7
786e501a120da5300e7d6cc105821027c4a7afbb
describe
'408024' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZL' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
822c8d127de51a05445ccfa6ce0cd2a3
51af6630c9a36dd8922c2ac8c4ea30f2b1e9fee1
'2011-12-30T06:55:13-05:00'
describe
'90830' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZM' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
bb3e3cd086cfc5a5a8e3ecb41b9f844b
2aea1c7466357407bd1d1a0f196d7309cf62a9a8
describe
'816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZN' 'sip-files00074.pro'
7a9fe33d6c4b74610dc53e35721500cb
83474b2ba485b7a07f49454c127f1ad3c82fb85b
describe
'33853' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZO' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
c5fefa650f3cd01d5ba07aa4048c9e5a
f59f24d5de3bf2d072286dd70ce353369f6d9f78
'2011-12-30T06:52:46-05:00'
describe
'9804484' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZP' 'sip-files00074.tif'
3a20715ccf7c786b3d8bbc12da455770
2386afe36b0e53475087bfc5a6d532d4ea7b6614
describe
'109' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZQ' 'sip-files00074.txt'
3d412dfc117643d089b3c4d79079415b
0abd8b98b15a6ba243adbc887a68d7d77486879d
describe
'18882' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZR' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
aa9e77fabb397326e278bffa49212624
41936a5c3177f1fba0c56231b4ea7db51c126f10
'2011-12-30T06:48:53-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZS' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
d22afd5285429319a5367191dfd0d8b2
820612d38abbcf65d58ae61033e02bec5c5acf51
'2011-12-30T06:48:19-05:00'
describe
'240526' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZT' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
40afac131cc46a0b84efaad308a9f95c
a5e1dcab76238efcaa3edddb0488b2ec84eedcd2
describe
'81661' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZU' 'sip-files00075.pro'
3a90183e198b3544a1c97820a7477ed9
cdee43f0b979132cb7eb22fdaa04e5f9d9c90bdc
describe
'78125' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZV' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
aae42eec9ef35cc819604910668204f0
50ec82b705fe48b34f7571c02a7a604375717f48
describe
'3369836' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZW' 'sip-files00075.tif'
25259e84c279588d576691c2928b2f8d
4130a2d94111ce2378f143fd5823b187c4e28313
describe
'3374' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZX' 'sip-files00075.txt'
d067c9eba102617c42dc0d72be18b328
0f629df2be4f92b42eeae21af9d9c13a464f0935
'2011-12-30T06:50:34-05:00'
describe
'27711' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZY' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
1d8213a5dbc9e96becf13f0fa67274c7
56bcc7dacaffbdc9c16693db08325d85423329f6
'2011-12-30T06:53:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAAAZZ' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
8a306fa1bc31c3c142d43ffcee145923
7343c5f06773e92291905a9bd66b2f5756e83f44
describe
'213295' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAA' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
33a04779720a941112041712419d98b1
c1002f0cd5cbb9bb44f7d891f4423adf27191340
describe
'75275' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAB' 'sip-files00076.pro'
64b127a9fb1a380b04048e3257fc39d3
bd58541b7b58f617b6519ca4ca5d42ed7179bb2e
describe
'73290' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAC' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
dc90e65452086997bceb145308bfaddd
711836bc1070a1e254fde08630094d314e4585aa
describe
'3369388' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAD' 'sip-files00076.tif'
e81f7bee71c25c83dfa27b2c2200d6ec
e100b73284fa31d048f7a96570bd518b2c364e2c
describe
'3108' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAE' 'sip-files00076.txt'
8a9eb8ba9ac200c5f8d1b2d99fd4a39f
8f78950b5a48b08679ad78667c3bc33cad3dd740
describe
'26654' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAF' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
c0b751dc34191ed7706f6b90c7aad2cc
75ee74f62902bb6df415d476c8610c3809091852
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAG' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
e1fae8313abaecd60886534355de4dc6
8eebffc72b372e16acd6bff3dd737a45e0c5d084
'2011-12-30T06:48:35-05:00'
describe
'228496' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAH' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
2518bcf78cd335aed14e5e1759d5046e
1a2382b30121aa6b5dfb98732b749b51d342069f
describe
'79496' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAI' 'sip-files00077.pro'
b705e4978796a3751b247899af221461
7e471bca33cdac264cd0cb0c8e6f8e512ebfe7d1
'2011-12-30T06:54:06-05:00'
describe
'76762' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAJ' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
8abc8e71c9375768694b17cdff8b611c
98d38c096c773c52f1145a63bf9b68d86af9cd0e
'2011-12-30T06:52:11-05:00'
describe
'3369496' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAK' 'sip-files00077.tif'
ca27b9c8b77286bf86a30aa7e22fa209
4025b95ad0a51c55d5844f4d15a19b1f91c0b378
describe
'3251' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAL' 'sip-files00077.txt'
72a9099ca4181a36cb04d73a9f88e6a9
5d1d445a0886c1a3b2892b84a38922e2b29db091
'2011-12-30T06:50:17-05:00'
describe
'27113' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAM' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
e2485fde2b48e91a3367511ece370fbe
3ca92c73ebc6000763858b23bf6bf1a8cce9f40d
'2011-12-30T06:51:14-05:00'
describe
'419418' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAN' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
b7e95c389b1f130795ff26751afae230
ade7c06e06a4abeb47c051b760ace33603b29999
'2011-12-30T06:54:43-05:00'
describe
'226001' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAO' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
207cd112115bc7e53b5cf355f7c4f15c
85280748ded0934bd4a2034e1504e8a93c36daae
describe
'80864' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAP' 'sip-files00078.pro'
dd08bb029d150a0574392eddb554286e
274a116f5cbb2931c3f959ad5466448a5f36b7e3
'2011-12-30T06:53:00-05:00'
describe
'73910' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAQ' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
043257b9992733afdc787b1788bb6ea2
bb4913fffe54b999980b260676331f8e23e6558a
describe
'3369288' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAR' 'sip-files00078.tif'
b766a27b391eaa3330b1d57ac5194ca4
2d463572d41305155238e73a4df408e4c495669c
'2011-12-30T06:49:15-05:00'
describe
'3325' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAS' 'sip-files00078.txt'
f15516e0efda12409df0961f0efc9373
4d8cef0ccc54a57a984d095f10984885cd307376
describe
'26126' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAT' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
300051769464badf391d340b70ca512e
35612fbf41de5a5eda3e8d252a00c02b82c20099
'2011-12-30T06:51:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAU' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
ba4d7212a8dab30a9390ad8f509437c8
cd9551ea5fdebd0e6b11f6bf4008a4fce88001e5
'2011-12-30T06:47:40-05:00'
describe
'113424' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAV' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
25cc801b113e2ac0237848d17c57b9b8
12c475b1699a3fe2753a9d2fb264b184909f1a9f
'2011-12-30T06:50:56-05:00'
describe
'37167' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAW' 'sip-files00079.pro'
1786baf444a0127b604b76ceca32ff67
00875629b022ee6c4c8f042abc6b0e5c2291be22
describe
'41382' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAX' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
24ac0c72eab5f1e37a0a788b490dc477
af30ff992e91568fd100c2016ca2578fbe08db75
describe
'3366348' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAY' 'sip-files00079.tif'
f8d4b2f6b9f4c0721a1ad9d1cf134903
2ca34518f53323704d63c3a0753a51963a744863
describe
'1555' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABAZ' 'sip-files00079.txt'
a43942e6b7fae9791a7596779d87696d
538a17660ab57bfa0f0e2b6f610e45bd101a1a58
describe
'17465' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBA' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
693954661cd933c917df49acf8e5d4e3
bf19898d20c4c24c765f6c5175ae0cbdffda93da
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBB' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
217c18df06b6c95b8174df48af8a18f7
a266a1ef3f8e30314c1f2cab667ff2942ca110dc
describe
'161481' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBC' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
fed0d1282a0965ffdcb256f50605c5b0
0a0ef6674c07cd29f99b4c6f3bcb38b7972a3b5b
describe
'54719' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBD' 'sip-files00080.pro'
bfce5733bee8516090a84a6feba72b8c
a72081ca9081a6a53cdcc5243555afbc6aba34d3
'2011-12-30T06:53:07-05:00'
describe
'55411' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBE' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
564d41edd2f329d0bca32b36e12ba4bf
ffdf250ee145f1a8b6d4ff95f7f0ec998b6879d2
'2011-12-30T06:52:05-05:00'
describe
'3367608' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBF' 'sip-files00080.tif'
5160888a873f853ad6e5a10b3afd61fd
c006afeebd4b8fb39e0a3fd2d076d782013f3455
describe
'2334' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBG' 'sip-files00080.txt'
d261d3b792198c53ebd494198e366680
cd9873af2a94b6482db643c0634a6c4b6909c71b
'2011-12-30T06:50:40-05:00'
describe
'21271' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBH' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
9a037d0539c9ebbcc99c5c69900c80cc
cbe2dbff0ec619f0c63f1ca53886fe356b3fc307
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBI' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
b5b602f1fb0ad7b58a9e4392cbc71c7b
91e3a58624f30fb7f7ec7e8bdc65ca47b6fb88e9
describe
'221685' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBJ' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
38d2a127d587136ae4941fa69b593259
73405bffd17d289b3adce6346c3057e3d7f155e5
describe
'77390' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBK' 'sip-files00081.pro'
60dddebbf67f89b30322ec97afeebb71
a4cccfec1a10a5ed622b2a60f3de8fd5888b911d
describe
'74649' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBL' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
f1e932e425e4c018eb945276662cf3f7
d2b469dd26c9875c42b74dfeaa71d32d51e06872
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBM' 'sip-files00081.tif'
b19e8c946d138b21815116a27b28448e
65e9f645949ee26c0801a31eb9ca9a37b3be47f2
describe
'3222' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBN' 'sip-files00081.txt'
751121cb9e723c27cc95bddbea8bf95f
89fa6d27e68271e1d95b2f9c16d424895fb3e391
'2011-12-30T06:53:16-05:00'
describe
'26594' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBO' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
f77a19c670f199acf0f185e36499ac21
976e7612d0d16f8b62f88013a4a428400919e432
describe
'442740' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBP' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
93b3e0b68aa5c5ed15604affd09006c5
14afe11a5ee27b8b4077e991ac7a4b352becb251
describe
'220708' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBQ' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
5dec0863fd8b1e10d1a98294157f5486
e0a26b23372e206975c6e53f6564eec2442eae73
describe
'80758' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBR' 'sip-files00082.pro'
8b1839d856aa7e87a5dce26d247efad9
438462afa2fdf55eafc7209d6bc4be0e73db3137
'2011-12-30T06:49:55-05:00'
describe
'72260' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBS' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
e138b83b8e08e9555ec34a4513adccce
cc334238a6e89522fce6a62b56b96604f1f0db16
'2011-12-30T06:50:46-05:00'
describe
'3556172' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBT' 'sip-files00082.tif'
1d20018e58d34b1654f05d57357b3363
a23e933284b5f5f33630435f6f3016df84a51ea2
describe
'3306' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBU' 'sip-files00082.txt'
dd2aaa3bde2457db255621a5b7a5ceea
1354c1873bebceae72431a11376791c7b13cbe6a
describe
Invalid character
'26047' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBV' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
9361d1db3295f6620c5abd3e83d68ada
00a6777809087d582002399a5fc1855cf28bfb64
'2011-12-30T06:48:27-05:00'
describe
'400942' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBW' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
27aa5c339ab37dbe1b54cf0ff2436f82
5259a74420b56e536cd6192d69c3016d14beb0a3
describe
'77848' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBX' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
f4c80570da0cd68f7d95c393836248ae
0b18bab415635c2c87337eee875e19be8e6c9b3e
'2011-12-30T06:53:28-05:00'
describe
'1130' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBY' 'sip-files00083.pro'
12105e202c931d286d18df7a69c3ff33
faf37ff0cea6a2267d05e5158e053c1fe390c358
describe
'29351' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABBZ' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
7a5d2bd66c3895c5803100926c3a88d1
0b6517d8c19b62ffc4d789b1307ed56674998b4e
describe
'9633612' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCA' 'sip-files00083.tif'
ff6f6e849384394b9ef4037d12d17937
3a2f776e1ed1fc7d386578d1133039dab03dcfd6
'2011-12-30T06:51:55-05:00'
describe
'137' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCB' 'sip-files00083.txt'
b1871954064e59063285021a979331ac
d8bf966782b37d87254b4339bb68bc2b770b1be2
'2011-12-30T06:51:26-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'17450' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCC' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
166bc5e2ecf6e7ee58d319b57912976f
69cee226114217344478198001f9ca6b11d9e754
'2011-12-30T06:53:55-05:00'
describe
'419429' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCD' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
eef8226f886315e8ba78eabb96a16453
b1e276fcb7627501b3720caa4e4c0d93bf52cfbc
describe
'228312' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCE' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
c31fff4e8d899484985e79b25e57c997
5abefbcd6ce041e26f2ff31308eedaa447bb9658
describe
'77756' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCF' 'sip-files00084.pro'
edd1d260f01e5a81330fe4188ba6ab25
d163b4c7f64e09dcd0a977911f9844fd5b09ff6c
'2011-12-30T06:49:33-05:00'
describe
'76579' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCG' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
f9e4e8d9485a0de48ac2d3ca9f05ab8f
fcfd02b568e04e44998814c4d145e081b73d2228
'2011-12-30T06:51:48-05:00'
describe
'3369736' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCH' 'sip-files00084.tif'
d27a0ce3bee3edd39588cc89cf9d36bd
8db14d4275672e8f38682cbbbf2bf437411f137c
'2011-12-30T06:53:30-05:00'
describe
'3225' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCI' 'sip-files00084.txt'
7bf2202c795269687da433d5758e55d3
294378cf960c94cffce31a8540aabfd531672c4b
describe
Invalid character
'27609' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCJ' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
b37a4b70f2b3510a4453f7f6b813d866
22e710354330fc733bd1bc4e47ecf8e37c6998b9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCK' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
97fe520f6ffafb0aeda500f2b942f99b
8e310f6e71a2a8d21870a9ead038c372e2403756
describe
'221860' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCL' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
969cb58b35d98c69c0e36d9750979d3c
0ff2f9b3c968e3664c2c396a4c4d482139c219d8
describe
'76292' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCM' 'sip-files00085.pro'
310f6f213fb0a5282b2b3c8687e442b6
752fd15c81b0e6872dbe8e17146e63ee6e2c0574
describe
'76566' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCN' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
a45002241bf45a2cbf0c7943b6d8e210
5a4066211cc97a3bcbb5f11cb677f74effd12924
'2011-12-30T06:54:56-05:00'
describe
'3369624' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCO' 'sip-files00085.tif'
e05741b6bef609c38e6032f85936ef1c
e3730925f7a649df8a10e940198d48553125f8c3
describe
'3115' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCP' 'sip-files00085.txt'
ab7e0490ac14c78eb8e40a06874c7e7d
55e2be3b01b5e8c4b8324b7b3064655f0ac946fb
describe
'27131' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCQ' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
90a651dcbc99802b11d45c4afc66a4be
65cf4fa8d7a90e0a56b934b4d7da8e589b76688e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCR' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
3391956557127bad0b3da95d2720dd49
1374d16485de686651e249e956ab59548360f582
describe
'219503' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCS' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
90482d0c6e6a03dd6a7383738f0373d4
1c0b7de1c264a2de48bbacd607ac834f982fb8c5
'2011-12-30T06:52:49-05:00'
describe
'74700' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCT' 'sip-files00086.pro'
c55945235ceb0ef0c97acab72ed38a57
24904f85b0e896376cfbe699817e18360f3a423d
describe
'73964' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCU' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
c8a4d7b4ef4c39878c8c7132da451fae
9fbaeb96aad80a20c5345656c472cc7fe552fe1f
describe
'3369604' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCV' 'sip-files00086.tif'
a93b11acb601e4ceeebc78315cac19df
9972fe0fb57c655cc32c964f9104d4176ffed8ad
'2011-12-30T06:49:44-05:00'
describe
'3058' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCW' 'sip-files00086.txt'
0ca1cc456e1417c3661733c8750fc248
a1604edb27e4337073ac687cc111cc34550db4f9
'2011-12-30T06:50:32-05:00'
describe
'27076' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCX' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
da4acd2681d6080ae7620b20281fd584
ffd3fc1d948842cbefaf78d4c4d1f1417681eb77
'2011-12-30T06:50:38-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCY' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
5146b6f9d95c94afe668f149c6f03121
df544272ca3902a698726c3db6504b55ee944bed
describe
'228467' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABCZ' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
1cec8af23563696426dc952558bcca61
ae2c268c31a07d0df0c7d655ff1fa98d788bd38c
'2011-12-30T06:53:24-05:00'
describe
'81866' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDA' 'sip-files00087.pro'
221d4dbf96d04e3e6a58b216f9ae8ab2
8bd051e63e1d3df9ecc01ae7a08a7d613b9b27b9
describe
'74842' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDB' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
16da4fc6696b55214f65205f0f38ef18
9fc9ab88bca7ac534faa92e7afee36d531f152a7
'2011-12-30T06:50:21-05:00'
describe
'3369244' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDC' 'sip-files00087.tif'
6d064ccbadab208ce6b4bb21b4126bcf
6d1039b860deabdce6bd9525c2ad2b90d31a3de9
'2011-12-30T06:49:30-05:00'
describe
'3354' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDD' 'sip-files00087.txt'
de21311aa4d671f2b117c8e87d6476ec
d4ff20f4f9b90104319daafb0bf36e3c772ab635
'2011-12-30T06:48:15-05:00'
describe
'26149' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDE' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
0c5b10e98671a546cdde560a6516fc1e
64402827c82d0f2dfe4ff3e585674d0369ff327f
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDF' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
f9fcc454a9687815e6606c9433d6f36c
189b19451339916aaa5e21241e55862f876ae9e6
'2011-12-30T06:53:45-05:00'
describe
'222368' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDG' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
3e8d306f1d61df6d91d273525b303117
61f3d48665f79838c8d6f14a20d19c3534698c7d
'2011-12-30T06:49:23-05:00'
describe
'76999' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDH' 'sip-files00088.pro'
158426b4189b75a5764b6505e9bd985f
b1c78bde358c66cae5820a59890d49b8efe8231b
describe
'74129' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDI' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
e671cd554a50af295a112eda24dba25b
4219f27af8e0ce2c6214195a32f431ae2db9563c
describe
'3369548' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDJ' 'sip-files00088.tif'
cb511870da4f8d70df258878c37826a7
349552b5d67fc91b80cbc50567d558a8523e06d2
'2011-12-30T06:53:37-05:00'
describe
'3198' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDK' 'sip-files00088.txt'
9f2f0802cb8e6a05eb21be6de66952f1
c1ba70b68ec4ba534da4110887ef0344fa8ef419
describe
'26676' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDL' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
dbe2b1579cbba7284fb8d477aa616eef
b979148b45851dd0ce03eee1f4e68ea4fcc39f72
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDM' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
ba4ca0e1a4bf38b37ce9032e29bc7b3a
863425c0ad18e2db75e95be8d554d6288e86f976
describe
'221005' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDN' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
ef6ca3e98c8d71edc2179cf388f7e369
b75ee6745ee0e6e174411d5864a5238d82e0d7bd
describe
'76311' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDO' 'sip-files00089.pro'
a2cbeb74b09c9fa472fc0076f605ad74
7931995071a9f52b3a7bd56b961a5df18a5874bc
describe
'74773' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDP' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
71c80744872df0d1025879cd56751456
0e1884d40e7d527cddfacc57127dc212c1567b0e
'2011-12-30T06:49:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDQ' 'sip-files00089.tif'
019741f94f2235c0c47d733f8ef3254b
5791ead05243109235f4eea39834578ac1e20ce9
describe
'3143' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDR' 'sip-files00089.txt'
36879ad5d4f30190888b4d31a93f50d4
98569aa9b3a9f448cbdce06a7f7e82065a1f72e9
describe
'26772' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDS' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
9d010216082c9262ba4b8c729e2b9965
abf853034c177d2d0624cc267b6786f6521c814a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDT' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
2995756b31fca536a066d1becd0daf82
8576f76b2ec52923e66d7a66d87ba1aaccb08c2b
'2011-12-30T06:51:58-05:00'
describe
'223206' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDU' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
3c0e7816b5a3ba3296e72979c92e1f21
73382052dd17ff00a260278f405ecc86b8d8fc92
'2011-12-30T06:49:43-05:00'
describe
'77588' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDV' 'sip-files00090.pro'
bcb839829f70dcf5e3a821e96d6a04b2
77b9e9bb7e4b26912e47a92b4346ff0af44a534c
describe
'76082' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDW' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
a8ca4f0c24502647506fcb4d18f9de32
c62271c0c5aebb66993282e716fc484994e67805
describe
'3369716' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDX' 'sip-files00090.tif'
79b870f95d39f7a456990d0fb62abe26
eadd002eea9c818e8df37a2d01116bb0ca52e077
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDY' 'sip-files00090.txt'
52965d8d747e00da1f7c2d6fe84c62d3
b98d5672bd8fe79623d9cdbd5b2450c40fdffc10
describe
'27311' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABDZ' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
a2294dc13184dfc53ed03be25eb03052
45b5cd69ef5f76a8ea15826914750dce4de707ab
'2011-12-30T06:52:53-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEA' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
c97c39cda41b78751acdba8093e69aac
ffa4573639eed43b690d58025cf8197896e06035
'2011-12-30T06:49:06-05:00'
describe
'215380' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEB' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
62213603d13377098bedfc7384e789a3
7a12301ed1fb46bbad2ffe0df16dd23791f85b71
describe
'76913' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEC' 'sip-files00091.pro'
99cdde8e3d2b1b11b4f88117d6f63cdc
73812e8686b3ee545355eb831ff747e2c3e5d027
describe
'73069' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABED' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
935fe3b5b863faa017d84d8bf1579fa8
28ef046afe23c882de062ddf10b8b36958b32618
describe
'3369232' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEE' 'sip-files00091.tif'
4bb5aa203b04c1ec65fcc0f624f44f6a
7e2ee8f9c89fdd13da2fd57fc56ce161b1ce1bf3
describe
'3142' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEF' 'sip-files00091.txt'
766cea573c349b6710af517f901221b4
67406b66b02d570cca92941b0e662669cca60501
describe
'26081' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEG' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
d701220ccd6959a2d0ab40a51518af16
ffcb6efc2e8aa84a2868c758a41154e3f1a5265a
'2011-12-30T06:53:31-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEH' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
bbb608948219b1626669e5adde27999a
d5062efab435d0bf762e11c552a0cf40d68f55a8
'2011-12-30T06:52:09-05:00'
describe
'224992' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEI' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
1348177e9989c52e7478f2236fa491b1
71cab9a48e0e693165265ec33374fa4f97c6e164
describe
'79009' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEJ' 'sip-files00092.pro'
49fe863855d825e4f35cfefaf1347e9b
e85fdfc5140c2daf4f51a781d8820e99fc42f145
describe
'76141' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEK' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
8439088587b24c52ca6555a87e505327
ff0c961409954e64c5ceeaf7a2e7899a70779d45
'2011-12-30T06:55:03-05:00'
describe
'3369544' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEL' 'sip-files00092.tif'
0d01245c83d657fc92c1327b6d1c8287
a48f59293c9f7d3965a4fdd01f5cf5243abbc570
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEM' 'sip-files00092.txt'
5e55dd408e40be1417d2f23c6a1811a3
a83424102e7e262dfe7d8dd4a7fd44713937aca5
describe
'27151' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEN' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
859f969d6d3e2adc82d18a83ba6af0b0
bf6d751f1531802ccb52bafd66fb29d7a9dad2cf
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEO' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
b86e349fa3ad30240b7a2fa1a111c941
15433e7b10c312252161e7f04ff218de6c964e72
describe
'219629' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEP' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
9ce7b86c4123dd66874bedef13a6fdc2
8ce495bce97e7696adec53da700f8cb066405b3a
describe
'75309' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEQ' 'sip-files00093.pro'
8be2cd908a570a32a5f4bf8f8b449ff8
eb2d16828c0efaf0c308b580fae75ec1cc388331
describe
'75361' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABER' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
eddadb392416257c2804f29862839256
ad99e08d4e79dfcdbce3262c4aaee2e58cb29ce3
'2011-12-30T06:51:12-05:00'
describe
'3369652' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABES' 'sip-files00093.tif'
757c3f71252e04725c4dd20a819cfb55
13e7f5f983f86b39e33c0ff767af8934cf586def
'2011-12-30T06:54:59-05:00'
describe
'3089' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABET' 'sip-files00093.txt'
1bf34fd5c9fe7520d2b6c724d997f9e4
e291ffad836b9ab342d5d71b6e8fb893852fcb97
describe
'27259' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEU' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
d50a7f31036ff0064efe8377615fbd4b
cfcd0addea4d27cf82106a79b7a137159240f5f2
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEV' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
e317be30f66ebe17e7ac0347d1be7539
8745b42d080f91409d514122763bb3abcba536a7
describe
'224010' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEW' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
88b4cdbc5ee63e8fba19e4e18646b61f
00374469a1322271a7f5cfeb978dc5f4f337933c
'2011-12-30T06:47:44-05:00'
describe
'78063' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEX' 'sip-files00094.pro'
ea114a9c4d13b3790b5e29ed7f4c1325
b7cdddfd6d40c3f7639e1094d353b4514ed2cbb3
describe
'76069' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEY' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
dcd9949f90048d0d66d84ea24282d856
eea2ae4fbe51f0f33f474572bce87a3bcd940a62
describe
'3369632' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABEZ' 'sip-files00094.tif'
6adae6c1bba92b5f101fb1814d20abb6
8564d26564f23ce63b443e224cdef60ecf820bea
describe
'3190' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFA' 'sip-files00094.txt'
80feee0ee0718e6fab29ba2d9f72792c
d9b36585b2db992be471ab506040dab2525cdcb3
describe
'27098' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFB' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
2f4776772546e35ac2ae01b811f69713
06868d302028a5b03ef75f9057dd6e69eacc469f
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFC' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
942df42e4b2b30702a1f573b03a5afbb
3577882c9bec548ba8f98756fd68076db7baae90
describe
'226333' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFD' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
1055624410503bfe59cd96de0d82532a
07fb94b7849c072d58441a122516bb2dafcaea88
describe
'78264' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFE' 'sip-files00095.pro'
c894fe070cb47a1e5d15d041755d3b9b
4e9ee45842a9e90421fa8f246a1ad664a520fcec
describe
'74475' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFF' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
cc486ef0740605032d2c64a6118a530f
416a3e76c4514604a26452452d9ed1e469f9787e
describe
'3369328' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFG' 'sip-files00095.tif'
aeac91f78c63e2ac58e407677db8ff5b
46c6eb2eb5259b9345566bfdb325e6ef83e8526a
'2011-12-30T06:50:41-05:00'
describe
'3214' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFH' 'sip-files00095.txt'
60c484217189a615efa89881b5c92926
f7ec7233996ce452328d85e35112d85cce3dde69
describe
'26762' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFI' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
c01af7aafa90fc6a636b5b84283ef9c7
1275b0893ec83b5d6039054e4bc840c477559901
describe
'419438' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFJ' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
8ded6b29e93bcdf77cf22464e101d691
6971e6ffa57c833fc668c87964cb93cbe042dcbc
describe
'225824' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFK' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
6ab893eb77c27199d5e217117b63fa9c
ae64caa618d0f93293ba8250b533ed1ce97750d3
describe
'79811' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFL' 'sip-files00096.pro'
8cc13d128a7cd62a91ab444c74f01023
4bc685b9b3e67909817c367514cc6de2ef133688
describe
'75446' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFM' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
f7f055114aca3a942beeb66e8d86be14
0ce421bd496e22b2e804a01c493002281447af90
'2011-12-30T06:48:29-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFN' 'sip-files00096.tif'
a41598328a110ac66d921074f79ee579
abdf8b0b1b7ea38c909922def034555b6aa74a5b
describe
'3294' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFO' 'sip-files00096.txt'
77f9b6270457dd4dcf267d9bf9ad765b
578abca8aa3343f5f0b1ab1b39ee0fd48105717a
'2011-12-30T06:48:04-05:00'
describe
'26707' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFP' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
446650c80ccf1f7cab90a4119c652313
c4ec7ee8eafb8fdd37c0b333a39065215ea7f116
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFQ' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
914b9c598c710f14e756828ee40969f0
7f132d542d725d56c36699d5f5ff7bf29cb3c20f
'2011-12-30T06:48:49-05:00'
describe
'231673' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFR' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
658fa1d5ec283ef2ddabc2109fc68b98
8a4db35fb58c6d5d5ea02074352a4b1958c6265e
describe
'81981' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFS' 'sip-files00097.pro'
c8b6f6336bf6b12b46ad043f2a6e6aed
78802101bde53203670923ff05326ca02ecff90d
describe
'77024' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFT' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
295ed3a4a1164ed080fff00b77f731f6
560c2bd3988569a323e3edc95bf49c26593b75d1
describe
'3369700' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFU' 'sip-files00097.tif'
9ba574fff569e19567d1da7fef864588
57ddbda50565294191be1953555137661d0c0543
'2011-12-30T06:52:38-05:00'
describe
'3365' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFV' 'sip-files00097.txt'
98d4d674938f9b1afef928ca6e08059e
13857ac202d45e41c3b30a2f1d540dc271724d9e
describe
'27381' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFW' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
72948e43730648735775a366c87c91e9
2fa6d7485d0288a0d42ffff8f5711a8082325eb4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFX' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
ee91270a355bc899a1528adc0968674e
9558d8dcb50399c95ed82a7a83bb01dd65088ece
'2011-12-30T06:49:08-05:00'
describe
'193397' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFY' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
e18872b96c704a3e894766c5ae506040
f5a276fcdb23ea0c623ead1f033e2a8f56668133
describe
'70641' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABFZ' 'sip-files00098.pro'
416091df714dbff211d8ef1438ca6e76
523cfd71127091f1930ea91f9ac14edd9f32675a
describe
'68385' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGA' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
b93e18f1c8e1b5f784d34a8e41dab3c9
4c42dd9b45f74368f72265f04e5c83ac2e926ea1
'2011-12-30T06:53:13-05:00'
describe
'3369076' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGB' 'sip-files00098.tif'
fa1f8a3066ad5c27cd6dcadbee458094
0181e1467041f2708f00609cec5c9bec8c6a390b
describe
'3123' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGC' 'sip-files00098.txt'
d77a5dec418674b8ad49a1350bbd40b8
5b6ad9494fae30130b866e25de184bee8828f808
describe
'25570' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGD' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
0121e93f88c2d19d12b500db9b2305f4
916bdb687dee58899e92607597bca0f3a8fc8c39
describe
'419388' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGE' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
b5ab32215d98d26b37cf6eee63386475
e144ea94dd0fc835cba559bd45df7ce5639a812d
describe
'85821' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGF' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
a790b965283e076f36156b7bddb8509f
3f18806c8fd34a514c14615fdc2dfd5f26b83500
describe
'23984' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGG' 'sip-files00099.pro'
e319551e27146bbddd5d242b19cc46af
d222f6df297e9597731f6d913a0ca37242299bb0
'2011-12-30T06:53:35-05:00'
describe
'32681' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGH' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
b2b506fb1ca6e5065ca246878904c1c7
882d65215f758b2de1a494677f30af03f9475b47
describe
'3365636' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGI' 'sip-files00099.tif'
82db85d51c754142255b2e870e64acac
f2c1455cfd783a4579279aef8688de45b5d18983
describe
'1002' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGJ' 'sip-files00099.txt'
4d067d4a4bf58fdfbd62660f83126fb5
450bbe239e2b932bfc253f383465376262ce07cf
describe
'15229' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGK' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
90db21100cc96a65958fb00591b56884
fa9937fcef0e3dd067aa1164c9bbc1f79bafb04f
describe
'373856' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGL' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
5a271fd7080dfd3df76c35e3d23f9dc2
442050d195532e82d83f1ec185a4268a6982f4e9
describe
'88930' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGM' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
9287d65bb803a691b8c0f72a2e6e39ee
e88d84e5469b32a96462f8e8276d33496fa60487
'2011-12-30T06:51:02-05:00'
describe
'1223' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGN' 'sip-files00100.pro'
be906383391c40a9cc20c27841c6915d
36571c5d3724969c2f5a2db028a4b51567f696b6
describe
'33062' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGO' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
21989cf993ae9f03996e1b2173aacf16
ede5ac8f6a18a450e1c3bfbb6fdebfd13e1bc272
'2011-12-30T06:55:01-05:00'
describe
'8989436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGP' 'sip-files00100.tif'
450d4d0d997017cbb568d9546fd87e47
851d29b2e799604fb4b6df6871dbffb72fc50d13
describe
'72' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGQ' 'sip-files00100.txt'
b0d1350ebe58417e2a4abc273fdef683
d8c7de097a08504896b7eeac3746f9caf845afd9
'2011-12-30T06:52:08-05:00'
describe
'18918' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGR' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
fbc219fa44f65aea425d8036d5f2c4e3
3b3d4cd54a844414869ecb58341cdd5435cfa8a9
describe
'419412' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGS' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
9d092a8a3c95c5e915c776933cb874b0
92f246a6ba8ce3de28ddc06157734ac2429f5ba7
'2011-12-30T06:52:40-05:00'
describe
'175920' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGT' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
a18defcff264069a0124e869dd435418
85cd5ea2462861ffa4e3fbb51cdda91cb38e604a
'2011-12-30T06:51:05-05:00'
describe
'57911' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGU' 'sip-files00101.pro'
2ef280918fcc3294eb5622453fa51ae0
ab8a3494a467a75a13f9f6af4fd356778d2bb925
describe
'59733' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGV' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
023603e1875a4cbba656326c4158f1a5
c6950b5e373998f7decff7915cfc5e90f9a0668b
'2011-12-30T06:53:52-05:00'
describe
'3368196' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGW' 'sip-files00101.tif'
d461e236c7416ea85bd26a2ed0e8f548
63b6a8a55719fddb8aa435b1801691e9c2796444
'2011-12-30T06:54:10-05:00'
describe
'2475' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGX' 'sip-files00101.txt'
e4a0b9ef71e515951175339b0c70a04c
5ec25e863cc31d0589fb30610167e15db349d3df
describe
'23035' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGY' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
e4c28155dcdb4ce5de61daf39300783c
e25e6e47688d53380cf4d16caecb47d08b1bca3a
'2011-12-30T06:47:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABGZ' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
b2db80b13ac301af5a2f0f691c133a43
53b73f111109194ec8910ced38c97205b6e09b25
'2011-12-30T06:53:29-05:00'
describe
'233291' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHA' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
7e4b3e2e56fe27448167433adf222beb
a0d1cb3b1da4e745767c8b0b6a4ddf42888ce29f
describe
'81620' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHB' 'sip-files00102.pro'
c61454882b9919a684133b7dd44ed773
70cd51ef15591e83873fdc0f3f8cc2f5eee9e99a
describe
'77033' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHC' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
803d4a0c2db1ce60c3dd5fb0a60638ff
e7c7b39b6d2414fcf971d118d3866d30357a5ff1
describe
'3369568' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHD' 'sip-files00102.tif'
67dcb1dd064d859bdc2847b436932d90
59f54c669a64b675f8a42ad42f2cfa2ca47e8be0
'2011-12-30T06:53:33-05:00'
describe
'3339' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHE' 'sip-files00102.txt'
7a384418433ca00d83ed7aa11c3a0a94
29ec1eeed5f1bf4fd4509e7e237ed5ac12e82ae7
describe
'27321' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHF' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
98ceee91432a1e94bcd3cb612ce3294f
43ec8f6bf62c61f2fa57953fd3d3a6b0e9fdf74e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHG' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
d4a47f1faf5c6a16d5b8f242b70e75a7
81d3647ac32b59ca7cb820fcf079aede52391b42
describe
'229320' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHH' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
8717a9e9b69ed8dce6794691eaa69ab3
43f90642cfff336ed55ef22567b5b981eb40281f
'2011-12-30T06:49:37-05:00'
describe
'79168' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHI' 'sip-files00103.pro'
f56b4637666f639c619ddeb2225d6eb0
d3fab98382c2bc01893053bc3542faa21f0b88ad
describe
'77712' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHJ' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
4b66e1b6c4a708636a9c222a4c20ba54
a0ff58bc4cb938eefde9e7f7194e9c60876dded8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHK' 'sip-files00103.tif'
b3924631df57633ee7255720087688d5
8334dba1d7b5766e706ba2fc9a8a40621ad4e647
describe
'3241' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHL' 'sip-files00103.txt'
2adab120c13430d23fd09b0a2dfe7e5a
4ac52614c52b89d30665483b1a39036127cc5755
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHM' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
903c0dd8918261145fd79d7545d8ecf6
60c82577c6e79ccc496f7e9079f56974d299caf2
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHN' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
44d3a73506bca6f2948403fb3d683c93
0f074a472e52f897aa8fd12ed0b020d4a19fc6af
describe
'224056' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHO' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
f55634b8407f6f857f3c3df0fb69e161
3b4e483a2ac2cb5cbdccbd5ddf6272335363d279
describe
'79760' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHP' 'sip-files00104.pro'
3bc025cc9278e5398221dd89d7d9a5b8
d9ae5b31afebf85033356fdeae55715a0dc789b9
describe
'77224' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHQ' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
7413c2d7947aec489c63f4612f93f823
f35b061ef459c48066f0bcd3ca8238f06a7af50f
describe
'3369592' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHR' 'sip-files00104.tif'
da3c3c0362ab3bbecd25d5f9c8ca3621
36e9b858065dbaa8c088b98d1995543e414bb207
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHS' 'sip-files00104.txt'
7ba014e91b1ce433fc60bbdb97a672f9
c2e5adecfe9f1e25f1788dc2b3291c8cde6de694
'2011-12-30T06:55:17-05:00'
describe
'27330' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHT' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
82b4ae8f008dd37c8f63c8eaa5c70312
249dc2ae5f48370d911f10a992fc4be69a055547
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHU' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
539910f0c7c1eb4aa6831fbb2ac0abea
a89d6cb22b0aa135bc0349fb255ff2c1aae65ff4
'2011-12-30T06:52:18-05:00'
describe
'223245' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHV' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
f17466e1bfcaed17e1f85db673406666
0c76e279678bb517d48548a4e358d943c32a499b
describe
'78041' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHW' 'sip-files00105.pro'
9aabfa665273dd80bd1f48b677190084
08257726c13908b33742b2f8e81192303caf3fd9
describe
'76960' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHX' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
fd21af766dd17bdde55e7eac99da1ff8
c46ea396bd79add224ab0dd49e184c8f083ab573
describe
'3369664' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHY' 'sip-files00105.tif'
1e32b1b0ad342a16249870e0091b8db7
f0b75d4dc885ef00b569eae0a0d80416ddabac87
'2011-12-30T06:53:23-05:00'
describe
'3203' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABHZ' 'sip-files00105.txt'
61d3a867aab323a3e8f1c359a3350c61
fa17978d0ba6c291fcf906f26b720b3839d894e4
describe
'27508' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIA' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
adac520fb85061e480f334f1daa1cf19
496eddf40326947ed108b857f2697c0e9c98e4ba
describe
'419413' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIB' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
41c14efa8c9de8fe2561c2c69cf5f32c
568f914387edbacf929ae6ee17972e45bec32855
describe
'221704' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIC' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
01ea87ca6b490faf37bd3076deb918f3
7c952ca52c162afc5771fb98c965ce07ba7e3846
'2011-12-30T06:54:36-05:00'
describe
'78336' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABID' 'sip-files00106.pro'
7fc5229a6ee9fa735ee083fac32dfca8
841f6b499d045c843b42d5944c66603e3fb16d11
describe
'75971' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIE' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
9ee105b24e4c1d487036bee8f1b14f77
e3926e42b7e45ad7a32396be65df04390d9a5905
'2011-12-30T06:53:21-05:00'
describe
'3369520' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIF' 'sip-files00106.tif'
9fe538dbb400fc8bf4eba90e56b9b33e
2526c9b4a6faa4fd890810ae04d9787f149a7854
'2011-12-30T06:52:10-05:00'
describe
'3209' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIG' 'sip-files00106.txt'
157444b622956efa98d3aac9bd86ebdc
81f60953fa4190a16f0995271990e86bcab11322
describe
'26984' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIH' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
5d2df3afc16d2f83efc5f987a58e806b
1de02b509e32fff8f185c5f0c3603912fbceb055
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABII' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
7888d510754f23971685c411506afd69
4cc7915aae26eefde43da8e3b827b49b9c6f2497
describe
'214350' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIJ' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
49823b52d5048908755f0a3d10144c48
6fd08cc74b8a38f4b19580a0ee6a9b97e4d7ff62
describe
'75635' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIK' 'sip-files00107.pro'
ee22b2c7b2ec1bc586f7e84b270fbde2
c92de5093ec5569e42cc38319b72397e6192fcb6
describe
'73482' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIL' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
e3b4378c46eafa86a7702d7f4078edd8
9cbfbf4c432c7b674283b2ef86187762d74fce0a
describe
'3369276' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIM' 'sip-files00107.tif'
8d9731a86a915756c04170a79fa72eb0
f2bc3f1bdef9e528b697b6bc841312b5dc4b231c
describe
'3119' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIN' 'sip-files00107.txt'
35e584c0a757c232e2e1f24097b8e468
5b9d345f04580db3a1a7cf7cce7ca27671caf032
describe
'26284' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIO' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
730398586cad02124b73be15901b0f1a
fc0a79c85cf36104ef79058958f4f5aaefe2a819
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIP' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
a3ef5137a1eab03b38b3b8f63de6c93c
6ebb06ef44e3a682bd93462b4ae0156630ea8f62
describe
'218283' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIQ' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
0e552583ce38bc06dcb8f0bfacc32247
ba60e6b734e7bd62e8f877a2b58bc8ab1f2b599f
describe
'75434' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIR' 'sip-files00108.pro'
d8e3cec0a707acfefc77b4b48761290c
7d0cba05480faf3bb9dedd0b654e278c35cdf6ae
describe
'76870' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIS' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
ed4a4fa8879ba95e2bde924c6c5be014
3e96559bc10c03843ac6d2a6acdfcea083c5c9c9
'2011-12-30T06:50:02-05:00'
describe
'3369676' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIT' 'sip-files00108.tif'
44b84e97441248625a335a228c4b4dee
ec3340595f8fb615efbbd2a5e6f658859b948c10
describe
'3091' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIU' 'sip-files00108.txt'
b4b3fc886cf9b38f7794b480ba5c29e6
216cac53af4a3a441e41253bdecd3521c6142755
describe
'27520' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIV' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
86663aac25c5e4288f04bccb7930dd65
ecf7de23e72007f410a54e3d1a60c9ac54bd6d09
describe
'384417' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIW' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
260c5008a74f6ab1bd9805e3f9463079
f0dba9ca56af8d7a8ec00771d7de556d96ac265c
describe
'78126' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIX' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
9ebb9ac4ebcaff47d4d66cf67e3f80ce
8a069c96f59bcd2d33805aea2485cb691af982d4
'2011-12-30T06:48:12-05:00'
describe
'1844' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIY' 'sip-files00109.pro'
93b6c4691734de925bc909a892d50283
f1cebe097c662812a03a0e53a0554a0f835f3e37
'2011-12-30T06:54:17-05:00'
describe
'29152' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABIZ' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
2ce7078ede7fd906b882e0bf46d930ad
c5034778b3d0e203c8b4dc243c87b0a9423ba49c
describe
'9240812' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJA' 'sip-files00109.tif'
6a7089cb361d154554b24eed557b386f
778ae7fd8650e07f9c23a8be1e445642b0f9679a
'2011-12-30T06:48:38-05:00'
describe
'230' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJB' 'sip-files00109.txt'
7a9bff43ea37a9c01a684af64c4b5917
38a2720b893b987ddbc9f2f5e46ec854cf6586c7
describe
Invalid character
'16893' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJC' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
6aecf11568a7e80b6084e656ae3ed2b7
a82ad7af70dd64787dacbfaf1b50f398782453cf
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJD' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
27bb71bdc60c4d88c44d535d7046e4df
6f67529737f367f065d25d1ca59f60b8c7e43470
describe
'233091' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJE' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
ba184d856870048ef4bcf870489caa01
e121947e9f9e59740ac41c3cc0060c15b72dd9a4
describe
'79806' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJF' 'sip-files00110.pro'
8417b50ccc4dcf30842945288ce16ad6
4ea14ced4ffaebc4e90159d6b28c3dc1b545dfef
describe
'79058' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJG' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
e097e96888371ead20b5c5e2430bea93
7e79c61b609d1edb5c692d3039abb9df5bf68fb3
'2011-12-30T06:47:55-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJH' 'sip-files00110.tif'
47431ca5460b065f16ac48d5cca8e2f1
b6ef436d854afa4328a98cc739e68eeed57758d8
'2011-12-30T06:53:40-05:00'
describe
'3288' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJI' 'sip-files00110.txt'
dc1b1702546b8c70e549cf19b2e6f2e1
ae1d6b3659745e086c999fde129616f3e4444170
describe
'27917' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJJ' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
3f83169c04810e2980c644858d63b80a
dc9a8d1d4504d738121efdc7fd210e80640ee336
'2011-12-30T06:47:52-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJK' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
fa020ce7a8e842f0b94e8c76b369ba05
a13fc695cf92b0b6589cb9a7b29733c25e6bf96a
describe
'216311' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJL' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
9d4b59acdf7737c861983300449f5cb8
2feb9b37f440d385ef2cce8874270fc3bb80f06f
describe
'77062' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJM' 'sip-files00111.pro'
b5c9ff8673d6e4e82c8066ab41c3fb67
9aac8b96771aac10bde51dd11b8e8dc812526516
describe
'74078' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJN' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
e3a44d9cf4bee6830c744cc735c533ae
de64b72a65a3ee75e707ecdb3f6827cefa218f49
describe
'3369480' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJO' 'sip-files00111.tif'
e02803c9d069117165aa0ceb4b769def
6ddf94c5a98b0705ab182d9f47f132b12d442285
describe
'3172' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJP' 'sip-files00111.txt'
f35d9f6d39b657b915613008d9fc63a1
455277e7282eaaed33fb71e63938c7af043b7fac
describe
'26740' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJQ' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
b3d581602796b98fcc2a271d94f008e2
9d06e3c466689ad5698e118be640af5b7edefa97
'2011-12-30T06:48:17-05:00'
describe
'419430' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJR' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
503f5a0bfd12e73500fc90ad2197b002
e30c7f715a5c85495dbb6e9ad18d532b31279459
describe
'225522' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJS' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
71838a39d4304cc268e5bb8b51214995
97fedb502644524994a50fb6fe2fd643fe2dc761
describe
'78565' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJT' 'sip-files00112.pro'
4d64f671d15349a7227da380a50e1178
cf077ac775c9e3d1d1469ae004f70fbd35f86e7e
describe
'77618' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJU' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
71126d96910ace2e50378e3d90216925
448511ad50fb30fb59fea5c2ace124a61e93f1f2
'2011-12-30T06:47:41-05:00'
describe
'3369800' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJV' 'sip-files00112.tif'
eef64b092940108670a30c8c2d0aed13
7405cdc3800c57648abe18fbe22e06af2140c503
describe
'3220' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJW' 'sip-files00112.txt'
a6e3be340feeb89b52333e6124343403
8dee58336d8cbd8cddd183dcbaa47055ed44c6b4
describe
'27816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJX' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
017d718b8cc49fa30fddb1ccc9070a4f
62b40dc0ec537916112b4ea2ad4caa0505d62d51
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJY' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
8d18783780a69d30dc6748068bb580b9
b5ee8ca034bc90e2e3a4a51996fbd4c5afa3b646
describe
'232130' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABJZ' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
6c0d709654118cf6925f69329a9ce10f
7c7eac7227b4595f7ccb7abf7d5466a44cadf9b5
describe
'83771' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKA' 'sip-files00113.pro'
e7106b290251e61ecdd58ca98359d36d
823fe2a28c5e0860407797745e8588606610644f
'2011-12-30T06:51:30-05:00'
describe
'75755' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKB' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
d48e97a22f0554a11a131be8fb9d7231
8917f23db958ca803b20f30266565efc78ca1dbb
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKC' 'sip-files00113.tif'
3a986659a3d24200dd999bf71bbfcabf
2431f14bde89e357c50e4e69fd0a8af320817314
describe
'3436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKD' 'sip-files00113.txt'
df850f2cb4f6c5c6342f2c9c03e1ad00
a1fac45dd9b913f10b05442c7999b9b31a19ea50
describe
Invalid character
'26816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKE' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
2344abb7274e8f3d098b93978fab3139
fa3f47a25abb2c2a23de8e9373b6b0bc544b1c10
'2011-12-30T06:47:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKF' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
b160c5ba695cff93a5a69c43d8106a77
7127dddd61db1bcb6c09dce1689216ac4a70f391
'2011-12-30T06:54:33-05:00'
describe
'225343' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKG' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
336a33f26212dfbf89f02f886c775f93
ff581899030363adff5f9b7416ce7c061d9659fe
describe
'77229' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKH' 'sip-files00114.pro'
633412f3be6c1c01fdef12f5ea0660ce
ac9d8000a06f22d356a9caa046d223f052bc2f6a
describe
'75539' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKI' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
4a3d8f0d6c63b31ea9ff39babf218caf
4aa6ba1398223dc34934c10eb6c1725dc83b691c
describe
'3369744' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKJ' 'sip-files00114.tif'
41d218b12e952fa259d65b9754d2440d
aaef8aeaac231fcbe4b64e8020c49efda9810058
describe
'3166' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKK' 'sip-files00114.txt'
975d03629f9abc845d04c6cfd4b00920
7dc2a743dc34ed6c463b8d45a55a13ca74e5d101
describe
'27272' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKL' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
97d854a10856b3a69726a781e8b75412
cfac3d090545a609c51b230d566d20dbcaea02d6
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKM' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
541076a406bc34d8cd673481f75db0fc
1570507a573f0667695f83bb4b62643ef1271bcb
describe
'214735' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKN' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
7069abd623c5c0715f52821e41fe025b
6a14b3a06740c1f1f882d66712f49b42bd95ff49
'2011-12-30T06:47:51-05:00'
describe
'75867' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKO' 'sip-files00115.pro'
d48eab57f8e5eb1d52fea06a73a12efc
99c66d92e940486a140d4b45045bbde1a240330e
describe
'73869' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKP' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
ee1ab43e6de20d93c165e858bd1377e4
0ea243e559b91c4f15c934c182e277f4b882a29f
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKQ' 'sip-files00115.tif'
86c6eb7d0722bef6240961d2d8c23021
aebfae6b7ff4ad8078f8d5d568fedbb1230246a5
'2011-12-30T06:54:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKR' 'sip-files00115.txt'
58a35295c41a058741f7b92affbcee45
e83a123f5ce718104fb439d9217392904f54d96c
describe
'27306' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKS' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
266465bb0cbc7ca1e1aeeadff3f09f04
3b25c3a09a22c15e5ecf99e79042c688c5a42099
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKT' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
04fce756f6df2b346791cfcf5780b038
0ca67698a3881b7c5716e61e1e5e0bbe40d03079
describe
'222395' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKU' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
e2485d3b7b21c02319cc7609f63d02f5
dae75db00714c15260ca5cc989ac9c6530eb9abc
describe
'77051' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKV' 'sip-files00116.pro'
a45ed4f27ae0d5c31167e2983c273c0c
1d808a75bce22e9c3d7a4577adb326a7a298f6f3
describe
'76497' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKW' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
584b8e1b4be15d772acd64c6b817b3b5
e73a67c8803fc680299dc8f48717538a0ac5e526
describe
'3369820' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKX' 'sip-files00116.tif'
f844c2307ad977f508eb4522e518498b
625e579b8f4a10ce9449352a5ad4e3e2b0c73b5b
describe
'3194' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKY' 'sip-files00116.txt'
7c16fd0d9b85551f096b905bf3c17566
4da2b160e09ddeaf908bc352eba476b10fc1e3a6
describe
'27688' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABKZ' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
65099cd2035d9a4039ec7225c18e9473
0ede8c83f7a0986a2681ac104d182060e7083037
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLA' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
20c4d03550e3e119dfd37dcb2f799e86
797579874f4627ada88d14f53c9fd42b2650cb92
describe
'149794' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLB' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
e0add53c08ffd0f833ecbb9824cbd6ef
fe690120f82ce7fbbade2b1163b5a98ac7da8972
describe
'47962' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLC' 'sip-files00117.pro'
990a3ed34a9ec2b9400b1bcb4c69e982
982fe3e62526bc8eeddbc6d42a6dd4044d28f38a
describe
'53411' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLD' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
69d77a84079e2146f9a217b4dc20832b
340c8218967913e75dabfedffd91ee1f4567559e
describe
'3367628' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLE' 'sip-files00117.tif'
9cbf68009a1ff1261c2b7386c662717d
24a4f68f6cd78e554ea29cd16b02d2bcae2cf02e
'2011-12-30T06:51:25-05:00'
describe
'1969' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLF' 'sip-files00117.txt'
c3b7aba8eaaee116cbbafc7150e67a80
2a9cb76143ba6ee18095e1ae5942864fa52b9d50
describe
'21253' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLG' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
6ad58c7a22bf8b0a1a9c2cd592427218
d32a4f7a4cff5f7ab7063dd216a9c0b7bea8bede
describe
'368539' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLH' 'sip-files00118.jp2'
ad5a0e5e9c359f40bd6b7dec25c89c2c
e19ca13c467dae1ef5db7ec430e47c51dee148ef
'2011-12-30T06:53:34-05:00'
describe
'104081' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLI' 'sip-files00118.jpg'
d2e29b70a5f96af3036c849bc9b89022
06fb10972ca2d86628c5980cf02f7cf6e06a2d9e
describe
'1875' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLJ' 'sip-files00118.pro'
54c54d66815aa51459301568cc83a2b1
0df32668825667f6201bd79a0927778da2b2a909
describe
'38050' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLK' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
ac8e79d0bc19782cd303be0cc2189362
b65ad414d3867eb25f693e27abc18a58979c4892
describe
'8861292' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLL' 'sip-files00118.tif'
bbbb2de86f188bd323dbc229ae7e4ebd
af35961dc5cd85e405fff58e2c4644ad8998e0b5
describe
'143' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLM' 'sip-files00118.txt'
ac0b218057822fa3dd5f4755a4b10234
b3eadfeafecdf5fc5f9b7fdb85fb5e3ada5bc1de
'2011-12-30T06:50:13-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'21042' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLN' 'sip-files00118thm.jpg'
a8fca342a0f1900090ebd110d3c261a8
f35b84926ee4423b85aa984fea52ab39de55e351
describe
'419386' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLO' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
deb9dd9c8aa084f8f7774a139d709cd1
9e1e637007736de102e9934ba7fd46bddef6dd28
describe
'174630' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLP' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
5f4a58c44d7a59ae4cfbec05862ba753
52a765393410794d7d8a0cc4bcf1fb426582f95f
describe
'57465' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLQ' 'sip-files00119.pro'
a2746177683d1a5339a71a0814860617
06413dd89e51876f42b49bb9ca22f968a149d097
describe
'58738' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLR' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
532e8d768839a0c058471d9e6c6b493a
b793fd6d06b64b237a7512e797af3c298d3a8f5a
describe
'3367936' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLS' 'sip-files00119.tif'
dc4ff5d9acc61d749e5e883778863c66
c3a691e93af80de7a08a18288630aa1c3321f371
describe
'2387' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLT' 'sip-files00119.txt'
4dfa4086e5a1b7158fc9f2071eb6bd40
855462292638c5081f1b9706db5969e579044af0
describe
'22426' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLU' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
8bf4c1d34ae579ac3d8a9bfb26ad5260
8c8c2f6629d1b94a212fda55c499466a1a683952
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLV' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
cc80f4a0381eeb87de7f3a4c850f2aa3
4b6be46808aad7cf964341517a74756d29137038
describe
'227467' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLW' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
ecfe0a551ce02b045a64beb3b05fc512
567c19640f2a37e5ae0634cb64e6f63c2d91c730
describe
'81879' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLX' 'sip-files00120.pro'
080084f6e9def3edcdbabe7ad31913d8
5be696c4d3b3e2d13f4639c33117e2d6c1c34345
describe
'75816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLY' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
ceb1bdba12aa9edc93cf1355eb87de61
f222a092d31db23b1d84f6f901aa3a0fd2cdec35
'2011-12-30T06:54:05-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABLZ' 'sip-files00120.tif'
f41384ad4fce1db2d7e8d2a053dcc44b
21103cb66da81c54c1e92e35adff00d30ad98f2d
describe
'3357' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMA' 'sip-files00120.txt'
ef097616b257b9588a52b7243c41b40d
b6ac8761da2eb091582b12bae250d22b25db45a8
'2011-12-30T06:52:26-05:00'
describe
'26846' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMB' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
f8ce3b38ea4e0bf5404446a0e32dec02
233d8366982fe6969686d8e521cbf9b7933dcaf6
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMC' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
daa7a5a0c2572e6592c368504d3df3fd
c1981245849deefb92ecebcc4b859cdb42d6bfba
describe
'227191' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMD' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
391f10e5ee4726062c0c6c17e6acd4c9
294029f2e7a51e4e2b20443d9ac9ffaa7564d72a
describe
'80253' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABME' 'sip-files00121.pro'
86e5109d4175320e07978e00395c86e3
b57d93cd69e56f62f92bcd4b92246008ee8efcc9
'2011-12-30T06:51:13-05:00'
describe
'75649' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMF' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
0cf5bfed6e7d5dd9b181497a7dc78759
e20c51275963910cf496683183ab93f55adcd9c0
describe
'3369656' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMG' 'sip-files00121.tif'
78f8d3b1d2e0470b39df5875db43b41e
bff964755ecb550709026e82f394247dd8cd4ffd
describe
'3334' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMH' 'sip-files00121.txt'
e6f09ddb023d753ef587e2cd868fe906
4784140d3d93f66a719e65c34c48357fbf8bac14
describe
'27081' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMI' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
c939a39ccc727a9e5fb721378c6d3f34
2f2390dbf1e53870d290854705822e86eae3f729
describe
'419449' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMJ' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
7d90f08bec7a4d67aefd03c8e8edde2b
8e072d99c898a3e300b9cd24588f299195a2f659
describe
'221764' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMK' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
f0a8ac119f9e8ab3458809a30685bf33
9e1596055509e862b58bfe5fc31df7d199fcefc0
describe
'80034' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABML' 'sip-files00122.pro'
29c3e19875d51a2b97dc4e5dcc7ab4dd
b2b808cad80c16dfab1cb6dda634cb82c6a4d31a
describe
'73841' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMM' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
d1c26cc804e44f17b8be5e96ec4b3d0e
12db7b1f21c56d297ac90ca426dbd4559fe7b4eb
describe
'3369304' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMN' 'sip-files00122.tif'
051248c9a14a5fb40bfb3510cc03256e
92af1c7c8854bae4bbf8079b5749c65da848452c
describe
'3290' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMO' 'sip-files00122.txt'
1af95a3f91c2a65e40234e60ea64221d
2d0807d14b486ca94d69112c84dedc4eab6408cb
describe
'26437' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMP' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
eff0653be01eb988299405a13acb9610
3c7753d04495db2f6febe8b80671ac86889dc443
'2011-12-30T06:48:34-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMQ' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
a251c7a99bdb6c2aa26a4350995140a1
1526f59978223440b3a9359318c7774439f3389a
describe
'209619' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMR' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
93793f20ceea5511221caf1a7aa2a9dd
caa53d60a24a79e551ef16f4fa83a792eea70fbb
describe
'73913' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMS' 'sip-files00123.pro'
b7d899198f7807abca3c42171e458439
d3ef5efd284e35c48e7f482ca8af895670a68074
describe
'71816' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMT' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
8b40b2cb1bbe3c43ef7ab3a1c157edf3
0492596a63b7c6c58fad4907cdbbb8b176f45254
describe
'3369148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMU' 'sip-files00123.tif'
0c92c0e76cab67e354264e1b163e3aea
e58bbd12a55541d8cb7fd99bc3bf1e895411164f
describe
'3066' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMV' 'sip-files00123.txt'
70c8c6421862eedefef5475524ae4dc8
cf60a4747cfc7fbbf4d434533f8553a34f3af6f2
describe
'26184' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMW' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
e25873d5422a61d5629f20c2774c625d
a7ff6db99d2155e2abc0b2812a12904ceac9a1d2
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMX' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
25901fcaff0cb328f110f307e609f33b
b80de7754ed750cbc6b60587aa79dac1eeb1de87
describe
'215656' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMY' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
0dfbbcddd865bdbef235c40833e59f1e
44694d86dec3ab05bfacb8833e269d2491ec548d
describe
'76429' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABMZ' 'sip-files00124.pro'
fce23ac76058be0fcdbe80fcb5d0592b
8af4ced34b48b9472652a10669baa7c2f23eba97
describe
'73471' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNA' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
a07c99b80a59847479d34171200b9255
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describe
'3369252' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNB' 'sip-files00124.tif'
9cdc88754b433d7758c129bd61dc81cd
e5551153c6c5bd6e0e41099b6bfc0ff0da9d8c6d
describe
'3133' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNC' 'sip-files00124.txt'
1078f55a8c04bd5862e5502cd1e62888
d746fa6f2c49e84adb8c9d40f32cf4cdda330360
describe
'26546' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABND' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
afd57907d2222a2c3053501c766db47a
5f2e575c6c612bb6c20b3a97aeadc5fddacac336
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNE' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
d60a5e0bfe9cda6a03b107ef02afda8a
e280a5f284c99fa918541dcde7bb1e2080047bc1
describe
'204842' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNF' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
db71e2d183761245d2bc2b4f052b49bf
9f187bf4985b94c615e746cf636ab902a10a65c0
describe
'72586' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNG' 'sip-files00125.pro'
a5edc923dadc4ed3359f66dcfc811678
991933f72c6b8de8d9df8d2c26a71d827de1f599
describe
'70341' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNH' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
a1809eb663dcdc8406466ca97f88c87d
9cee0bcbf832a03907e41942d6c362e593e8d135
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNI' 'sip-files00125.tif'
ef5487197dfd78be514ac6d5a9bbed7a
4707ae5f5a6e9bc04d4aa21fcdd51429cbba9094
describe
'2985' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNJ' 'sip-files00125.txt'
b642193ec242ee4ff5b093a08fcf283e
608a324256f509533a3f1cb5799ad4c6a6f7dc5c
'2011-12-30T06:52:15-05:00'
describe
'25914' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNK' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
dc22158ead5f15fc18500cb8856b837c
c9ff3598a5adac983b049f8dcf4d0fb9c2cac62e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNL' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
fd967f3e8526f024f6bfafb09b2506bc
7e4f4f20370901d560558af6933e23a91b0882e5
describe
'223211' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNM' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
747896c172988ed1a7802e8f62db9246
af58f302a129b81db5d4cb974635d0405036452a
describe
'81313' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNN' 'sip-files00126.pro'
7ace8ec7cf7ecef73fbaf2d1c0958b10
c4c49e465e3f263d38c8b4f6b14fac6fef878a18
describe
'73574' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNO' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
84fce8340a6f32332696cd04f7a82705
1428cf60f3b5f9924176a865649ca70ce4d98648
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNP' 'sip-files00126.tif'
0cdf79c62d68544478ea9e46d4258060
09927349e54ee2b0de53fb91fef0f964d587e58d
describe
'3392' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNQ' 'sip-files00126.txt'
f9566d56db309feb4d89449a2bf9a1ca
c4f77cf24b53f303d04ed7ef7b7fcb9a2bf37fe1
'2011-12-30T06:52:48-05:00'
describe
'25961' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNR' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
2a9f6b1babbbf5edf469ffc2024c0370
efa428d3c5c67755a9f93a2d28c740d12850fec8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNS' 'sip-files00127.jp2'
f0e61ac48146d1e53bd7dfd309b2df1e
450a69d123ad6a55fe5c45d6dfa944fce62017e2
describe
'216745' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNT' 'sip-files00127.jpg'
1f592a37272db3306d37f41744af3fac
76d9cd9efb7f538d24c7093b32ef7461391fa87d
describe
'77495' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNU' 'sip-files00127.pro'
18e774ebce6e873f63b3708ba1b76d07
184b3a0d27f1aa3ea738183079176672ad1cd407
describe
'73068' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNV' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
3db1b1ef5775dc744989300b0a560d06
c7a5f6d8450da7d33b20f351bfe9ce80cd9c086e
describe
'3369128' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNW' 'sip-files00127.tif'
65be2a68321f952ed2b0fe1ee55b00d1
a6a2852dcc901677d12e59470064186ce7982266
describe
'3205' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNX' 'sip-files00127.txt'
80d502bbaeebad40116cdffd164f3355
76172972b3d05709b418734193b1837512a9e132
describe
'26298' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNY' 'sip-files00127thm.jpg'
4a121c1b43efa0a0d1fa890ffe0b3b1c
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describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABNZ' 'sip-files00128.jp2'
a8ebaa96e3db0d32af3498491d51ee96
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describe
'211567' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOA' 'sip-files00128.jpg'
936ee5db8454540d5f9f5bbcde3f100a
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describe
'75306' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOB' 'sip-files00128.pro'
d20834dc0148e4533b63c7767480e1a6
feba8b52e540201abc9034e09062cdda7dd85e3b
describe
'72517' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOC' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
b3b9bb6f67e3f16af25382ab1c9b4bc5
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describe
'3369180' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOD' 'sip-files00128.tif'
43e01c7a9fc8795b4b06f8c61b64db81
380894b2c2f3eccf4e4446b241328e9d7d2c6303
describe
'3111' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOE' 'sip-files00128.txt'
9d2b535db0d646ae9af461de37a0be91
224b944b8aa8cb981283cd952aca27a812f20ec6
'2011-12-30T06:54:25-05:00'
describe
'26171' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOF' 'sip-files00128thm.jpg'
76794efa9aefa8ef6c41e62959721986
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describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOG' 'sip-files00129.jp2'
11499b603a8039a6d9245448fa8bd73a
e747c44423dee40e4c1e6d9d5c38c45f4eee1517
describe
'222282' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOH' 'sip-files00129.jpg'
4846b4c76c9c201bf196683fd0e160bc
0b89ba9ba87d97328186c1ccbd7c709758980b92
describe
'79777' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOI' 'sip-files00129.pro'
b7af49ba1da575e4e404087a6864ac70
db65a1d9eca654bccf4b07d4889637d6c602119f
describe
'75435' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOJ' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
ef1e824a658554c2b1b5c8e6bdbb5b15
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describe
'3369552' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOK' 'sip-files00129.tif'
af76d20672620928055a831ca83493aa
8a8ba09cb2ecdf8957afb5937ccecec07b0d35c5
describe
'3291' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOL' 'sip-files00129.txt'
3e4e3be7bbf8d3af425f784bb4330147
09360cce5165ca52920dddb28b6089b9922fc168
describe
'26938' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOM' 'sip-files00129thm.jpg'
1022a5b606fa35117901ffe051cb437b
b250f1bc686ff47f891196295d83582b71508b8c
'2011-12-30T06:49:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABON' 'sip-files00130.jp2'
f0bd98686dceddd91f43df2efdf191b0
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describe
'221325' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOO' 'sip-files00130.jpg'
74bb234d700616bd8f000803b69e91d3
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describe
'81235' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOP' 'sip-files00130.pro'
3badafbd04e30919c1090ddf2e42c3f3
8e0e00426e5de60b47b633a3b247bc35d5e9ae6a
describe
'73891' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOQ' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
244df990e17604c9b3b9432845523d7e
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describe
'3369096' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOR' 'sip-files00130.tif'
4603965c5b696b8df7ffbaa21c70c4e4
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describe
'3337' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOS' 'sip-files00130.txt'
2a88dc0df637f6ac9c6873e6fc453ca0
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describe
'26129' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOT' 'sip-files00130thm.jpg'
b533be42b4d73adbbf732fe156b3c6a9
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describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOU' 'sip-files00131.jp2'
ff00d0f9a7da162010ad8fd73b7e9096
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describe
'209937' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOV' 'sip-files00131.jpg'
11d3e3192d0d43a2af98a57e25843110
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describe
'74420' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOW' 'sip-files00131.pro'
cc149d996685b19f2b6d3fe8c57ff894
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describe
'72210' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOX' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
ad1160838d28102109df9c28f1dc053e
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describe
'3369392' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOY' 'sip-files00131.tif'
d2619b16225f089b901ae4cf7caa5ad9
5354472102e880d3260972626d081f544214251b
describe
'3072' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABOZ' 'sip-files00131.txt'
80ae34bb6d28b1b472aaf8a026495740
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describe
'26362' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPA' 'sip-files00131thm.jpg'
cbce34f1b3f60d55b06f3e7abbbc5a53
ce4a908b579a6538daa29a07b1a4dec82d1ec566
'2011-12-30T06:53:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPB' 'sip-files00132.jp2'
279aef0e023605d752f8ec67705e4e8d
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describe
'220560' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPC' 'sip-files00132.jpg'
0ecc6f7cafd774652d4e8ed565a02884
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describe
'78664' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPD' 'sip-files00132.pro'
1396773e80aec50d4ce6616c0aa7f880
d1a9207f4a7350bde93bd374d0ab58f89e5b8300
describe
'74591' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPE' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
48db09c358b57d4d55f0cfad93092cf0
0296370fe7ab23de7d88de05f81658f3abc41a9d
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPF' 'sip-files00132.tif'
4c6148cf337de58065ff66b122ba948b
cb2def16e74dc2f32425cf79e381157b0d03b7c1
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPG' 'sip-files00132.txt'
6d64159a6b0cf54838d2c824a83604a5
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describe
'26715' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPH' 'sip-files00132thm.jpg'
644fd1fb4af976b1720286b45ebbb2f4
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describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPI' 'sip-files00133.jp2'
fb65d9df801611d8e63d84650429479f
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describe
'167696' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPJ' 'sip-files00133.jpg'
2673d156ace63ba82c3741c49b13d0d4
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describe
'58376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPK' 'sip-files00133.pro'
bc26645516f22dfdb34bfb2b21901641
09ce52d288b8c8f2cc17ac3e781771e42c82829b
describe
'59164' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPL' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
8e33d2d311a54101a3c563c5b9d1c582
ad1aedccba489264c48705249040a3c86dbaaf55
describe
'3368052' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPM' 'sip-files00133.tif'
059b07dd97966d3b09d4c31ed5ea647e
cd63dbf5c78709391870acdc9745442820231b4c
'2011-12-30T06:49:03-05:00'
describe
'2394' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPN' 'sip-files00133.txt'
23782d7dc5d77c7cc7b107c3e4d3f1fb
97755ebd3a75f4a206da26745079b4d89ba58043
describe
'22628' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPO' 'sip-files00133thm.jpg'
86cfab88963b565cef2ac87d59ff5189
4124099033a5ac0f27bf6779d1c3451ca6f677fe
'2011-12-30T06:50:01-05:00'
describe
'419371' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPP' 'sip-files00134.jp2'
6d7e077b05effa79ea86658d211f0d3c
566343e82e84ad8d45250b074acfabed23055e13
describe
'169096' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPQ' 'sip-files00134.jpg'
361def79208ff33a5531f1234759ff8f
72fc344cfe6c47c262a77c7b9a4058bf35a9146c
describe
'55871' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPR' 'sip-files00134.pro'
95e6809367320206fc6cd46ef6c413c1
badb5b98e5ec7e1903c5d58764d3078e79d9c7fb
'2011-12-30T06:48:52-05:00'
describe
'58235' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPS' 'sip-files00134.QC.jpg'
6ff4c5dce95804dedf84e9636843ab27
854747d6d4993dd4fe83faa70de68626bb749d57
describe
'3367872' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPT' 'sip-files00134.tif'
b5d9c3083a58af6194980614fb7e9a84
f4506c68848baef0c5dc77ba6952a8ea380a21d1
describe
'2364' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPU' 'sip-files00134.txt'
40e31a2b1f4eb9a499c0cb205988101c
e04a8d8ff0573c3111fb2a7110a90538299d24ca
'2011-12-30T06:52:25-05:00'
describe
'22342' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPV' 'sip-files00134thm.jpg'
5c807cf046331cc4531df661d2797fab
0b51c4cff332fbc9b6f6b8338347f60d3a6e9b0a
describe
'428978' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPW' 'sip-files00135.jp2'
2a7ca51b694f0efd4cf9c4ffde78ea38
797d45eb8a18b487e7a83700a50b86f83cb0d183
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPX' 'sip-files00135.jpg'
e3b9bea42db9e7adccfa72f6f697830f
0008d0dd0f6072779182ee830947b7230d429a19
describe
'1444' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPY' 'sip-files00135.pro'
f695d34d31dae1264ab504f5d09067ea
490ec23544652e79c6ada5d4ee59d0e4f7fe4464
describe
'28453' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABPZ' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
66a9c1eff87ce89c8f2f8e8795542050
82d3e55f4e58eed08fad1c482c21e78e5df4b50a
describe
'10305392' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQA' 'sip-files00135.tif'
139fe8cc7393e8fa143e8f5231f0b479
c952992090f1a9613649ed1d8ceafdf15eb33837
'2011-12-30T06:55:19-05:00'
describe
'134' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQB' 'sip-files00135.txt'
309035a86b5c90e472fb8db6c9436c47
46151f8712ac0eab119b41202afbf269f542e101
describe
'16641' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQC' 'sip-files00135thm.jpg'
da28d68264742b13296ae86ab29ac916
4407ea2486b12a2def24b49050115f76130778a7
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQD' 'sip-files00136.jp2'
fa35cfcd1bbb8c9773b4cbc9d030fec2
80e50823b5a56aa0ab80fbe0a001e3130dc8f8b8
describe
'235562' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQE' 'sip-files00136.jpg'
47303a6b1449c3de2b7f029bc474074f
cc53282d1dae2fd838c08e9978cd767a12d25cd1
describe
'79645' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQF' 'sip-files00136.pro'
eb5e70ec3972b62bcb21c892f417f01c
a2b599dff8ee0d7afdae9757d19290e4f09c8ac2
describe
'79871' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQG' 'sip-files00136.QC.jpg'
a4f3a176dbccf07f0831739ed3200f25
a7f273befa1c37a86f199a7e75e3c8eb9d02eb0f
describe
'3370044' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQH' 'sip-files00136.tif'
76b81e5e549503614d7377ea8ae1624a
8b357d5cc3c7f5781d4fb139008cd964e04eaf1d
describe
'3295' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQI' 'sip-files00136.txt'
f49a3a9f33ca652dcfb445d3e6edd45b
cb57b86dfd8d7569d834e7331ebf05ecd99579b9
describe
'28393' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQJ' 'sip-files00136thm.jpg'
c7d2824500e941104393b304f3140fc5
fd3b1b3f937c311db8fa0379efc7e00b74508593
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQK' 'sip-files00137.jp2'
62697e162d1858b794f7c925d933db0f
c38fcb8146701d10dbbce839a678ae828db76a4e
describe
'227415' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQL' 'sip-files00137.jpg'
7d1830113d30bb04707b7a1d3be16226
450bd878549dba68de796be35dce039d827202ca
describe
'79418' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQM' 'sip-files00137.pro'
83ae17dd872018378da6c085e8bf7750
3170104276a4909b69f5a7bcdcf71e5702b60d81
describe
'78410' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQN' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
e9446b2926364d920458204570de78ac
43a6933a5948d8aef8bf29693e7a57adc6abf639
describe
'3369920' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQO' 'sip-files00137.tif'
6bb9a459c6724a413aa1996e4a572152
cb65277850354dec91edd9c01cc6974f1aa2823b
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQP' 'sip-files00137.txt'
19447a54cc54b485a7d036c6f19aa6a6
8d9710ef3ef7c950b10659eef3366960f53d1b20
describe
'27935' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQQ' 'sip-files00137thm.jpg'
4dcfbef9f68aed80e7e76b19653aae6c
9f3ed1a2b07132eaf0b11f3c92b152353137fb65
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQR' 'sip-files00138.jp2'
d31bf6e6e0c239136e7f95251413a5f3
247baafaf73526d5b723742efb700b3afbcbbacf
describe
'227819' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQS' 'sip-files00138.jpg'
a5a318a95a30022b833d68993ffca6ce
e5ee74a46c834bb58658f016023be378c963f764
'2011-12-30T06:49:50-05:00'
describe
'78716' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQT' 'sip-files00138.pro'
c78db08169f2e5bf99d8cc78d83368c6
4e4608ec7cfa37b1ff9271e5f44feb6d5563ee79
describe
'77740' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQU' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
a6a435d5d386e3d75fc643dbf257b0e7
3822a62756229f0018c466cdbba8feb9ad2f2dfe
describe
'3370056' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQV' 'sip-files00138.tif'
2b0c394afacd130d7322878d935ea761
61517d3a69d95d922a022bb728bb98da037b7dad
describe
'3256' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQW' 'sip-files00138.txt'
1e843fcdd8df37ca0d8def1d811ff9b8
31e086f5c7a154f5abb6cfe4f1747c1c7654810e
describe
'28148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQX' 'sip-files00138thm.jpg'
a624c55f753af7ae40828d6f17313d90
2ae1144fb7081ec6f8d5553741348e9ad1e45c4b
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQY' 'sip-files00139.jp2'
50d87a5a0e2e91d66dfa65aebfb5fcaf
6553d8fed755d69359c871b100ea14e10e936f78
describe
'218998' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABQZ' 'sip-files00139.jpg'
0cc486a415fd45a4e266468095e4e430
74a0c8e543ae1829a0c1a6a1ca1ba2221bd96088
describe
'74753' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRA' 'sip-files00139.pro'
6c898972b89e68c402316a710a426d03
9b6ebeedb822ad9a2dd48f8d87fd5eaf8126fe9a
describe
'76287' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRB' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
5789f8043b15e9789d4d34043297ba9e
f8bd904172a3caa84312bdeb41af4f9b9f8de5d3
describe
'3369808' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRC' 'sip-files00139.tif'
3fb4376dcf6c889ecbb06a5adf7332ed
4a81ec38ce5c22060befa2d86596bf671994a6fd
'2011-12-30T06:54:51-05:00'
describe
'3076' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRD' 'sip-files00139.txt'
8d248f995e1f8d4659f59090ec8c8b22
940a5e7d9c2f78b66bc40e0e6814d5bd95e20795
describe
'27753' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRE' 'sip-files00139thm.jpg'
b4074ecd8e2ccb0934ea4a91a1faa47e
9ae95b74394b91005861b7e60f46436b1976b68d
describe
'419368' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRF' 'sip-files00140.jp2'
77e1ef58d6b2bb026227e459a93df3ac
d09f65873976dc51232679566b51fcc3b360736b
'2011-12-30T06:53:51-05:00'
describe
'203960' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRG' 'sip-files00140.jpg'
0f9fd832a704f0e92cee85b0de96093c
4975ac01eb45fad7652c0e93a6c7ca0dc576986f
describe
'68025' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRH' 'sip-files00140.pro'
64ccd0cdf9c571818e2b8c3b2bfea96e
eb7d9e34cf703778825b076b3d562a7740a6765c
describe
'71590' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRI' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
bc90deadd1ed3e032f7d1fa75541bcd5
c7e4d7d2f87af19834f1794b026303c725132b64
describe
'3369748' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRJ' 'sip-files00140.tif'
d238525e03719ee66ade43d0246fab18
ad3aeae775ab1ba51ab9da70e95168b0403f3f41
describe
'2808' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRK' 'sip-files00140.txt'
1769de372046bd4b3bd021c966539050
35c2c4a675364df9718407d691d67f921c858fda
describe
'27144' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRL' 'sip-files00140thm.jpg'
77e31a892bc19b2ab9661fdfac8851c0
694175a1586f2db5209f4a35412f3b045d44b851
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRM' 'sip-files00141.jp2'
f0da828f4ccb7d4291aeafaead688b17
10bd836205844189c9e9bc319e39390a4ac1fd32
describe
'211940' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRN' 'sip-files00141.jpg'
30d65e71cb95aa3da46fff63a899971d
2b46425708a8e6e1cb3c8612e9f379abd0a3161e
describe
'72759' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRO' 'sip-files00141.pro'
b3b60e94c51e5d6de611a89ec9a25e7b
2beee2087fcd89dc98d1f242c392b8af1d2df3b7
describe
'75254' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRP' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
84844a3ef2296cd61a3446f6ea34b73f
cb2e1d82b2242485e856a021f69fb93580b763e5
describe
'3369856' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRQ' 'sip-files00141.tif'
765fca87cabf2ec20e1f1cd14b508677
1c5f344113aadefbbbaefe4aac947b5eb9963996
'2011-12-30T06:54:15-05:00'
describe
'3013' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRR' 'sip-files00141.txt'
89d12697799b0166b64bc26d159c8ee2
8651348a9c8f32d8e671bb5310899704f04c6db0
describe
'27702' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRS' 'sip-files00141thm.jpg'
320ca072ba3852e6aa24641f26d17d89
8247ce99e2b96ee456ae64e937f317895768f1f3
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRT' 'sip-files00142.jp2'
e1e5c428a72a2139101dda07c96d103f
ce0f157d950dff338f4dee9e60757b062e298613
describe
'220908' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRU' 'sip-files00142.jpg'
123468eed8e1df21613bf03cbbc69e5b
5743e585a708f8e82f08b8fca64bf0f466883070
describe
'76512' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRV' 'sip-files00142.pro'
249cdbf6ffcd801c2594b472bcdc4466
78d3007b2de533da84b3b625015f9696b3e4fd8a
describe
'76635' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRW' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
1a63e17a5419001139adcfa98d68397f
d6ef455de2e289c59840ff49ae14f6eadb0cac89
describe
'3369728' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRX' 'sip-files00142.tif'
ac010dc12f6999addedaeaf550e48d06
1a4c8483423279829613d2598179f952181c308d
describe
'3129' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRY' 'sip-files00142.txt'
828cd7558772fcd8bc6aa322b22db1e8
6406386758b55595344e23f7d656b0d9061c2b1e
describe
'27423' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABRZ' 'sip-files00142thm.jpg'
ea5d72f97245331c282db95b7d0c3bad
16b3f22e330671023cbef21b8e1681b744471149
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSA' 'sip-files00143.jp2'
e5a8aca8c20dde5cc91de913baad5eaa
60c64b28f76e56d4e2b3bfa311dd40b9a57cd325
describe
'223300' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSB' 'sip-files00143.jpg'
e4029d007c65caa22dbe58ff9388c177
0f451e95e417d7343b6de0e9d20e55e24230c36d
'2011-12-30T06:52:54-05:00'
describe
'76854' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSC' 'sip-files00143.pro'
97a31da3b5c382792fc8fddb96468ab7
3acd3a4f2a9415ee0e88e730ae150b6ed2914d79
describe
'75711' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSD' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
bcef72391dd4017d177e55ef0a96253a
a58c501fd63735f5f1262a16bf53f226f141cf11
describe
'3369824' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSE' 'sip-files00143.tif'
609d1b01b7c5fa543fb4cb657e2a813e
e67006e68e53d154a0f9f0afc7dc6977ad9df922
describe
'3175' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSF' 'sip-files00143.txt'
0053de192ea9dc3109bcaf6dbe37e4cc
55f6c11970113576c9cf7546f4bbdfb0d253ca5b
describe
'27119' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSG' 'sip-files00143thm.jpg'
7f50fde113bc6f7482b1d62c9e9d1f7b
8cf0a387288921af5f83f9733a51e3249c547b59
describe
'426301' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSH' 'sip-files00144.jp2'
e2c165d89262e6ca70c752b16fac6e71
bdbdfa02150bbba0341e456637f39730eba076c6
describe
'94576' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSI' 'sip-files00144.jpg'
a5b8cdf035a04dcc33c0e4696e3f2534
65389cb1c72c6ea3d98384eee20933cac490e96f
describe
'1000' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSJ' 'sip-files00144.pro'
1733ebbe3987e0769d3bdddb59afdb24
76e259a229f1f7270148a6cef3398e42ee793703
describe
'34879' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSK' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
e8d735b9614a0484fe396e4920251080
66ce5f752bb72dbcbf71ba3529c20b17c41b5e58
describe
'10242764' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSL' 'sip-files00144.tif'
94a084de5cd37aef15e60a82d415040a
799bb80339ec600c3c0df380daa963e8ac0c49fb
describe
'62' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSM' 'sip-files00144.txt'
13144c840fa6327de360e2a3fbeeea66
4d5641247607ef99021d4c5ffcdc4d6231b8491b
describe
Invalid character
'19376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSN' 'sip-files00144thm.jpg'
de5936071c4333acdf62efed3a1ac232
9ff2820eab2940258a38409afc3beebb8dbfc0ba
'2011-12-30T06:51:57-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSO' 'sip-files00145.jp2'
dc4f6d776f10dbd787f19ec12e3f1e3c
2f4aae0032cdde44941ffef6dc8df30098e6a86d
describe
'237738' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSP' 'sip-files00145.jpg'
dbc8ebeb3fff84ff47a195e0e83a0bbc
d4dd2934cb623fadcd236d970ee86a31e017a5c8
describe
'81454' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSQ' 'sip-files00145.pro'
3e4e3182d5dd6296a3925fde38079553
8145807b6cf097d48d5ccc6c947c40b570121db8
describe
'80585' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSR' 'sip-files00145.QC.jpg'
f0dab9627fb3e0ef8e40cfebc227bdf3
a770231fae5631ceb4e48e8d90b5fc36aecea133
describe
'3369848' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSS' 'sip-files00145.tif'
7acdbd932c3e4406a35d1d5bac8ca406
142dcf07b6aa53f2abeaa752ca0fd0cbac12007d
describe
'3417' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABST' 'sip-files00145.txt'
f96c992212706eb55029666b3bf922e1
fbf0ebce58ffc52fb934fb91e8cc83d399f6a84d
describe
'28134' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSU' 'sip-files00145thm.jpg'
0aff21369c34272a8b01fe09f0a41831
25209aedf561342acc233db41b0a600f19da2bda
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSV' 'sip-files00146.jp2'
61b4f45a8df71d2cdf9ac6e82553a61d
9fd62a9c2bc14dac74b37c57a6f87a10c6e54288
describe
'223346' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSW' 'sip-files00146.jpg'
31b5cd872ca9833dff24019f0c2d962e
010aa3c4981446b62a1aa4f1e7e14e4405c17584
describe
'77608' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSX' 'sip-files00146.pro'
ff9845a3ab15870bc6feb79dfe243f6a
8eafdb924aa818d44a87c2bb52d017b8539a8674
describe
'77850' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSY' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
b893e440e5a231fb6eeed28e987cf41b
cd76bb5a51b0246cd65337f81703de0dc0e623a1
'2011-12-30T06:53:11-05:00'
describe
'3369840' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABSZ' 'sip-files00146.tif'
ed6b2ac62f4ddd06fee49842ed42e2e5
333d7556772d0a20f15debdd390846f4f7795518
describe
'3192' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTA' 'sip-files00146.txt'
b687a78faf3e9edc53b725e90cbe59a8
68765ec8c944e6d23bc87fcaea6b9e9b9fc6894c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTB' 'sip-files00146thm.jpg'
6b9f6e02fb64ede832e8ef458a50b67d
c0a3cf970ca0d231cdbe9cea6ccb71fe7895427a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTC' 'sip-files00147.jp2'
c9a505f59a50a19ea52bd380dfe56246
7ad0fd677017b72c42937b3a32a79cb7ab4c499c
describe
'223426' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTD' 'sip-files00147.jpg'
2cd258d0e4e5b7e71b5583cb396646e4
5ee752bd5a0e09765866be2c46b94a2265081d5f
describe
'76920' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTE' 'sip-files00147.pro'
6fc3928b50eb41021a7262601a5905e2
c2f94ea39e0d3995819ad686e03e49ca5300fa6f
describe
'76790' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTF' 'sip-files00147.QC.jpg'
75bade9529d3b10bc59dd0133f360170
a3f6c07feadc7f94e65d34c86ad829bb5e9ccb0b
describe
'3369860' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTG' 'sip-files00147.tif'
bb2f6888996167bddcb2934dde7089fa
f7609072fe8452fa40bf68b35fdea1b8557c77b9
describe
'3146' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTH' 'sip-files00147.txt'
402d37483e07f2b869be5764dcf732c4
228b008e0aa9d4dcdb88c25e63fc7159039a78e6
describe
'27885' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTI' 'sip-files00147thm.jpg'
75a5053716b2169c7d608b367ee02952
800ea5f4a7aecef0af80675deaad888c09ff8f58
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTJ' 'sip-files00148.jp2'
c18eeadad96b96acfae6490bd0c3dbbf
dde83e4a3c0eec116c1dd0080c13ac5607948976
'2011-12-30T06:49:49-05:00'
describe
'188176' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTK' 'sip-files00148.jpg'
5d2f3e313c460e0be67c095fbbc3aeb6
76f16ba2c0f0aaae4c742d7f714c1a26680661b5
describe
'62776' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTL' 'sip-files00148.pro'
85cb3ea592c3e715b6bd9dcaaff02a6f
2d902dec718fffbc60f68d3570f7fb59760d4341
describe
'67464' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTM' 'sip-files00148.QC.jpg'
483858298723a65f321ae3609179a164
08dda52bd6fe6174874a1205034f125cb53add46
'2011-12-30T06:49:40-05:00'
describe
'3368956' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTN' 'sip-files00148.tif'
65371af28033cb22b63e87cf5d5fbe06
1bd2e69cea25d65a2e279ae32a004608d8f2c6e8
'2011-12-30T06:53:41-05:00'
describe
'2583' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTO' 'sip-files00148.txt'
c50c76b2d782bc0de6fcd2ae76862eac
b84be1649113963f73f34e2f6c94be9dadc41ff1
describe
'24909' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTP' 'sip-files00148thm.jpg'
3e39d7e59f4137e34e96ed315edd91f1
54f20afc8b4525dcef5480f742e9d2f1c2a7c0fd
describe
'438672' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTQ' 'sip-files00149.jp2'
ddb1bae939e7a0cabc6c3e56d581dec2
e44282e4c5d7ea5f96de8d89193f591c1a666236
'2011-12-30T06:49:34-05:00'
describe
'93059' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTR' 'sip-files00149.jpg'
71e997f9836954b82303671d46aa855f
a2760f5d49647be247a1590e59dc90804dcaaac0
describe
'1792' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTS' 'sip-files00149.pro'
f74f168bc4b4dfa3e26310d8d89e103b
314a302514d16c9b8996a2cc958670710d3acb00
describe
'34891' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTT' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
a274e98bc9b13adf38b9baf2c4a01b66
44702b70d322ca9b9e4923045dfbe421dd9f837e
describe
'10541592' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTU' 'sip-files00149.tif'
7b80dd505b9e43a068877b076377cde7
d02ba2e2646deed827bf7c3c3130f4c6f52b815e
describe
'77' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTV' 'sip-files00149.txt'
f3a462b681dee79e1b2bde44d319b4df
717d045108f8cf4d82be8a4b1c6370a7c160e650
describe
'19463' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTW' 'sip-files00149thm.jpg'
735e4441bbaac166701607214397b6a0
319e9ded348ee9252a9ec9bccc6a4af7a91177a6
describe
'419374' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTX' 'sip-files00150.jp2'
31c73a1d9f1d52bdfbb6c3a4e7fa016b
30afccb332288023796f134a96530ba74f7dfbf5
describe
'169554' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTY' 'sip-files00150.jpg'
30746ce748aeeab290a636ee9ee2ec5a
f9208ce6a02c9dd7add2d72d50df385b6adb1190
describe
'54940' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABTZ' 'sip-files00150.pro'
c0aaf9c5f6ced2ff5992aa484c143404
a9d5bf522307a67907834f49f09d89ae52b9a1f4
describe
'59368' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUA' 'sip-files00150.QC.jpg'
c3021db307c3ba6c324d1441be42a203
b194209bfb84db5ebac4e99379671c9e0b23417d
describe
'3368284' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUB' 'sip-files00150.tif'
9a3b89be425e0596b569bbabb8e62406
a2f32464926318ae19859264c6cd54f840e882bc
describe
'2339' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUC' 'sip-files00150.txt'
87175540ce94774c5db80ad681846a25
8986b88423142b2ab0a7ca6903f7403f7001f65a
describe
'23127' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUD' 'sip-files00150thm.jpg'
bbefaa1e89996ba4b31ddc3c1ee46b8b
1a9d9902d4683e199a8765b8f33fd4ecf48879e9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUE' 'sip-files00151.jp2'
5c41d2c84348fa9ba20f8af1a11e7a18
0729e7461cf1c7e8e170621eb018f93d84b548f4
describe
'174102' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUF' 'sip-files00151.jpg'
3b0ea6d9d4241827aba36d9ff0f30965
29e30975a5de6fbb93ee3a7062199620cff80ab0
describe
'60218' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUG' 'sip-files00151.pro'
1b240885059344d997eb72c6a102ffb8
bfa00bac22c7f19d36e9437231a9dfcc60d75d12
describe
'62048' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUH' 'sip-files00151.QC.jpg'
6114ac31bfa9754781dad5b471aca624
428d6967991ba11ec18260f89c29e715e6717c1f
describe
'3368844' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUI' 'sip-files00151.tif'
8f31c1e9730ec50fbb8e7b638d79387c
d311eef1c6c85668dc1b19eb62e93da9558918fe
'2011-12-30T06:54:47-05:00'
describe
'2802' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUJ' 'sip-files00151.txt'
3bc01820a2ff9ac828f7d7f8d9c7be26
7030e5571dfda84112799ad34863e6667254c848
describe
'24527' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUK' 'sip-files00151thm.jpg'
a557938d9de4c5dc38cdec98d9907058
6550c16558d3ed45945aec690e8bc93989a48d77
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUL' 'sip-files00152.jp2'
1320c4be03fa7a1ce68b17eef7ae4de7
3a05936117e86800039bcb2d7ac514ac6f5c2129
describe
'229542' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUM' 'sip-files00152.jpg'
f51117f8179a511fee0bc8ea5713fa43
8072975b8e2b2b63e61ec39719296ce80a9630b0
describe
'79637' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUN' 'sip-files00152.pro'
b67a1ab75f3461f8616d30df7a5c4fe5
0aada1b04fcde0b0865545c3f1eb310f7085f372
'2011-12-30T06:52:06-05:00'
describe
'79556' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUO' 'sip-files00152.QC.jpg'
3d0ac4ff4f7165763e7111b6e2453ac6
8acde197d14a76659def3c2fc6b87b773d75454f
describe
'3370104' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUP' 'sip-files00152.tif'
1e10599dfd0786faf3d456ebbdbdc749
848ffb365f7fd8b7f1cb3e7bee291f3c93de7c25
describe
'3252' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUQ' 'sip-files00152.txt'
8619fb8108b01f77f4068969ea7351a0
8bd824b2ddde65e9d635cd59a93fd566f35296d3
'2011-12-30T06:52:34-05:00'
describe
'28483' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUR' 'sip-files00152thm.jpg'
81f035435b10e10b8a2c8fbedc621ad4
2f6817d9ea9c28b282e2d5b45ac01332447af663
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUS' 'sip-files00153.jp2'
98f81e897ac996203b32536492f56806
1c30ce62c418a4d5815b572ea72c68e2f92a3606
describe
'236276' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUT' 'sip-files00153.jpg'
3a1fb95114437ed0cb433aab3a6c3c37
7621f83b2e411b1051b579e67f6d33b8e60cdeb7
describe
'80198' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUU' 'sip-files00153.pro'
c269bee29f7cd9172b3c673cd3bc0d1b
06fcd0eeba5493b8b280c838037599726738ff53
describe
'78948' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUV' 'sip-files00153.QC.jpg'
5f57a37237d5e101ab6cab99aa74e519
330e2ceb0baeb8b05d12a634a5aa586fd15c981d
describe
'3370000' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUW' 'sip-files00153.tif'
bced7c4af53ebaa626057122720ad4bd
38e97a6daa32b1aeb4a3d17a4c6c0e505f5a6310
'2011-12-30T06:53:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUX' 'sip-files00153.txt'
ff3e2b2b826b71a89005715375da6dd3
174953c0c5916af6fd3be690011aeccb28203131
describe
'28198' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUY' 'sip-files00153thm.jpg'
568928ccfb81a09e4628324335491a18
089ec6b0a4178eb1956c83d47d74caf15ee058f1
describe
'461557' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABUZ' 'sip-files00154.jp2'
f5da126ad131c820c06b911249fc89b0
e4e994a86e91f7748ff0e066e0e98f4cc57e20a2
describe
'80850' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVA' 'sip-files00154.jpg'
33ad71225763e229ae3c7fe543308d22
76cbe554feea31b82b84297143523dc1197f3a77
describe
'1128' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVB' 'sip-files00154.pro'
5fe44c5b1f98ec049a2f659ef5f6d656
e9f78b12f632621936a901d43533cb0b93070b44
describe
'29225' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVC' 'sip-files00154.QC.jpg'
032f0974f8fb9b559608919a65196979
2eb6957c5bb543784b2f6d020d416f6e91e4cdc3
describe
'11087904' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVD' 'sip-files00154.tif'
8b7d9981fe51c517956f5b6beb1a727f
917bfee2321cb865470fec53932635360bc5b8f6
describe
'83' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVE' 'sip-files00154.txt'
3b68f33046585a7cc8ea72cdb4fe1cb6
ebda189f3719310e165ebad03618b2c05b53d3f7
describe
'17059' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVF' 'sip-files00154thm.jpg'
b40339c31d866b4803be429da0d18add
1bd93db2f086ae5e5a7d9145ef0f49a034759a51
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVG' 'sip-files00155.jp2'
a22917cd1e6571a4d48c4bb76f99e6f8
4581e0969d18c03fddddde2e9f1daa75a9fc9628
describe
'229290' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVH' 'sip-files00155.jpg'
f4dcdb7d575b51aec32ce3e01d4fd324
4f4afd6e02340b83475c071905e55144a5d1e923
describe
'77753' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVI' 'sip-files00155.pro'
a14fe7f27bf7f7b3051901775aca920b
e091e6279b3b5224bba87e5bd4ee049291d54620
describe
'77381' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVJ' 'sip-files00155.QC.jpg'
bdcce43dfeb8cc66b43b6a3c276610b9
8f939ae1c31f43253ee3d7b95372329732032df1
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVK' 'sip-files00155.tif'
9959ade2067bbb0e2c48899b5828ee52
83e559eee7bb15d42da93d4d629199871ccd6aa7
describe
'3273' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVL' 'sip-files00155.txt'
6b9a161f569fab9489299b43015e1ae6
0fb671b194ab3e118337c638b08c99a5c10fe665
describe
'28168' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVM' 'sip-files00155thm.jpg'
d7c8e2a3815bc976b3564bf5b3afdbd6
8fe645854e8b6e62b7f00345ad8e69ee78e440b2
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVN' 'sip-files00156.jp2'
14068c08a2caf173d14d1f766315b898
b2dece8ab38753930e7869853ea540f309f1fc05
describe
'197494' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVO' 'sip-files00156.jpg'
71b3dc99512b4bec9d16bfe261b59315
754ddaebb6d252e0ad2f4e474381f0db03f7884b
describe
'68988' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVP' 'sip-files00156.pro'
36a378d5dabf4e1120bf8773836b3245
0abab85d2e5bdc86e9985e5e04a834550b27e8ab
describe
'68271' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVQ' 'sip-files00156.QC.jpg'
f70fa96816029015dcd7527dfa688c5a
51436305e375ca588cc99e410519d9ec29b0a5c6
describe
'3369080' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVR' 'sip-files00156.tif'
e00e245efa28e8e8fcfc2c36842e207f
60a12ce90e75d81e2f557a78cf7e20be63fed1e6
'2011-12-30T06:49:24-05:00'
describe
'2897' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVS' 'sip-files00156.txt'
e026e7b0bd12a62f9c47dde2f7b6dddf
5056950b289fb180d64b81d692a0e529d2dc2ce2
describe
'25370' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVT' 'sip-files00156thm.jpg'
1f8f933cca7269d1ad6180ca7e1eb5c2
5be09d3cfb89ca94adc99269c4bfe7022dff8437
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVU' 'sip-files00157.jp2'
31dc89661cabe16eb84b72761b0cf7df
541853e5c2b006f0c2c1ce883c77c7d1c22dfc26
describe
'209159' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVV' 'sip-files00157.jpg'
50e628d671ffe1b28ec056599f025ecf
205133053f5439c7a5bcf4c6e48974c9a451f370
describe
'72651' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVW' 'sip-files00157.pro'
1325318353afd011ae7ecd814c24049f
098e78bf4789c8cc8e4260d23f7a9f279d8e4e95
describe
'72533' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVX' 'sip-files00157.QC.jpg'
524cb06fcba0414e739db7947783b03e
fd18e6ff745bd1261a7b590edf21d67e9d224e9a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVY' 'sip-files00157.tif'
9b1808bb4e8bd972c527d62a732c0152
c3eee913868ffbe29c6716a561ec5ba12ea48852
describe
'3005' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABVZ' 'sip-files00157.txt'
92bf0553cdafcef79460350411c491d7
a21f200056b4ab657fead157d92a2a396860d43c
describe
'26397' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWA' 'sip-files00157thm.jpg'
e0d51cad6f0964932830caa6a4bc0cec
3c01441d741f96e6ddbb80bfd272034b625ceb81
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWB' 'sip-files00158.jp2'
5eea0f142bc42064cec4d290c145c478
e293ad1517861180aa2e2a169f3193f1be273b3c
describe
'220917' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWC' 'sip-files00158.jpg'
7e41ea255f7e57965c0abdc92517686b
b5f83a11d4249c2e930b9540e10b72364e59f5e2
describe
'75732' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWD' 'sip-files00158.pro'
64724f040ef8e6000de7ce95f0e9a399
aeb5541d254bdb0d089a0e0d98562516901708f1
describe
'74904' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWE' 'sip-files00158.QC.jpg'
b5396079a41b1db9acd82edceed2d60e
cfb919fab214004be08a2a9ee8b149444d909f75
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWF' 'sip-files00158.tif'
4d88177563cf18494f53feff5f04b8f1
33ff6e033116322ebdf1a00764f8c9a05ae4475e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWG' 'sip-files00158.txt'
7aecafd0238825f183bde5a2027a2ca9
e1f7ecae623aba9d14eeed8fd237a5f08d8a26f0
describe
'26974' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWH' 'sip-files00158thm.jpg'
ea7521d71202e470c9dfbf4d9b0b6133
de935ea84fd6feb92bda9252762cfedae8332ac6
describe
'401886' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWI' 'sip-files00159.jp2'
c973f9c06bd6cab666b9fa53737f7e64
399e79d23669dad261707202c5e7bf8803c31151
describe
'90284' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWJ' 'sip-files00159.jpg'
628bad2df248b994206f46560a7bc8da
725dbd5d3bd81e419d2c8bee83c84d06f3493364
'2011-12-30T06:47:59-05:00'
describe
'1906' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWK' 'sip-files00159.pro'
fdb25f62250d27ab79c58e7fa91f0b47
41d85d4ce0f588d8774a6d5d9651b88c4df85368
describe
'35648' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWL' 'sip-files00159.QC.jpg'
fe473f9aa6c666830ec530b67fc7f7ec
0f2402df376bf47b6a085812e6c61818391003cc
describe
'9660036' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWM' 'sip-files00159.tif'
e334d973029743a24635b5be5e314d36
a417677e6e278d2cf9545fdf381f216ee650cd08
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWN' 'sip-files00159.txt'
f42a4132e524a42307957b283664c192
b69a355d53e531698a31217eccf0e4204cb2c739
describe
'20467' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWO' 'sip-files00159thm.jpg'
2a92427faa19e6260761cd4943ed6724
3027b66575199d407fdd2ba47d32ca1c23cf0228
describe
'419447' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWP' 'sip-files00160.jp2'
c15b73c90b4a9acd2033b0ec99047fec
efe34408bd6e3ebc576fc6617dd4bce3d433c6a7
describe
'222386' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWQ' 'sip-files00160.jpg'
418694743c0f6d2a80e3ab655cee43a6
e2963b375718ecab57b01e53acebbc5fa57b962a
describe
'74117' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWR' 'sip-files00160.pro'
d5def1e62ec7dd37d3cb7f07e2459045
cc54f3354cdb4119f66891ed57372cdfdc96cb4a
describe
'76294' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWS' 'sip-files00160.QC.jpg'
fbbcc6a5b284e219075ef77e437f9033
60be6a09bb546e76c594a9c940c86fbbf0883b8e
describe
'3370008' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWT' 'sip-files00160.tif'
634f0a2c6ea187df4efe74f459cbeb5a
42f795cd9414ae159a7914f776adbfd4962ea219
describe
'3063' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWU' 'sip-files00160.txt'
d9eebd8f5cf2c8c9247f465a77e5b729
0d8c8221487457980705f8257c3c34fd669b2ef4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWV' 'sip-files00160thm.jpg'
bc66c561bbfefd0b3eb7ea48ed211a38
f5c9157ba99eda9bc664e9f1eb619d403613223c
describe
'419405' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWW' 'sip-files00161.jp2'
6262eaaaa2b4a56c98b79d7aa4fa3fc8
14a8bce123c59bb3686683e3e55158339d75e3a0
describe
'189563' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWX' 'sip-files00161.jpg'
f874840413dcc355c7ddf57c2e1f6cb9
23e1cd5414a92f4e74c9c7282676cb81c2f155da
describe
'65987' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWY' 'sip-files00161.pro'
d8f79f05ee091130489bdd09269ba122
c77a5cd51973ea5e6f2d1e9d31e54f6e7f0d330b
describe
'68211' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABWZ' 'sip-files00161.QC.jpg'
51accdfeeb6d44e31364ee734735da95
3d94bc675723b483f1bbae2f47e1b28a595178b4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXA' 'sip-files00161.tif'
2099724a274db4f060035f6fba3e7ce2
c9a9d9ba0e7a04568748a96a647cb268e62dc3a5
describe
'2796' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXB' 'sip-files00161.txt'
03f55bf887cb879ddc98ae4c6e6949b6
014713c2c7fe4ad85e58fb3e33341a4c52d55390
describe
'26019' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXC' 'sip-files00161thm.jpg'
72d5c0fe925d6d62119c6ab86f52e37d
33e90f13742c85945414abc136e75680dda83ab9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXD' 'sip-files00162.jp2'
f856cd31cb8d9bb62cda743601787131
a7d12c18f518448efe2f6ba5c66aa3c6dd85a018
describe
'221858' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXE' 'sip-files00162.jpg'
4d3dfea85fc8ebbe7b16613d1ae9d1cb
d83fc82cfd90154ff01b9453b64013451e28f9b2
describe
'76077' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXF' 'sip-files00162.pro'
972fc27b940c73c4fbb36f3625eecaf4
8d22fbd9657315dd0f59c4c9b610310b19cc7063
describe
'75359' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXG' 'sip-files00162.QC.jpg'
e3387bdb048de024e492308738123149
863f4b7f9f8de93e9a9aaf0e0f8df6b9bed50203
describe
'3369772' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXH' 'sip-files00162.tif'
ecd6bd692ed63cb4db60ad4c0279abb9
54488bb6f11ecb15307a75c1cc05e122ce9208e4
describe
'3117' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXI' 'sip-files00162.txt'
65cd1b1ff336e56f44b4e08fce7c0cb7
286d8a5857ab6c2f9b6e2363211de713fb536168
'2011-12-30T06:48:58-05:00'
describe
'27123' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXJ' 'sip-files00162thm.jpg'
caa82a7514c55f6b77a9e43057ab6931
6db7af316bb0329f53ab6eabd90f33a686a0b9c8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXK' 'sip-files00163.jp2'
f451acdbdbc43b82f4698822ad5c0e33
26ef5fecfec0ed208080b901e914604bdcd31be6
'2011-12-30T06:51:35-05:00'
describe
'217454' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXL' 'sip-files00163.jpg'
1e4615a0395e07ba8d96efe2785a189e
90e66272ac46abdfbea83f17c8b2e68d1d0746d8
describe
'73983' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXM' 'sip-files00163.pro'
417a9c9a86a4af6d82cd0a607b730049
3fb3154dffb1dda82e005c6d8379326fb7cc0a05
describe
'73616' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXN' 'sip-files00163.QC.jpg'
514dc55d0e443f16a8c0090264c5dd9e
6db4c58ff2e82746e6d240b57733ca62a972930b
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXO' 'sip-files00163.tif'
1c699fd0a0bfd9138a7ba7db87df0c72
66d97ed7e06b360e8f5b4c33b7d97fd8bd54049c
describe
'3050' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXP' 'sip-files00163.txt'
12d01d0e255db0c055b32837b252dc19
7fc23e3d2268f2d0c0387ed15b237e0e6b2b9133
describe
'27030' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXQ' 'sip-files00163thm.jpg'
2b2e6f516df1065b7ff7359e3ed8d69d
77a5718140e62351210bae9fad2f2c17f06f113d
describe
'466094' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXR' 'sip-files00164.jp2'
5109cbfd69eb483dd0434091a9e83969
b6d2131646cab59e720537716a799098e78a4467
describe
'168732' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXS' 'sip-files00164.jpg'
c23a78dd13d71a3ad56b3b6aedccba9a
7e0e14bc8e0e0d9d95060534a3342da9f4b20e72
describe
'1720' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXT' 'sip-files00164.pro'
faa8965290326ee7cfb31f401eeb860f
53d338babd10b28702d491e2be85dbd923d0da66
describe
'55249' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXU' 'sip-files00164.QC.jpg'
23368e81174e28584befc17f67b3f976
bd191fe1da8051875662eecaa5b1875218519263
describe
'11198032' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXV' 'sip-files00164.tif'
3a6ea1eeac2cdac314f5981d5d0e723b
914b43f6ee02be1f75d858f0bbf17fa1e005262e
describe
'135' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXW' 'sip-files00164.txt'
9f4f5eb1679fac3347dd756ae430b03e
b67706a5f56f3949c0345573c72b02303550996d
describe
'24710' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXX' 'sip-files00164thm.jpg'
eb24cea0e4b71c2841ebd4fb0a4f1aff
883960ea004f49038fcd9438097120b966357007
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXY' 'sip-files00165.jp2'
073cbc16db9e1f5a1fca3b35cff9001f
20276a62b8723cb62741764638c134dff330b57b
describe
'172595' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABXZ' 'sip-files00165.jpg'
24168436896c1a6ce26a70e58ebdc3f8
a8526d121051a549e577285ce6a0f3171a33c315
describe
'55746' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYA' 'sip-files00165.pro'
fce64f9222923a65068f234931604cf7
7a0b70544319f84377128f797c9fa277aa6d3eab
describe
'59433' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYB' 'sip-files00165.QC.jpg'
cb7bbe4336911583ec0270674fd11c90
7b9fe5ada53bec4f162da10ac74356f42968fa90
describe
'3368116' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYC' 'sip-files00165.tif'
e8546aa81df48717e5edf7e5aaf03109
5361d8c12d3e0d6356f20ab3cac70bb39b6be641
describe
'2345' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYD' 'sip-files00165.txt'
c31991e3a8de8c1b3225cd5130a8289d
774a6b20f0f4bcd635193c599c55d3fa4e23f62a
describe
'22783' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYE' 'sip-files00165thm.jpg'
19b3036c0f6cf55735bdfc41810651d0
f5ad9aa30cab9e2badb5e0dcf66d07149b10b24e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYF' 'sip-files00166.jp2'
bc2d33b6a173d87052bb38a043bcd4ff
b063835fefff92648657dcd7d09cc35dc29cf084
describe
'209401' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYG' 'sip-files00166.jpg'
7b15342ec519c3f54febe1f03beb22ba
ddebf285e02fe25177abafb1df4775d8308237b4
describe
'74074' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYH' 'sip-files00166.pro'
002bcb1affba404512ec187325ccceb5
7068fe0f05c175ed15668f70ca1cfaa5f1f65528
describe
'70839' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYI' 'sip-files00166.QC.jpg'
9cc889ca9b2719f773357fe3e82766bc
c4f3a57ecc0681ffb349b22d44bb5c3a63fe651e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYJ' 'sip-files00166.tif'
14f4b873e4c1b3e7336ae47f6873b181
8711cf1fb6271f2d1e3583a514313a5438a45c1a
describe
'3150' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYK' 'sip-files00166.txt'
4629b29b1992a7493eff365db3c1d0c5
52278ed98a3ff4a99c40109efb7e9629f04c2506
describe
'26160' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYL' 'sip-files00166thm.jpg'
e4fb3c5a2f974f5c9c84885a0aa7ae5d
1d3be1e999142c6eea2453c5967e67b45ed95815
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYM' 'sip-files00167.jp2'
169feb6b19171212d88639076d1450cb
4b9bd9a4abdb57b5edce18a3fc8a6d876c5f6bda
describe
'220285' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYN' 'sip-files00167.jpg'
ed75f035560a8902ee48806a3521629f
09aa4555b3b79ecc5c7ca92d77f9d7e9344fbb93
describe
'76964' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYO' 'sip-files00167.pro'
3e8d6bbe3457388adb04cb4de008c139
f6bfe24ef7b291bb7fc46e948e8974c523280366
describe
'74742' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYP' 'sip-files00167.QC.jpg'
4b7246bae6bcce80fcfe9d9daf053349
fa6aff27b7554233b84f5b86252df32c2ee39547
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYQ' 'sip-files00167.tif'
9c5e0e7642a88c0d545d8ff27fc7daaa
73737743b665c5d8d314ed5946305e8f9a3ee190
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYR' 'sip-files00167.txt'
bab9f68a6cdf62acd346b2d79bedb62b
e37b21c44ab0b041e25bf952562d33fdd62df737
describe
'26785' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYS' 'sip-files00167thm.jpg'
850dbb54fca12f6cf803a107be20e6d8
c8f783ef78d6e748bde45a01921a49c60b1a9d8f
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYT' 'sip-files00168.jp2'
1a5d2a7da92399f1d10f7524d3ab9140
cc6ac1a558ed4ca99038c890e75aa8b5d1dcd9b8
describe
'228269' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYU' 'sip-files00168.jpg'
d04502b8dcb565a766c5c6a6c2e7ca30
1f47610749fcb4e8328745eda5a6a4051cf9e444
describe
'79973' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYV' 'sip-files00168.pro'
dc48f806faa60ad90489fcd0659f9790
1c43edd3a87ce8aff1a982432cf9d7e8f8318dd3
describe
'76474' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYW' 'sip-files00168.QC.jpg'
a460c314498308e45662f8a702bf14d3
d2cc60b40bcfd903e1a1784ee68e9ae34c73cb1b
describe
'3369648' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYX' 'sip-files00168.tif'
7b97055ff4b2da808f0c349be8346175
a3c1852189c0d30b1a82963d9bcc87f68bc95be0
'2011-12-30T06:49:20-05:00'
describe
'3292' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYY' 'sip-files00168.txt'
9e26231d623d280f6ed61c94a159a5e8
20c5f477f43ed6c566d5dd4440ed44baad4fe46f
describe
'27189' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABYZ' 'sip-files00168thm.jpg'
5529936938e4d7c3d37aa3031baba014
6d36e71137064b21dac898ae0376b15ffeb0ef9c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZA' 'sip-files00169.jp2'
69b5c24d2833624c1cd992c0377c55b1
3200b4bc987850e72299441d0052355287990b61
describe
'222763' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZB' 'sip-files00169.jpg'
550e45b1bab77b918a216a5d5c93c3cc
0b063718ad2cf5d3ca3218f5e138eebfda38f650
describe
'77880' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZC' 'sip-files00169.pro'
b7848e0fa7c8305eaf7dfd2d58dac4d5
363dbe300c6974c2cfe79e10cd5731dd1750790a
describe
'75632' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZD' 'sip-files00169.QC.jpg'
3e8e104af1594e8754d0a19ea805c140
fdb4a7566a2a625929e93ed0ef3d40c9cf779666
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZE' 'sip-files00169.tif'
de465aac2c0307c90a7050a854dac5a5
89f42bea5d95d704aa7065d6e09b2e2882cb5380
describe
'3191' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZF' 'sip-files00169.txt'
51f77819eb84ac4817bf904241a764c7
d570757b7684d4ae4519c12ec1ded07ab599911e
describe
'27499' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZG' 'sip-files00169thm.jpg'
cf4a4220866a9e4a179f505e875f1088
2d982355ad940e9710e3d6ab597378b0780e13a3
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZH' 'sip-files00170.jp2'
7567fda01224b4287ea6570067090695
5dae03dd45302e52a5899e7a3420e02e21722b16
describe
'217528' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZI' 'sip-files00170.jpg'
581fa7d442e4211912c26787a4097a45
bfd676ab859bc7b573f47e7bb3b5858167aafbbf
describe
'75957' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZJ' 'sip-files00170.pro'
742837b70860da8f98e9e1b5741fb124
803790ceae79136114c8a5e1ceb225cb97e41598
describe
'74003' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZK' 'sip-files00170.QC.jpg'
662cc79f01ae46360899325dab745147
ff09f47a1e4d7e2765a5636ea9e5486e659db775
describe
'3369352' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZL' 'sip-files00170.tif'
920a13fe822c6bf19014d512e2b4cc2d
ea92292b5a5cb4d62973231331f27f3558ebe0cf
describe
'3130' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZM' 'sip-files00170.txt'
6826a2d585113e920f2cd0be90c0130a
97d444712d4daa444de3806365f0bf862b38a19e
describe
Invalid character
'26656' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZN' 'sip-files00170thm.jpg'
876565cbd0a6e067fb7073096f9ab89a
2e5a3c820b247aa4830c1baaafdfe0138fee7319
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZO' 'sip-files00171.jp2'
687da9b26485813451d3fd6689bd4504
faa1900c54a26cdc71cc2f51f21c2989ccc79ba7
describe
'219263' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZP' 'sip-files00171.jpg'
0645975506951266b208c44cdbe2f0de
3b4efeb23b9a86d2e19ca1018bf105d4f1ed2adf
describe
'74831' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZQ' 'sip-files00171.pro'
611e5afee4027d9f7e037966725f1d0b
6a05144d0416f7627a0be36b3152c3f80008e813
describe
'74044' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZR' 'sip-files00171.QC.jpg'
b1ba1edc0a170eafcca237d74fbcc01d
12c3750081d2852ce3ab41f25340396272bb64b0
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZS' 'sip-files00171.tif'
9eb7ad6f7ccd418a7533e3ee396b8e91
2e9afda74873deaaf86fd680468cf7aa1f3ed67b
describe
'3074' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZT' 'sip-files00171.txt'
c2a129008a114d5985db004c61980bba
2ba9a289513c7971e2868d48e1e3bcbefe326d66
describe
'26886' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZU' 'sip-files00171thm.jpg'
e0b4aa7f5e201e3605fc249ec77fba6f
227917d7e41afbac6e5d1b67981bdd8ee5de4b05
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZV' 'sip-files00172.jp2'
4e20fa0462a7f648722881146be50ee5
7f94afa334781fb567cefe406daf39e3dc9207fe
describe
'223487' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZW' 'sip-files00172.jpg'
d88ff11c230ae3aae719f0fe3ba14677
f68fb7751da539f19888248ff385a508a4ef6662
describe
'76093' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZX' 'sip-files00172.pro'
02ac0fa2aed4ac99b4cc19cb10ed5314
388b13f29b9d3ccf058e8eaa848ee2c62ef75cf3
describe
'77845' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZY' 'sip-files00172.QC.jpg'
908eb0c3b258a62945c75484ef9f6451
706daefa78d91d8f3a313e61c2714478f9fafde9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAABZZ' 'sip-files00172.tif'
8816207834ecd615d2e96118f28271a9
180d248f38b113516d0406a46135ce7159bc921a
'2011-12-30T06:51:32-05:00'
describe
'3110' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAA' 'sip-files00172.txt'
7169b41abadec4f32423e99ad491a333
c7e66a5a518bbe4614dfe499b685c3ccbf9204d8
describe
'28107' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAB' 'sip-files00172thm.jpg'
672d55e63bd47df80cadfbd9a652d532
01f08b5d1a5324d160a42e47b0d92bc2ea535364
describe
'465671' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAC' 'sip-files00173.jp2'
865f5cfb70c5e39a5b44d91d29294662
5e26340d2f3ad758ff3cca0d335d2d780e41f0c9
describe
'170424' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAD' 'sip-files00173.jpg'
3af65873bc546d35bb0c49e52c7d41d7
db370b35b61bfc11dd11578a65a762c9a5f07285
describe
'1753' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAE' 'sip-files00173.pro'
72f1b99fc03a33a564616cdc68918cdc
616ea3bdb2116e345b9e2bea743d2e13139681ae
describe
'53228' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAF' 'sip-files00173.QC.jpg'
d2917e0934fc7138ba668beeb8fe403e
a7fd39112fedeef9ada151053941385bdf37432a
describe
'11190752' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAG' 'sip-files00173.tif'
7a742a2d67cbe066a048b866ed55f185
b6015cdee327461434c4727b5e6f53517690b063
'2011-12-30T06:55:00-05:00'
describe
'74' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAH' 'sip-files00173.txt'
27c6426da966e921826e5e9f84e03014
1f0039643baef3e08a475d76ebc3f04135a2d75d
describe
'23524' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAI' 'sip-files00173thm.jpg'
32010ecdbe4ac4af1e804ef0a8d5a254
2ba7e17d050645536d77abaaf2c02dd3f34d65c9
describe
'419397' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAJ' 'sip-files00174.jp2'
15595cfeb24b6b517ea1204681ceb5f9
164f1f0b314cc3160f818deacbbcb20fb71c4fd9
describe
'228022' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAK' 'sip-files00174.jpg'
cfb5c9070c051bcf40af9d79bb01ab17
8a4ebfa6d1ff16433c2e21b5bea1b2fc25969599
describe
'76584' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAL' 'sip-files00174.pro'
c96e68abaf7184296428bc6a982afddd
98ad97966e692c2834dbb2451152021ea3c7a867
describe
'76547' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAM' 'sip-files00174.QC.jpg'
587b98bbe1cf699313365a3cb3e14092
e5757b58174829e57d907d81b92728c37e2cce65
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAN' 'sip-files00174.tif'
08a47338b6e35d23ae188c91f8d35d00
25caf8fd68458c515993c6a8f9a20e2a69874d7e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAO' 'sip-files00174.txt'
420a6966c5d906e285e4f35373d94c9f
cfc07f5757fffe48886ef9aabc16311478d74e84
describe
'27730' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAP' 'sip-files00174thm.jpg'
7fda0ab6f1dde5ba2d7915133e9ff600
64d109fe6e931032d9a4fa9954277534f3e0446e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAQ' 'sip-files00175.jp2'
f5f8a0c394c4a0f46b78e59b7ab3f4b3
b6f8e5e4eeef72ad4ff84c47ca51b18983ef1d84
describe
'212288' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAR' 'sip-files00175.jpg'
2b95b345a06c5877235ee5fdd5f81a3f
97ad1f383c9ed957f583f13f42b41f0105bd5f2f
describe
'74365' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAS' 'sip-files00175.pro'
2bf529ef99b39878c88bd9a4990e5904
0f71b47fc589a6fcc419e8c13517d0fae0a40ac3
describe
'73314' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAT' 'sip-files00175.QC.jpg'
8887472d9ff57e2dc806a4d56c7c4f4e
e899365b91819c83c359505f3cf2812ee490d690
describe
'3369572' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAU' 'sip-files00175.tif'
983fc6ebdbc4de457b2c2d606ca5ba64
2568a445c71076e313737afadb4d9e2ae6a59665
describe
'3120' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAV' 'sip-files00175.txt'
a22fa8a0d32c79a23a7a4852134846f3
8e7b11a799de90831732ec61b1098ca2752c0fd7
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAW' 'sip-files00175thm.jpg'
df1d4e56e98020b5a715ce34e202c82b
6fef1535e56b3ced54cab3961f1b8adc0ea59dde
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAX' 'sip-files00176.jp2'
9ac325520631fcb91c0254e9effc1c7f
56f44e4733e088af20dbf083acc2f33ad184d8ad
describe
'230650' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAY' 'sip-files00176.jpg'
830ed4388cb55e5291b5bccccd4a7b2b
33df8f9c3ca9a5e89b298b4ca9600d5e112e2f86
describe
'79499' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACAZ' 'sip-files00176.pro'
cc04b8f61661faa6484b753adb7e1317
659f38bd55265dc353e274f1be3993e2a7a5750a
describe
'77482' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBA' 'sip-files00176.QC.jpg'
e8a2763234ede4174d20305a2cbba706
20902b78b11f7ba04ec668422de4e7bab0927044
describe
'3369780' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBB' 'sip-files00176.tif'
907f777cfd4abeb47ddb8cd899c834f1
590c75b1c5a57c8f6d730c17489e039a493363be
describe
'3248' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBC' 'sip-files00176.txt'
fd426520948d673b64d80e840039ed57
0e61e229cac5edef39b3961ff46f63bdf8baa37a
describe
'27328' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBD' 'sip-files00176thm.jpg'
b64422ec3307ee9a93e879970d53d297
8ea5ac5fe28ace599a5a3831b82fc6abbd44fc7a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBE' 'sip-files00177.jp2'
db11f35049c78889f3be9bad87dcf0b4
7dc544a5015382d0a2a0f3b1c546e320a8b78699
describe
'224017' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBF' 'sip-files00177.jpg'
9b9f30588092ab2348f293321e2da9dd
b02d5d42242b46b20aeba8efad11783aa66b24f9
'2011-12-30T06:47:37-05:00'
describe
'77891' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBG' 'sip-files00177.pro'
c83e640809b9fdf5c9b7480660fa45e0
64665c78187ebb019218c2d2489461f534baddcc
describe
'76098' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBH' 'sip-files00177.QC.jpg'
c9f80f6546e29cda5a4d9ddba71949d5
3d28bafb04da17de33879d4d05a157ff52e1099e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBI' 'sip-files00177.tif'
dde63d0e1504608f9b8949ea004b09e5
01756c02169741c061371e1c9145131db29afe27
describe
'3212' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBJ' 'sip-files00177.txt'
ba8660b01bca62fd78a9ff88e33e2688
7246784cc6fde35e78fa641de5fb4ec9b5c35c23
describe
'26914' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBK' 'sip-files00177thm.jpg'
ff9d63c7876de555ff44c36df715c4bf
ff41c276c57ea38c2369ec2350b4824793cb5cc9
'2011-12-30T06:47:53-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBL' 'sip-files00178.jp2'
07da5dfd25df5018f73bb2711c15cf8b
1371c81e115ff0b068bec154b64a38e5b49f813e
describe
'231441' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBM' 'sip-files00178.jpg'
da9e6610c68087abae07e036310e440a
211b292ad77aeeafa621cb42cfb1d5f63cf5c8cb
describe
'80528' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBN' 'sip-files00178.pro'
607bfd41de5b878474a6e72b0fee4f5d
deb8c13ec7a91391209111f5e24e25d09ab2254d
describe
'76738' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBO' 'sip-files00178.QC.jpg'
d31ed5c16f6a0735d2ccf810baa8af16
ba82f59e68f335fb8010184a5a55816f5cb67e55
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBP' 'sip-files00178.tif'
1bed0eb15341efd56190f784ecc4d23a
118b4d4ef4734872fc5f839bb1f757764d4eb3f8
describe
'3331' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBQ' 'sip-files00178.txt'
da6d5dbcd60f3fac4d201f25eddaf2b1
a7400f2ff5469053cd4e83313f236707b252bc9e
describe
'27356' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBR' 'sip-files00178thm.jpg'
8cf778b4a076a967f67f140d3bff3d17
c2a9b7e3c3d9b6f96561bd444b16be9b303d59f8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBS' 'sip-files00179.jp2'
f8e3608037c233ec2c4f9c6a2ba1ae5b
c69be6c457bf633ceb14dd9b202762d27c58a99c
describe
'222855' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBT' 'sip-files00179.jpg'
6c0e080f7df5e95858550a3feccd6151
8769696e0e6bac2230acf57fb0d2e9d6e81ecafa
describe
'76849' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBU' 'sip-files00179.pro'
7b812d220cbc1b88fc20b486fc7599f6
6b814db5c845cf076f49edba3192bfdc6c937961
describe
'75982' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBV' 'sip-files00179.QC.jpg'
fd6fc1c72e432e6fdab4d4ca97c13c50
632a58d415f67eebe4878b15887affb9b93002cc
describe
'3369724' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBW' 'sip-files00179.tif'
bcf89aa68cbdf1ba6fccdf5c8b538007
d8e4e26e287c5007ab49e38e41738a265ce2ee8c
describe
'3156' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBX' 'sip-files00179.txt'
2e83b52d2218ee868d5bec0832853bb1
2931e5ccebd51d6296083ac3a341dde09a5643e4
describe
'27409' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBY' 'sip-files00179thm.jpg'
5e336ada896ea666921891cddbe85640
c253575e436a036dddf5ce2a244845034f378713
describe
'419433' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACBZ' 'sip-files00180.jp2'
d7cbd347a0b7d8b3e8215a19ebd56e42
1c4b5b855a5559efc607077d43065f5d59524857
describe
'213167' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCA' 'sip-files00180.jpg'
00b948063b33a67a6f58a24f99a5171d
f6bcffcfa63893e7fc17bd04786afe890f8dee3f
describe
'72779' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCB' 'sip-files00180.pro'
da87e93ac22ea99e7c312267251f9716
f841f56734de78d16bb40aa01c065535bfab4efc
describe
'74111' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCC' 'sip-files00180.QC.jpg'
2f42d23cb49f3e5c4915324177af8be2
994e93b3a26e9464fa1ff3a0098f755b650a07e0
describe
'3369776' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCD' 'sip-files00180.tif'
b5e1bc9697a6ee7ca58c055c6a31d5b6
5ae7647f6a6a7cfce7ed0efd0aef853aa062741e
describe
'3015' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCE' 'sip-files00180.txt'
559e1553a80e40cd78ff8339d6a3bd86
6777887db1d5c31f21bc2208c7ebc4eab628d10c
describe
'27239' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCF' 'sip-files00180thm.jpg'
2ca62c6a809e69e73fa8e7f465ee2ae1
440de1ffee63497df03e16a389ee80c1ea8d2136
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCG' 'sip-files00181.jp2'
735db87f6379407e950b57da60dca4f0
25f052b4ff3cdb018e91cc9699bf5049f887befc
describe
'218179' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCH' 'sip-files00181.jpg'
b87088255fe399e563f6b35f76d4188a
bbaa75e162682be25d47173b864b55f8939b3d61
describe
'77300' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCI' 'sip-files00181.pro'
b3a42082e7d2cfe5f8c4edb0cc0da292
80530f399fbcd761eaabc3ecf3cad52164b36bbb
describe
'73619' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCJ' 'sip-files00181.QC.jpg'
ec1b5e6b24f5b9d1ee9a4f7f1f6ffded
fbbef66e5470a355cb8f51916b761b582dcd7bc6
'2011-12-30T06:48:21-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCK' 'sip-files00181.tif'
cced9f6fff5b69311c064799dcc04656
9f510a712132d5bd9ba90e89eacbc199413506d8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCL' 'sip-files00181.txt'
d6d00c019a0c5810c0d6e6857c3e7e2e
45f34286e66a8eeec1d98ab92a6f135cb90e46b4
describe
'26501' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCM' 'sip-files00181thm.jpg'
868ef9560063fb659e45eade69c51cd5
57a70fe1b2b291aba4067cbbeccfa2d007366933
describe
'419393' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCN' 'sip-files00182.jp2'
782a50725376f33c45b14ec006368c33
cbe8c6fe3af2d655e38821efe737441fdc5a3702
describe
'152966' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCO' 'sip-files00182.jpg'
30a920a9254d8e13f1c88d30525115ce
322784ac64d70dff9fa9202d98c2b01b01892bd8
describe
'51892' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCP' 'sip-files00182.pro'
6912a4326507457f2145464b19beb0c7
4359e0fbef4e11f7e9fdc9c91b4dd2d4a0d1b47a
describe
'53603' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCQ' 'sip-files00182.QC.jpg'
bebd937bb910ec0328453a1225bf66e2
ab30ecc2c8d74f48659214559ba7e4936e109ff6
describe
'3367444' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCR' 'sip-files00182.tif'
e89beb48f45494b8ef7ec961ba1f3d30
7faad065c30639e987d122328e7ec433599a61d7
describe
'2193' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCS' 'sip-files00182.txt'
ad1a06acd375fecdfec6650aa7a6a4f6
9a661a30abce4166b84f0865e212c57bbb4321c3
describe
'20932' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCT' 'sip-files00182thm.jpg'
2d3628e13ae33ba394c2841c024abb7c
64221911889d01b8b20fdacb603ea88af52884a5
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCU' 'sip-files00183.jp2'
39b84158c911b07b0135633d8bc6dc85
74e65f5369fdbf815798fac0334a22d17a4a4a9b
describe
'225622' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCV' 'sip-files00183.jpg'
e2e0ff12f65e55325e66af32548dc1c8
d05c6b74ae966da680b5aeafa092421e67727f80
describe
'78163' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCW' 'sip-files00183.pro'
5699193702bcd0b880e629e20c88ff1a
ae60596782678c6b4a9f5a1545287e6129a030df
describe
'76018' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCX' 'sip-files00183.QC.jpg'
32e22f6f3f9a480606df1e705ed6edb9
4f6c5b7789ce5850c7225842bc73cacfb4a74570
'2011-12-30T06:52:42-05:00'
describe
'3369712' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCY' 'sip-files00183.tif'
e2ebe1b72179c4af36c7951528c9969f
26f82c14baf0c21fffdb1999e1be3dbf895cf44b
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACCZ' 'sip-files00183.txt'
c6842ced2fa830d341cd866b2df54f36
71c3fc61f174a9fda328cd174f14dcc63e35bc73
describe
'27173' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDA' 'sip-files00183thm.jpg'
adbb210c3a9bc913297b10d82028abd6
f35e5d4522f5d4710181123af7e86e74507f45d5
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDB' 'sip-files00184.jp2'
034d393f1a63145739e00d6334727802
9f34b05a3e677fb3f61f92f0b64bf3d631628b05
describe
'223237' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDC' 'sip-files00184.jpg'
d1d02185f47cb50113c00d58f7c32335
e709db4054fba9d352e9edf8961040af6492a638
describe
'77114' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDD' 'sip-files00184.pro'
8d6bdcbd3e98155952b0cf8477e7ec99
c3cef5684c2338a33cb412a22ce0ff3cd17773c4
describe
'75419' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDE' 'sip-files00184.QC.jpg'
30a05529f120d2379969a9f8eee0cfb7
40f77dccd1ca691d4a755f7221f6d78349e0b4a0
describe
'3369608' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDF' 'sip-files00184.tif'
3abece362295ae0a48a37ce12ac6d76c
7dab60751ca8a5902f2d6985eb02e6cf1c701fea
describe
'3161' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDG' 'sip-files00184.txt'
3454c6d6382088bd18e1ffa885c9bc73
0bef67e2699a682351f298736f9bd6dc0c09c693
describe
'27141' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDH' 'sip-files00184thm.jpg'
c7e81321e5e31251bf7bbea03e626465
415c55e8ec207c74266d38224bee7d882a39d474
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDI' 'sip-files00185.jp2'
7bb3f2c08071e3fce913d1dceaab2291
2bf54818f216ad1e139d2258bd3ea7f409b1acee
describe
'225984' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDJ' 'sip-files00185.jpg'
f3b24b4acdf7c35a70566eee8b3160be
0640f857819bf92b5647d21fa14b871592a822ec
describe
'76603' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDK' 'sip-files00185.pro'
cd9fbbd4872e4b9c48a173694e223123
df68c1064731a92321cf6433a11b48cc41d9632e
describe
'75425' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDL' 'sip-files00185.QC.jpg'
317d5a99ec3dc81e8274ade6e674576d
d768df7d1361a42ca7cd6c06cf98e1d827dbb33a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDM' 'sip-files00185.tif'
0ef569284de6501a291b9ad6d45c3e70
ce71056dfbaa7e698d0644b6caf4a9077d4f935f
describe
'3148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDN' 'sip-files00185.txt'
b6967038717b1418512866778a858514
dc34ac31524ba1aea19956d95e466fa1fb142f40
describe
'27122' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDO' 'sip-files00185thm.jpg'
666ed68959f64aa70f4dd3ecb3d79519
1ffc3bfd86b43caafdb86112bb94efb2a201a8c7
describe
'428118' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDP' 'sip-files00186.jp2'
6f5cf6921ae3e2d22d70157550b88369
6180fd4e88c7f2c30e4c6d9210038c6667d4075d
describe
'188692' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDQ' 'sip-files00186.jpg'
13bcdbd9e4e645c6bf9ce24663791d1b
61c20bc79b1b2519d7f076943cebd62f96f8415f
describe
'1595' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDR' 'sip-files00186.pro'
9869d790f7167260365f67ffdd8f41d5
4c2b43e5523a756c6bba88e76495faa559f41d64
describe
'58204' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDS' 'sip-files00186.QC.jpg'
1041eb6d97a929aa3cf52a06e318aac0
8b1348c91ca2457638d94fbd869aa9307d0c3316
describe
'10286596' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDT' 'sip-files00186.tif'
32670c7dfaaf93208ea81756a1719cb5
22be30dd92838062251b5047cc0d6a3301726327
describe
'124' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDU' 'sip-files00186.txt'
52780b333c10b542f0eb8f46ee57cd5a
0ceeb60e57492c7dca31183fb1d3e286427235cf
describe
'25142' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDV' 'sip-files00186thm.jpg'
1738e11335193df52652178f96985c06
a90c4b3c79c1a87caf0b3904475728abb0032e0d
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDW' 'sip-files00187.jp2'
5c729d873df953184afb960522069957
f61e27d5b19589621bf3353cc9002b5776714c4b
describe
'234771' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDX' 'sip-files00187.jpg'
489011d6ff3527dd7c138f1c74b7cb65
09536bac8ec3bb000896b2915cfeb7f4372950af
describe
'78803' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDY' 'sip-files00187.pro'
0c9b6a49a08b1256a821d75ab0656247
4a570b7fb417d639f2b31fa6a90f814a5cd44a62
describe
'78298' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACDZ' 'sip-files00187.QC.jpg'
370dbdf750bd23c5aa1b45b97eeabb48
bfe18539c4298f37fc5b8859af49c6187385290a
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEA' 'sip-files00187.tif'
e5c223dfaf818eebd4c16a60402a9ce3
8c48336339088ceb6296b1dd329c6893dbb20278
describe
'3247' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEB' 'sip-files00187.txt'
202912574f0e72d0d7874875d6c7e689
ac91e4f7853ef8b343bdb0eb0d5dd2381bc49cfd
describe
'27658' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEC' 'sip-files00187thm.jpg'
bb4dbb0231eead879477d8f700aae537
5be141616d18e27ece6cf9a1ed943e1f1e9bf717
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACED' 'sip-files00188.jp2'
b4e1850d2be2268a63863807eff3dfd4
65f8a16901289ef13bd52f9620fd99b3d00a5282
describe
'214584' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEE' 'sip-files00188.jpg'
f5bdc2dd0c0fcb66a185318a75be2156
600de4c313d12f41b3de0ec984a8538fdd9df304
describe
'74897' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEF' 'sip-files00188.pro'
5380c5e42702cd7384b5889f4a76a953
20177b2c3606e9c7c5bc767f280ba86667ae0cd5
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEG' 'sip-files00188.QC.jpg'
417ca1ca6f15ff10db9fd742223693c5
c937ec5bab781b3db4b68587e1fe630695cc978e
describe
'3369084' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEH' 'sip-files00188.tif'
768ecbd0ab6659f70ea9308c6b10184d
41f8125e713a44f30f6ae44d8c59ed7619011e21
describe
'3079' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEI' 'sip-files00188.txt'
20b602dfba538b859112bdd09195a730
cee92e84991521ef97c44179dfb75d60df071b30
describe
'26474' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEJ' 'sip-files00188thm.jpg'
fd98218fca89ede8f241d7b660eccf6f
370be0ecbbd703248876e87613a145dfcb92a205
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEK' 'sip-files00189.jp2'
45c08660dbcad5a0019abfd3513c20ae
b942e08c4b558f78c44ecdfa5cdd708e4bea4ba2
describe
'224571' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEL' 'sip-files00189.jpg'
9f982d7a93f8cc3550fa0590521934ee
0732b376967dfa74f8c434a8a6f4a99ce601acf0
describe
'77376' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEM' 'sip-files00189.pro'
bf2a26a074b1744d25169174ff406754
b3b49b4d93cfbb7366e5717547f1e4418afc3506
describe
'76895' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEN' 'sip-files00189.QC.jpg'
78f4af6c8b440a90caeff38daaf9e93b
7d0415fe5b203a8da98e964547e45deca8bf98ae
describe
'3369760' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEO' 'sip-files00189.tif'
2c1dc99108e53d53cfce9343d0af4439
5852cb8b31667f2b77a2328cf5c53c07fc1c4853
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEP' 'sip-files00189.txt'
a54b3116127d1ae6b629bd8d585ab8ad
9f2569aa5db1a0ba896a1fd5e46e30b7cd460587
describe
'27556' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEQ' 'sip-files00189thm.jpg'
94e4f53d84621f1e46ff930455e0099d
435ed08e765a1b33c941f01faed228589f8835f4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACER' 'sip-files00190.jp2'
5519ebed5b3ca5dca83240449e8147c2
343de1d3db7556dd27caf9a6fa8c13ebb5c5b4ee
describe
'220410' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACES' 'sip-files00190.jpg'
90e3b0892bf8c91f2223f1bbf66f8afc
177e9f7f22badf9e0d237f46b0fdf821a3c3db1a
describe
'77773' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACET' 'sip-files00190.pro'
45ff346499f7ae532a5d0e2b72f342ba
fbf891b2c0350a7a7c08b1769c051d04251d4c69
describe
'73308' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEU' 'sip-files00190.QC.jpg'
21a97cd2be8f31905a0f67fe53abb568
2ef59e11ddb86867d94c870d11a6c5cfb9fc3a9e
describe
'3369360' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEV' 'sip-files00190.tif'
65d9d00d7b4ca6964824283155fe04bc
5d8bf883e918735b4ea99ced06543d451ae15489
describe
'3182' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEW' 'sip-files00190.txt'
45b79261fd9c41f12928979fc317676a
6ceccb799096c017c2d6f6b3afd4c0e0b969e721
describe
'26383' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEX' 'sip-files00190thm.jpg'
87327de16a92bd4ee67aae5a14e18aaa
16a74981a5d9a3431db2a29bf3e511ce41ee580c
describe
'419423' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEY' 'sip-files00191.jp2'
2be4d1a83d4c2dabec1b6c4e786f957d
8affd1349cd680fc5f3566a2d7b9a2749d9cfbe2
describe
'223277' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACEZ' 'sip-files00191.jpg'
89d1275950841f576f760c6b560aab01
cecbe28658c28fd99d723e5f996b92ab52932066
describe
'78750' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFA' 'sip-files00191.pro'
1cd8946b43932460c3bcf1af1bb9a551
bed3183cb7d3b8628d6e8a932ab0e06192d845e7
describe
'76299' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFB' 'sip-files00191.QC.jpg'
a521a28ec445510dfb78ccc3ba9b91bd
3c227abf75b8ae322386455a1faffd4380ec886b
describe
'3369720' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFC' 'sip-files00191.tif'
ff436fb9dcae1899ef2daea85c0fa1cf
a71122120e0d28c74adafc317fc67c9becde5f87
describe
'3301' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFD' 'sip-files00191.txt'
0ca54d0f5f04a6876ff0a718b643e85f
c5e92c6c0c4cde2bea66386a7e696819af5e8741
describe
'27505' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFE' 'sip-files00191thm.jpg'
049ada29d4cb89774153ff69d3e65a40
e52a3c7c3ece38ab3cebc02f7b24ca1d8623f2ca
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFF' 'sip-files00192.jp2'
95cfcc0f1c8c385b97f79a9e17c4abab
1ac1520eb7df38d8e5740c068c1a183d72456719
describe
'193999' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFG' 'sip-files00192.jpg'
9aef3c6248acaf91f2634486012386a8
764cb101fcca07f813fe7e9cb0dff328182be6bb
describe
'66979' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFH' 'sip-files00192.pro'
30882e025ae85780caff4857451ee6ad
ccaa33b72915bd0b3318ca81467cb5672cc808cc
describe
'66770' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFI' 'sip-files00192.QC.jpg'
e243ed51f1bbb8b4b1f45551195f1bae
2deb3f2527253b82aec926fe6b5cd0a7c70771e5
describe
'3368880' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFJ' 'sip-files00192.tif'
2a072b8a5f90189729af7f12691eb298
8998ad007b2e4e21efb4dcbe61f2b76414670338
describe
'2755' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFK' 'sip-files00192.txt'
619891e7d4e77a459fc8367a4b62242e
50c6b88d63530f8268b921e5e82304219621aec1
describe
'24750' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFL' 'sip-files00192thm.jpg'
f86011c5cb2fd8873bbd677012633121
0d669a086257831aa80b91a7015bc2a5824bc516
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFM' 'sip-files00193.jp2'
3676b93450e023625928cda67f074c5f
2474333bd1163e338eb2183415674fa7112ed008
describe
'155237' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFN' 'sip-files00193.jpg'
306ebfa3bfc3bf525748574248bf58c1
ba230ea2cdb02d48cb74dd734bb23a55dd6399f3
describe
'51970' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFO' 'sip-files00193.pro'
87676c9acc805b17e4096c4333f37222
b8c45bf2d9cb449373ec0508d297e73abd5c0bb1
describe
'55825' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFP' 'sip-files00193.QC.jpg'
12f8558570d871ccff0694bafdce6a66
a6a8cfbb437ed63c659eb33b6698a438cbe8c74e
describe
'3367840' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFQ' 'sip-files00193.tif'
c93b1c6569deaeb855a52d711ecdd5e2
6eb1479c3b30c6efd67aef7d7dc7562487ed48ba
describe
'2186' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFR' 'sip-files00193.txt'
0d59e5854ca38c68ec902b21d5625dfa
835d796cdd26f88205ddbfde4d7d32bcb2c5adf3
describe
Invalid character
'22170' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFS' 'sip-files00193thm.jpg'
f5cfce63fe316d239dbcf7cdd8b58ad0
80c8f6807e9bcfd49dbbc2cbc2fe91d6ed7e7a76
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFT' 'sip-files00194.jp2'
60f6c707c934fd463b222c87a7155db6
21e87177e07643dd0b22fd8d724b890f685266a0
describe
'133746' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFU' 'sip-files00194.jpg'
6bd7a13d65b4ba059e0de39026fbcfab
b49e68c00475d29a4041e790eb12ae7bab8b5714
describe
'43988' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFV' 'sip-files00194.pro'
0c48042d2bb627f8ea4c5ad2ceb34a43
b91fcf3bf03be2281d6bf7db6bcf512e55032863
describe
'48822' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFW' 'sip-files00194.QC.jpg'
7f66728c9d45649d17e75ca7abd808b7
fbcbce7f5692426584b56af3472c2939155d0bec
describe
'3367344' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFX' 'sip-files00194.tif'
9d636856711bf75bce5aa2fe7986aa73
99c4a55a4f62314fbc88d65b0a2df676dc985ec2
describe
'1820' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFY' 'sip-files00194.txt'
dbf5dc978394bd7367f07a49f5592c84
0713ea9494da200103056ef7c4e061806ff4f3fd
describe
'20533' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACFZ' 'sip-files00194thm.jpg'
79298e081bcd25f937bdad502299314d
ae66dc94edb3ada0de4e342c1cd2403963815548
describe
'419338' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGA' 'sip-files00195.jp2'
bb2746c6d5e10397efa50e3573e85af5
9812c26b67cc27378b2c62563506f237382bf21b
describe
'206878' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGB' 'sip-files00195.jpg'
a33a2343a6a819da9977b89755931ea5
f1e23b2cdef519a3036df1db13aad2f15d892e0b
describe
'22741' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGC' 'sip-files00195.pro'
3a445a2d191a0a2c106dac844b9d7c75
c76e7eb7d866557ec7622bf8e8bfe770e955e890
describe
'70292' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGD' 'sip-files00195.QC.jpg'
0ef1725c5d1d2f0d4524220707dff955
44e0d931944d55a0ee016a832ca66e2a3eff93f3
'2011-12-30T06:49:17-05:00'
describe
'3370064' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGE' 'sip-files00195.tif'
00730f1027a52d14418ab699e02057e1
288163cb292c3942bd9bf1bd177a2adff42e94a3
describe
'994' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGF' 'sip-files00195.txt'
7ff7a2cdfe38290728d89fcd837e6a98
e2e6c8ff8350d87924e3f39acd5f1722ec1e8821
describe
Invalid character
'27946' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGG' 'sip-files00195thm.jpg'
166b22dfa847c282c7286e381b865d0f
1fe6090b2b17a386c9a34bb462f5393c026a7b0c
describe
'404935' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGH' 'sip-files00196.jp2'
54c8e27b68cba23a1d355ff727211ad4
2c3f7a4ab6649720aea4eaec58e102196797a288
describe
'111566' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGI' 'sip-files00196.jpg'
2cc248c9ea6867ba89211a57975a3c56
20f50632b77a24c18a7267df853ed26990dcb89c
describe
'10460' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGJ' 'sip-files00196.pro'
9e2047450d99594209c61f613afa642a
c1c4b5ab3647c8ef29253e87db564076c9fec62c
describe
'38147' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGK' 'sip-files00196.QC.jpg'
4586fe4d4cff6db68a066d612fd7cf8f
b43e6f977ba28af50c9d1cd5df2e94fdcf811018
describe
'3254772' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGL' 'sip-files00196.tif'
c84616eb51e21e6eee649413f7329cda
0a9fa57c858627f8a14f9dba65676b91171f0b4d
describe
'1558' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGM' 'sip-files00196.txt'
7e95cfa68b47c638bab61db8362943f1
e33e4a4455a4ab903ca9fd651bbcecfbef5229e3
describe
'20093' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGN' 'sip-files00196thm.jpg'
bf259f6678b17d63b942a8b7105b8045
defa999f7d11e36e56e5198a48b447ecc7eb21a8
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGO' 'sip-files00197.jp2'
512bddf87ff513b7ef8f17d0299dfc19
2cffac219a2a0c0263d20acaea4843e580bb7df5
describe
'164697' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGP' 'sip-files00197.jpg'
4bf33dc7d1bce7a0e51796df6734a84b
c2f562605f79091515658332950b0fc050c1e74e
describe
'16758' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGQ' 'sip-files00197.pro'
d9137c4dd1609b6a6340340e61a64cdb
ac32fdcf7235bd65dd5d47ab3a7fc43cc3d2c4a2
describe
'61909' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGR' 'sip-files00197.QC.jpg'
f6018ccf39cf1e5dccb50e213417eab6
e59006af40ce5f8ee96604131715edb570468472
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGS' 'sip-files00197.tif'
05d32ef2dd9ebee815fb82d0bf3e05f8
843698bf7614136cb40fabba92459e9eec268975
describe
'748' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGT' 'sip-files00197.txt'
5a26596fa2d41b8670ba18e7c97537ea
bb10d640db26affdd70214a524cd6762c2fbce78
describe
'26838' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGU' 'sip-files00197thm.jpg'
a4f4eddb45b807b4467e70549ec3e7b7
d4fd3b96fbfc7b35190949aa45362fba24a24a8d
describe
'419417' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGV' 'sip-files00198.jp2'
6a750370f40becfff12d88b83c8bc011
b9f06524bc2e8590952f33c9496dce981d3c68df
describe
'186413' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGW' 'sip-files00198.jpg'
b807f8bf1f18f10beac0af74604a8c40
7b116a4638260c7b113d761f41a73c758810de31
describe
'23716' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGX' 'sip-files00198.pro'
69da05dd36e039327e7db610384a6757
a457dae26a0211b088afaa6da8889b55e2fd5f1c
describe
'67962' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGY' 'sip-files00198.QC.jpg'
1c9eeec0b0a4f54cd12586abac3647a8
d660eb43f445146f5742160f040bd92b18f52284
describe
'3370476' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACGZ' 'sip-files00198.tif'
f25a63e4aec332737088b664eeac8ce6
475535100978f7494625066475e8ccb63457e392
describe
'1318' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHA' 'sip-files00198.txt'
dd0e5a571ec1a2d7b4de7e2d8781ef18
a2edd399f8575a2a4d3441da6bcebc27723e10df
describe
'28803' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHB' 'sip-files00198thm.jpg'
b057846e8016387246853d9e0ec226c0
ef6fc674d325169899767568909e1740dba5cc00
describe
'419313' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHC' 'sip-files00199.jp2'
4be4e7a79328c261bffd5f25b316d6a4
4eee6e6c7b05e9e32de2779b17db5262a2e4cb91
describe
'139311' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHD' 'sip-files00199.jpg'
d4c0a6fa54052074760bcb268d99c7bf
7b9dd5c688fa350dead825736f242433594da7d8
describe
'17449' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHE' 'sip-files00199.pro'
a23f8c47c1b813773a85b522cfda43b7
d9ff683bb78144767aa18a95fdd78f13750eabb4
describe
'52652' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHF' 'sip-files00199.QC.jpg'
11a7e8da93cf4d31e2f49806a3820a15
d9b16dfb02b0935a1ce02eb83362aa5dfc840309
describe
'3369068' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHG' 'sip-files00199.tif'
245af1c687931ab005be8f8109078350
e7d285605f3228d77ca8879eccc3a7ecf97a8101
describe
'751' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHH' 'sip-files00199.txt'
eb208e846041a0f8a3b4fa94e4e7dd51
cd75c7ad0c3d28e9323af829a340bb789a4071cb
describe
'24587' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHI' 'sip-files00199thm.jpg'
3e52ffc51fed86be1fe76b75396837ca
b548749a52df85a49e8ed63c75d1c676e18ffd56
describe
'419384' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHJ' 'sip-files00200.jp2'
9e2d088a4e2d8c3ad5612c86bfb2d355
a81e4d6cb158a0c9bedaa38de4392cb1487e3b69
describe
'160368' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHK' 'sip-files00200.jpg'
1d2527102594eec71d3079ffa5480e4d
4d0c7a4e6f957a6e4f77a3d7798d3a06d68b8b94
describe
'21186' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHL' 'sip-files00200.pro'
a69bc7968da859d980c20d3fe38f62fb
b04739479ad4c3827dfa9a22156e418b9346dc74
describe
'58638' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHM' 'sip-files00200.QC.jpg'
adf3b0d5f7a77948dc2eecd430e3e3e3
ef46f66d62e0bc683b04196cc2b2d1f7f8d3e8f6
describe
'3369968' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHN' 'sip-files00200.tif'
3ec9791a7b05fc7b6c852ed0c2806d3b
bf1b06dcbcc8bb6374889c044981ea1f596bd06a
describe
'982' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHO' 'sip-files00200.txt'
910609f58e6de91d59414a980b69e764
dfc160e69eb68dd5da4264660336dd518652ab92
describe
'27165' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHP' 'sip-files00200thm.jpg'
2fd01702310ab20cfea527833fd92ccb
65bf8747f010e0ebf701e0b77a8e057879356f5d
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHQ' 'sip-files00201.jp2'
77bcb98cfd9d45464c6a0d054ec8b502
6e47207b23bf5d3e3b72526c56390ba08368adcd
'2011-12-30T06:51:17-05:00'
describe
'157007' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHR' 'sip-files00201.jpg'
47d42751697aa165232bff2f314b9310
df75ce8daf85382537fbbcc273a92ad1b86945e9
describe
'3582' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHS' 'sip-files00201.pro'
ece65a03b2dea7d68239abc935a40244
afa662239c4f28cefe732119d11dfc512fb74d5c
describe
'49436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHT' 'sip-files00201.QC.jpg'
ef3c3dbbe0ac69cd0c639dfdbe60aff2
1d461196e76d6b4103ec838dec0899291460548f
describe
'3367704' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHU' 'sip-files00201.tif'
98a56399c326d0ad6cd14d814e43f62b
303312282b5d525257ff6b10b0ce22e7ce1858ea
describe
'148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHV' 'sip-files00201.txt'
abc7c478dc4552fdf6a76545c58ee54f
03f8c37663c1abd3948bd9c9f13e64c4368bfd7b
describe
'21541' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHW' 'sip-files00201thm.jpg'
786835821bcaf937b721a6afc8dde638
2565a65b9857d4e4736a28a917307a04b2638f43
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHX' 'sip-files00202.jp2'
1afffbe5888459d5528d189d07f556e9
cc769a8926e7d2b668b3b74446c618f09cd1a3b1
describe
'159474' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHY' 'sip-files00202.jpg'
0d69b3a2c14d198afe3ed3818dc6a161
04885f67478324182e38192c5bbc0ba5ec513826
describe
'26831' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACHZ' 'sip-files00202.pro'
744502f0e557d9f0cec5e12ec14f4103
46c67cc7ff3a694c05c7ab2278460a4fccd6a022
describe
'56522' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIA' 'sip-files00202.QC.jpg'
34fcd2530d9496875e47b18fcba51a83
1af00b390a12c7190c254356b0a915236cbed648
describe
'3368148' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIB' 'sip-files00202.tif'
ac71c27cd0ba6ac8d7863e05833de666
c7fa6bb18aac536c94bbd87f20e637bbe3de714a
'2011-12-30T06:53:54-05:00'
describe
'1116' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIC' 'sip-files00202.txt'
79fbc02683ab64bfa0b0e5f3371891d9
91e29e5b0482bb3d1191d0ccce4ea6b8893426fe
describe
'23397' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACID' 'sip-files00202thm.jpg'
36c7957840952c52a78dad715932b45f
2bef84ddc3828f79a1898e2a84b273c407cfb797
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIE' 'sip-files00203.jp2'
022fd8da7d6c3f88c61d18efa8143c3b
f54441d1410e4243cae0d459dca33dfafd58c7d6
describe
'163349' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIF' 'sip-files00203.jpg'
7df63b32e42bb4ab99cd392cfbb38334
5adff5ee1f7c608c24fdab6d13fd70c5c379a972
describe
'17659' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIG' 'sip-files00203.pro'
cb76e0dd9746a07a529a5495ee91b84b
83eb730a623335ba36ede49f703ec94bd63e236a
describe
'61184' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIH' 'sip-files00203.QC.jpg'
aee8356d67cae3ade5d2b3a52fe9f26d
6e4312f054344a20ca30357505022d4b5638dc0c
describe
'3369900' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACII' 'sip-files00203.tif'
6eea76ece97db6b64560d927fc86ec13
249e0ca2793091946304f9cfcf1c730765a2e1f7
describe
'812' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIJ' 'sip-files00203.txt'
17bbc925af43787b10a0f4a256830c12
de3bfdc6a1e73b1f62a2bd428ebae5f049a6626d
'2011-12-30T06:54:08-05:00'
describe
'27780' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIK' 'sip-files00203thm.jpg'
616d0ab0fc03ab6be9e5403ff3992902
00f109aeb6a7f92e7d58b7c1b7de423de9748a76
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIL' 'sip-files00204.jp2'
ef817052873260605a74b416095c5ba5
dc8d47ff6dea53bea08448d99a68718738706948
describe
'181115' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIM' 'sip-files00204.jpg'
1f0c3768d53e68d477cb63840c3f24ae
62a64e9495624d97393b161353cad7ad5c661d62
describe
'15890' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIN' 'sip-files00204.pro'
6c3ce7e5e11920be493142a1f47df5da
67e6c728c59a24ac388c66c6936979092d492fdc
describe
'64734' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIO' 'sip-files00204.QC.jpg'
153f08e74820b37e6d60569c69c00926
402b2598a14b96bdcbb737a5b112f3ad7cad6e51
describe
'3369872' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIP' 'sip-files00204.tif'
58501bab1d6ad7bf56ead344c2254cb1
cdb06eb0ba2846b494761219a95f5c90f6bcdeb5
describe
'705' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIQ' 'sip-files00204.txt'
902a87ed4f17bbfa499746aef103af1a
a47df8e1d9f86193cec3b3dbe59b35a8440aa5a7
describe
'27562' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIR' 'sip-files00204thm.jpg'
cc40095b355d9c9ffe11b7075f8ea95f
cdafb94323fc51f69500c6915ae14ffaee553ffe
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIS' 'sip-files00205.jp2'
2f11dfc0e04a76c6dcc00ac849bf8ce3
3bc37c72bb37710f38991b58d1181a4a6c6ad901
describe
'168288' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIT' 'sip-files00205.jpg'
5447a0032f21d5bc552bb0efc5599f4b
efbb47d5674c7b0f8b3c27edd2b6833b79ae0d8c
describe
'18541' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIU' 'sip-files00205.pro'
e28490791568c8cff61dbf56f3bc4b12
6e6190a7f28279bb2cdb1aa2cb00100f392f5458
describe
'59902' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIV' 'sip-files00205.QC.jpg'
c7735b7b0faaf26de2f85a4a2296cdc2
06715273fbf6e5b560a41e66f01d822519d62826
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIW' 'sip-files00205.tif'
7d6fc5c689d25ad3d73a27aedd782c5c
f2f2ff4f9163a80eb69d409cfa0ef5616a02efff
describe
'826' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIX' 'sip-files00205.txt'
c7eb5c99535cf06a6dbaa0d7a7c49e1d
227df121487ab0f471a0c088758344c5b7334f5c
describe
'26038' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIY' 'sip-files00205thm.jpg'
283d5c0076b5566f9cefd8d9ccfd7a35
17bed48553e7738b3ac97eb7aa02b70128ea42f1
describe
'419426' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACIZ' 'sip-files00206.jp2'
7fed867df6cc489d28a8dc887ddf6dfe
29a56bacc225cb9926ec38c7e512b599fc179f9d
describe
'157611' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJA' 'sip-files00206.jpg'
fc704f4df55b0b29f0b0762f0afd7eaf
d82ec80c7efea8b20333b128a6405851f03dffae
describe
'18963' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJB' 'sip-files00206.pro'
5539c595c806d6eca5465834e1407398
580e9ae43a0daa0b3b954f703ccba9281da760ee
describe
'59555' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJC' 'sip-files00206.QC.jpg'
eec60760580e6390a8c2527ffdcce1ad
d840512d526ea8d315ab2ee974d6b91ddef7b20e
describe
'3369640' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJD' 'sip-files00206.tif'
bc00f2c228679f9785f5bdac4d06a37b
1b660eda4e551ff0c36224e439fc440ac3165f49
describe
'850' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJE' 'sip-files00206.txt'
37e0c494246e785044342cc6bc2ffc4d
cb8b9725177a56a70a714aaa21638fdf65684c2c
describe
'26952' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJF' 'sip-files00206thm.jpg'
4809219853af6ff5e2c89726de3f07fd
6365ee2611a008939d5465128b64b342850b2d05
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJG' 'sip-files00207.jp2'
ce559d847d59e08027a24f9b4f4577a5
0e833c8ff6d948f4fb051fb54a4730ba677a0a7c
describe
'156255' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJH' 'sip-files00207.jpg'
41fa70c07cabb5dbb13d780451cc5cfd
5494f0dfec5ab24f2df6854672917ec766f2baf9
describe
'12086' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJI' 'sip-files00207.pro'
36ebc2eff20012493d7bd3cf5ba3d1c1
27f6db304dbe2b8fe11c84f00b8a27ab023b6f5c
describe
'56946' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJJ' 'sip-files00207.QC.jpg'
a61f4b3346ad85adeb4cb403a76fdf69
784258c47c4085e2bad4cd8c910df2339698d1e8
describe
'3369344' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJK' 'sip-files00207.tif'
40332b80df81a2a13be97f4f96a29fb2
521c811511453fedcc82f4b52c47b93790fef239
describe
'629' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJL' 'sip-files00207.txt'
96cbc4103463d6f203739d8438a482cf
eba90f6f20c77833c1a72f8f10a8e059eccdcf51
describe
'25340' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJM' 'sip-files00207thm.jpg'
5a71e48c85727a1c7ae281d25d823f7a
766881dcecbdca95a61295325ebc97fea9534e3a
describe
'419441' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJN' 'sip-files00208.jp2'
2295495cc039f3ccc5a93fae98184ef1
03dfcda2d91563fd2e72ea47f83f3b1e6df78069
describe
'127870' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJO' 'sip-files00208.jpg'
cc5efbf39c2b2c782c0cf56131ee967c
3214fe12bc28177c3ec4cd941beb4ceedc604a5d
describe
'11226' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJP' 'sip-files00208.pro'
2705a8306aa16a0963f0bcb8a4629e6b
2713cc8a79d57afd6f8c3830f6341b67802bd1fb
describe
'48157' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJQ' 'sip-files00208.QC.jpg'
619bf2650473c82abc61c1338d00035e
0697c6bd607e55712505cec7d98e9e41483e1f7c
describe
'3368696' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJR' 'sip-files00208.tif'
ff5409e00dddeed8f9a24e879bf52a9d
aeec5e5b1d9d9e32d457c9407c3880edfe271054
describe
'553' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJS' 'sip-files00208.txt'
235e3687dd353dc6bb6b61dca899fc84
46263c50710f93a8a25bcb74a4d240e24e1d7bb6
describe
'23403' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJT' 'sip-files00208thm.jpg'
18efcdac847e6699ed60b0ba414333b0
f3c0f9f209595b749154f56bd84021748016b526
describe
'419394' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJU' 'sip-files00209.jp2'
701f7ce8076b661cbbbacdb2950281b5
79e1b7f1e38646fdd62827dfd41ab8e2f8329445
describe
'194737' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJV' 'sip-files00209.jpg'
29e8c70eb4a8f858c24103bf7308df00
3882732c4c457b92b55e140acc0052fa31cb4a47
describe
'4647' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJW' 'sip-files00209.pro'
9559f8a3d99582638c940a3cd9e125f5
d8aaec64aefbf5629113f31fabf9b1ea28fc7d37
describe
'60785' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJX' 'sip-files00209.QC.jpg'
3a2b1c379915397bec3a6ae787a5c7f0
061aef752e633b3800468a1139dd464397e3a62c
describe
'3368984' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJY' 'sip-files00209.tif'
614618190d6cfbf338a3846f5da7275b
df26703df7d371bd4189cea228d8b18181e4eb71
describe
'249' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACJZ' 'sip-files00209.txt'
e075ac6afd96fbcce0d74779aeb65836
867932a4d89a92f54a7fb88ce87e56119f0a6e28
describe
'25209' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKA' 'sip-files00209thm.jpg'
00c1f20c5ae30c673ac30513fd3ccaa2
955174fe928c2cfd9597872e02232ea79c3024b9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKB' 'sip-files00210.jp2'
de1aa8bda13195021ea1d67ace3cbf66
48b7f8e6462b3aace941687e38eae7f58e9cd95d
describe
'163991' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKC' 'sip-files00210.jpg'
d5f2f1c06240de8be714eab362f0a64f
d2451971620ef432156cd26dec5267bc204219ba
describe
'16081' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKD' 'sip-files00210.pro'
988385bb69d6f8ad07cf2e11a42c1fb0
93035678479e2125d463ec54dd778d4536a04856
describe
'59741' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKE' 'sip-files00210.QC.jpg'
cbed7b9818aa0bb0dfd369ed22f51a74
1113da5309cb0aa2c7ee495b7da87dc9274d9f9c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKF' 'sip-files00210.tif'
e895516e9b7f3900a59cf516a6a4a6bd
8f0baa97e9605cfedc74591f95eb51fdf73c62e3
describe
'741' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKG' 'sip-files00210.txt'
e8c75f585fca7fcd9b465d121455580c
5d36448f48427c7780e6584fe8b4e1b738a2c9f4
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKH' 'sip-files00210thm.jpg'
757bf69d2312a4850e7e0c99f60202a3
9bf9728e749e4c5ba53ee5006c26648a1fd6ef95
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKI' 'sip-files00211.jp2'
d60fbd03465bd2510f77db4163d8bd9e
7752f258536837ad3acfac6c36b01a5da7cd5627
describe
'137105' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKJ' 'sip-files00211.jpg'
125b645107f95b9ed4ddf047cc6abdb4
3dbb9721ac725aed34c91665f053621cde930e7d
describe
'33578' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKK' 'sip-files00211.pro'
18f5e777602c0e71f380891bfb2f2ccd
00e6001020dd994e22aa6ae064ff843136d0af84
describe
'58139' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKL' 'sip-files00211.QC.jpg'
53733219398a83bd608dd699070ecb6f
96aa590eb24046b9106a9e80764c8a755890fa6f
describe
'3369528' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKM' 'sip-files00211.tif'
5c5e83a1004b842f68f0cc6b78e0f596
16cfaa2658cbdb3e3167064dd5445123d6cc03e0
describe
'1490' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKN' 'sip-files00211.txt'
c24fa15d8b3db9f742557d912583d66a
5994f132df5630262dd712b5d4a3bb9c68dcae71
describe
Invalid character
'25553' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKO' 'sip-files00211thm.jpg'
ea778852fdd76f628f94060569574afc
0b95b9c231cf2d98b504b043b7917a8aeae4ca33
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKP' 'sip-files00212.jp2'
f0fe2ea97c8964fc55780feef7d1a6d6
cf9dd8564be6402e7ecd26e96ad9adae19acc49f
describe
'110691' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKQ' 'sip-files00212.jpg'
4c084f4dbc380890e7bea2ed84e96d89
07d0cb0d3b6d72fb00144c1ce2324f116817af35
describe
'15112' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKR' 'sip-files00212.pro'
4a2b4270fe0c2277b231a7ca86a892b1
c5a015276016cfc09380b7c1db3574dec9b61f91
describe
'51967' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKS' 'sip-files00212.QC.jpg'
288571621ca3f7a4c8b2a5829acf9d5d
1dd9ba548dd6b2ed14bff7645857b1c9b8354fa9
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKT' 'sip-files00212.tif'
fe232b641e0da9b8043cd2ef812b886b
ec5396eaf1140a2c5b7526f5a65716dd521d75d4
describe
'781' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKU' 'sip-files00212.txt'
0c1682530d631778a9e1bba20aa970dc
56c7a9fb4b37abb8b0a051c0aeabd13602b544f3
describe
'26465' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKV' 'sip-files00212thm.jpg'
81dcf8e32dcc54babceb42e988b50ee4
a3ecb8b02553390ef93dcb523a77547d4ecd5fcd
describe
'419380' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKW' 'sip-files00213.jp2'
c12699a920f2501d07df92dcc5143dbf
6afa6c8126442060cfd4c6c231b72b1410864d05
describe
'127364' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKX' 'sip-files00213.jpg'
1c9f7de402b798cd721cc555a4f0810f
713dc530c77bd9026c6fd76248593e837a70bcb2
describe
'8670' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKY' 'sip-files00213.pro'
3713538ec2ab775cdac33059282c8609
d68dbf9ef802120ec50bbd140bbd4f49bfe94ad4
describe
'45866' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACKZ' 'sip-files00213.QC.jpg'
91ad2b8b1b60819beab27d18ac41ae11
086b40cf2b587128be914930704bbdb8b159789c
describe
'3367896' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLA' 'sip-files00213.tif'
cebe7ebf2a9467cb35b133b1d0d6dbdc
e83cfe372d285db83f0063365e99c7475bd1c799
describe
'452' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLB' 'sip-files00213.txt'
1fa70c45bb6912b452696ec85989fbba
454d10935dc81d7260049665a398fbc9c0c2b618
describe
'22086' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLC' 'sip-files00213thm.jpg'
d464d837931952a836d2f277e420827a
3ea168dd4a50ec336a2b3ac52089309032143954
describe
'419254' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLD' 'sip-files00214.jp2'
8ad3a0853c1722445147bfda6d130978
d76c2a9c991e9968d60c9ba3dd3ee3e8817ff7c3
describe
'169571' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLE' 'sip-files00214.jpg'
dbb40930e69880dbe720c13c0847bc27
f7ef88b1f0752dcebf026cb00590ed8a8f947df8
describe
'15452' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLF' 'sip-files00214.pro'
9d1bfb360eb3be14145232dde0405133
1da430011c5a5da0e324445144a91d428af5e597
describe
'62676' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLG' 'sip-files00214.QC.jpg'
a011b3aa5ff2b6ff4396286d71ba45a6
13060794e6ad512fd2423a502fd1c7dbb9fcdeda
describe
'3370036' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLH' 'sip-files00214.tif'
c677f3210d767d405ed45fb4009a2f92
86dfda091ec9ca539819fb93d8e37bb607bcc578
describe
'710' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLI' 'sip-files00214.txt'
a99ee6d0f334b3f84d1201b80ff60b4c
862074986752c361796b493f38ac6d88ca0e6c07
describe
'27580' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLJ' 'sip-files00214thm.jpg'
fbf72bb5259a969ada78fb0de9596259
36f771ffc259a75af6137c8e432f0fa2589c81d7
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLK' 'sip-files00215.jp2'
12282a02cc87d32748019b11f103b839
f065a1a47cabf5bf92ebf0288442ef1b388a9be8
describe
'136223' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLL' 'sip-files00215.jpg'
6547534a6628c3dc6de7beaea0649b17
bf6398c90974fe5885bb06909e0cf31799c6950c
describe
'11897' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLM' 'sip-files00215.pro'
bdfd549c50240bb134ebc3242b09783b
55e39eff720756b0d8f37c727e45cf4c8c83a499
describe
'53909' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLN' 'sip-files00215.QC.jpg'
cf904b3f2a8b8378eeb440532fafc929
d590c0261cb84677f7fb9c96b757058e5a2f6650
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLO' 'sip-files00215.tif'
f382d2a44413fa98f036673391895eb9
b18af00eaca4e1103222aa4f79539fbcaba6e09a
'2011-12-30T06:54:32-05:00'
describe
'532' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLP' 'sip-files00215.txt'
91f734e68c1f67f81a44029b4a1e7b06
51d39026fbf430aab9ae035abc440e71fa475747
describe
'25377' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLQ' 'sip-files00215thm.jpg'
9db1f8e37258c2388bafefd4b6de8e2d
b1b43b9de6f476ee3bb0fe97251f283600929a27
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLR' 'sip-files00216.jp2'
e4f1ed39eda5b8d79a6b42dab8e5415a
80fae62d70c57d15c6ce7a6b21803e3a56113b86
describe
'143932' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLS' 'sip-files00216.jpg'
09eecbdb8d40ddc505be4fba0f023d0c
6e9e9a16ffbf5b065ce60a7986653ddbb2c6fb69
describe
'12653' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLT' 'sip-files00216.pro'
c6239bd7099f1c94c7e7698196e44b17
7380548ff30349435d687589fb7a8aa3fbec0f88
describe
'54073' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLU' 'sip-files00216.QC.jpg'
22ed8e17e2bd66318a5c6273df1d8392
ff315571af66bd0c2ca76c5b6c66bb627a3f9c3b
describe
'3369472' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLV' 'sip-files00216.tif'
44f586e0cdcfa393923193714d789717
d074fb9bfc7a48b31ce2785613312627434d29eb
describe
'562' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLW' 'sip-files00216.txt'
e2f506cb7fe934856008ae0ce11ab56c
22600d4053c98f99fa91aa8b91281dbbec7f9721
describe
'25762' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLX' 'sip-files00216thm.jpg'
52a6b8f7ced3ac59740164b6be9ff072
ffc9f51e569b774dec1e3fd5366db09b0b69bac2
describe
'419294' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLY' 'sip-files00217.jp2'
cbe0d0073f83c5d044ee0d08da3d8e8e
6a5509d99abb31aea364fa7dd7577823224912a8
describe
'186564' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACLZ' 'sip-files00217.jpg'
5d267b71e5c0d2c7087843fdd0e18a48
3a0ae284a6ac8daf9302ddc5d5605adb5642ee20
describe
'25453' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMA' 'sip-files00217.pro'
408cadf699909c1c9eb70e716c882023
8c6039ff20d31ca078a0924e7419e961263ace8d
describe
'67631' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMB' 'sip-files00217.QC.jpg'
c138eac19edaedc0ede4c2e778816ac8
6d4c85f5321ce232c6ae6fef392e17eddbaaf86d
describe
'3370160' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMC' 'sip-files00217.tif'
8c4c686530cd81e715fb73f544c0410f
e9f740ad144bc4b6ad8b61fe5c442e0c9de1893a
describe
'1126' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMD' 'sip-files00217.txt'
8cdfe3d3471b1da66c53c804c8ba877f
3faff76132746e08530e53c538e0ffbd81d84362
describe
'28094' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACME' 'sip-files00217thm.jpg'
40fc40b9daa8f9431ecb4ca7a00f4703
347ad3bdd2c4a94e3c6398eaea5f50061e10049c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMF' 'sip-files00218.jp2'
33738a232fd45547f7859c5417efcebe
d991e03c26fb69ffdb9254b17d7141ca159dd6b1
describe
'151185' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMG' 'sip-files00218.jpg'
8778b6589ccc93af3d8e8f110942b588
83f59718b4d94fa355250d575ad166227406e395
describe
'17005' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMH' 'sip-files00218.pro'
061422b3363c6b610d9436c4438658a0
d30daa3795b795d3f228bb03b76a516a4dade6ee
describe
'53813' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMI' 'sip-files00218.QC.jpg'
47ee60d26b0b20c4251cdf12fa5c655e
535c9f76bfdbd46d32abc243e8f2bad59e6e69a7
describe
'3368520' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMJ' 'sip-files00218.tif'
56446a02798dae83b8876668ec992e1c
4c735da7dd7003622c8b3eed56c63601cd360bc7
describe
'766' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMK' 'sip-files00218.txt'
c39a721ea85bd3de357e4bd6ccac9c55
e7950cc4f8591500b48757393562cd1134347c42
describe
'23573' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACML' 'sip-files00218thm.jpg'
85580103b9a99a64bf8470fb04dbf6f0
99e1ff74566c8ac3d465de43db2d0f8843a67b01
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMM' 'sip-files00219.jp2'
9051e433ae5a1d88e87b66b423d9ea28
eb7b36345d5bdb895a264ee1a360f6fd263a4991
describe
'188786' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMN' 'sip-files00219.jpg'
9f9b727173d1fb00d6a3360b40105ecc
e4a158baa3ec09c0fc8874d030970bd81642ed1b
describe
'7205' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMO' 'sip-files00219.pro'
fa8134795b190471e1ab8f2e9dc87f93
8d227151959a6e56b32a7196387945cc83b07f2f
describe
'63498' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMP' 'sip-files00219.QC.jpg'
1ad30c1a6b2284418315776675bd69e7
83efecd992a25ef8873b608f7b3761b49e81bc3c
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMQ' 'sip-files00219.tif'
06d4d41a0a2bd24d4323176ff1e77036
830a1332fef80e6e5787685c83d6ee3a1525f8d8
describe
'522' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMR' 'sip-files00219.txt'
734089e4dd37df86d8257ae1b8ab3cbb
33516eec2995bb7c80f7ec739aa49208e50c1639
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMS' 'sip-files00219thm.jpg'
3659af88910b58d787de6bd03902738b
923f56e37e4cc27ffd1140bc9ccba2c1e2e777e7
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMT' 'sip-files00220.jp2'
aeaa781daf52e6ed08843444fdc01cdb
11c0856c580c6c7c72deb51fc9c06939354eb4c9
describe
'162549' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMU' 'sip-files00220.jpg'
53a8bd02a905243167ec94d1560de2eb
66fde99273fa8efe650b403e08b6786dede08344
describe
'15607' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMV' 'sip-files00220.pro'
202a544c70d5ea651a348f357c454caa
86c3f5df37dbf05d1a011e2b3ffaa2c199652002
describe
'54895' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMW' 'sip-files00220.QC.jpg'
0ea7024e73053ec8f73b514ad87a9b52
fee1a20523ab373c6da414c3a0adec28b69755f1
describe
'3368344' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMX' 'sip-files00220.tif'
30f7be8f2ff54b3b92fffc5f34991501
a1efd0fb7b1aa048596280ec592605eb2f947c4e
describe
'894' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMY' 'sip-files00220.txt'
78821197785be9e088ad59e9a1e73bdc
330d3138e00ef7076e9e494e22a2a673d3f94826
describe
'23582' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACMZ' 'sip-files00220thm.jpg'
9b189e4b91367f5171d83b056ab90af5
4b02e373c0c28537a18e6da0131b74a6a5064643
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNA' 'sip-files00221.jp2'
21b7a8aa41599fef2b364b153eff9623
1fa4bd5d505cd312a2def20dc624c01b5bc42894
describe
'149292' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNB' 'sip-files00221.jpg'
2f5ba49ac511d20ddb487a0a069a360d
bcc064e4cba519228848d423f88c5b588abb0b05
describe
'7368' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNC' 'sip-files00221.pro'
dd105e75cf9a6ae3d96a7a2d2e6c082e
6745d7ca21f447be0e5588d578aa0fbd5f45178e
describe
'53938' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACND' 'sip-files00221.QC.jpg'
ca0aaf582697e189616eca68d430ac56
ff5aa2981c93085e52092a2374b7315f3977818e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNE' 'sip-files00221.tif'
a69e0a44d5b15eae609ac11bacc53cae
4af336898a38959476f009de431c7993eef16b4c
describe
'396' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNF' 'sip-files00221.txt'
38b61eeb180444ddaa88a1d7a7500ea2
2d248bb43fc582ae39bcb5fda25501be32517e5e
describe
'25436' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNG' 'sip-files00221thm.jpg'
46002c250795829cff90e21fd8dfda7d
70c96f7605fe9edd847c00b4a0ddeab605ce622e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNH' 'sip-files00222.jp2'
8bd6e9e44a211aea01722bc33c77986a
28430c5d2038dfa3d912e1d12f65461925aac22b
describe
'149813' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNI' 'sip-files00222.jpg'
59ec9e8b6dfd67faf2b04d5318315716
ba4925bf38a26612f44abf3c1776711efc84d851
describe
'17526' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNJ' 'sip-files00222.pro'
014897d4885025208a19a5dbfd631b93
a1f54b40aafadf2ab529305b66267f1307739e13
describe
'53441' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNK' 'sip-files00222.QC.jpg'
bd1096031f627cc67ca4170376876860
f971706cf6762c929bd56bf8d34c3ae199608121
describe
'3369072' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNL' 'sip-files00222.tif'
eb800abfc6b97af707fc305192d2410e
ec41cb157136029f653acb9e5423ad80fc2b2151
describe
'868' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNM' 'sip-files00222.txt'
b52c0886321e3e6a52246b127af322a6
c9000d27bd133dc3152928a041fc1bbe2e93f0fd
describe
Invalid character
'24962' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNN' 'sip-files00222thm.jpg'
eb809b2d43565f7c4776424ff8c87da4
e39a88922b8caa9febd1a4aadb6ef49123292922
describe
'419283' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNO' 'sip-files00223.jp2'
3e8f20f32ca56246ea35b6f19aae691e
4a2cde6adcb6401f46766ff9725add192da190e6
describe
'165451' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNP' 'sip-files00223.jpg'
08ae690d93319141b61342370f0cdf5c
e367e4389b54a1d3c2735a432f5ae6d3781072b6
describe
'18203' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNQ' 'sip-files00223.pro'
6f378bfee0b763f741bc3a002f6f4c63
3cf8510082e07609f03cf579c56ede373e197f6a
describe
'60011' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNR' 'sip-files00223.QC.jpg'
854daafe9d73ab09120cd94f599ee47a
8e68c79c00006ccd67b8c6fb53e430f467f8799e
describe
'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNS' 'sip-files00223.tif'
5d124ea84d66062bf8018fe9913de6b0
637099678ea30d6b52d4541b7e0a95992e5d537f
describe
'804' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNT' 'sip-files00223.txt'
c0da71cf3744b1289540c7dd74935a50
81e6eee0ce9fc19a4df789c0ec24b89406756540
describe
'26704' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACNU' 'sip-files00223thm.jpg'
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Invalid character
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describe
Invalid character
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describe
Invalid character
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describe
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describe
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describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-03-05T12:40:05-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'446323' 'info:fdaE20090116_AAAAUGfileF20090119_AAACQK' 'sip-filesUF00080939_00001.xml'
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describe
'2015-03-05T12:40:06-05:00'
xml resolution



PAGE 1

ayAM.G.deI.IS THECLEANER 0'Ln' JMAICA

PAGE 2

YOUSEETHEMEVERYWHERE. BENJAMINtJS MedicinalRemediesToilet and otherPreparations.ToiletandotherPreparations.For20 years the Standard Remedy for Rheumatism, Burns, Cuts, Sprains, Swellings, Woundsofevery description, for Man, Horses, and Cattle.TheSure Cure for Colds, Coughs, Asthma, Bronchitis, Croup, and all affections of the Throat, Chest, and Lungs. A Deliciousand"Fragrant Tooth-wash."Theonly' Liquid Dentifrice thatgivesPearly Teeth,HardGums,and"Sweet Breath. This Elegant Preparation Improves and Grows the Hair, Prevents its falling out, and removes Dandruff. A Pure Dressing for theHair,makes it Pliant and Glossy, andisdelightfully perfumed.AllProductsofStandardQualityandMerit.Benjamin'sJamaicanHealingOil.Benjamin'sLungBalsam.Benjamin'sFragrantRosafoam.Benjamin'sHairTonic.Benjamin'sCocoanutOilPomade.Benjamin'sKhusKhusBouquetandToiletA Delightful Perfume for the Handkerchief and Toilet.Water.TheP.A. BenjaInin Mfg.COInpany.MANUFACTURINGCHEMISTS,KINGSTON,JA.,LONDON,NEWYORK,BOSTON.FORSALEBYALLDRUGGISTSANDGROCERS.

PAGE 3

INJAMAICAANDCUBA

PAGE 4

INJAMAICAANDCUBABYH.G.DELISSERKINGSTONTHEGLEANER COMPANY LTD.

PAGE 5

PREFACECUBA,Jamaica,Panama:thosearethecountriesdealtwithinthis little work.OnPanamaIhavewrittenvery briefly.ThepresentimportanceofthatRepublic lies chiefly in itsbeingthesceneof agreatundertakingwhich,whenfinally accomplished,shouldbringaboutfar-reachingchangesintheindustrialandeconomicposition oftheWestIndianIslands.TheprincipalroutetotheCanal,onits Atlantic side, istheWindwardPassage,andthatPassage iscommandedbyCubaandJamaica.HenceitfollowsthatCubaandJamaicahave, geographicallyandstrategically, a closeconnectionwithPanama.Because of this,andbecauseI believethatthosetwo islandsmustreapdirectlymostofwhateverbenefitthereis tobederived fromtheopeningoftheCanal, I haveaddedto aworkon CubaandJamaicaachapteronPanama.Whyhasthisbookbeenwritten?TogivethosewhodonotknowtheWestIndiessomeideaoftheirpeople,theirappearance,andthemannersandcustomsthatprevail inthem.Cubais a Spanish,JamaicaanEnglishisland.Theyarenearneighbours,buttheirdevelopmenthastakenplacealongdifferent lines,theirpeoplearedifferent,andso istheirfuture.Andthecontrasttheypresent,evenasregardsconfiguration,topography,andscenery, is most interesting. Ihaveaddeda few noteswhichIhopewillproveof some servicetotourists. Most ofthefollowingchaptersfirstappearedintheDaily Gleaner,theleadingWestIndiannewspaper.H. G.DEL.KINGSTON,JAMAICA.December14, 1909.v

PAGE 7

CONTENTSCHAPTERTHEKEYOFTHENEWWORLDCHAPTERIIHAVANA ATPRAYERANDATPLAYCHAPTERIIITHEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY.CHAPTERIVTHEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANSCHAPTERVKINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICACHAPTERVITHEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAICACHAPTERVIIPEOPLEANDPOLITICSCHAPTERVIIIONTHEROAD. di"AGE 378197.112125

PAGE 8

viiiTHROUGHABEAUTIFULLANDAVISITTOPANAMAHINTSTOTOURISTSCONTENTSCHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXIPAGE137

PAGE 9

ILLUSTRATIONSTHEMORROCASTLEANDMALECON,HAVANATHEMALECONWITHRESIDENCESINTHEDISTANCE.MILKVENDOR,CUBA MAKINGLOVE,CUBATHEPRADO,HAVANATHECATHEDRAL,HAVANACOUNTRYHOUSEWITHAVENUEOFROYAL PALMSBRINGINGCANESTOTHEFACTORY, CUBA ACOUNTRYSCENE,CUBA GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBAKINGSTREET,KINGSTONTOWNOFMANDEVILLE,JAMAICAROARINGRIVER,JAMAICA ROADTOBOGWALKBANANAPLANTATIONJAMAICAN PEASANTSINTHEFIELDTHREEJAMAICASCENESTOWNOFPORTANTONIO ix FACING PAGE 8 16 2428324444 856 6480 8896112120124128132

PAGE 10

xILLUSTRAnONSCOFFEEPULPING,JAMAICA NATIVE BOYPICKINGCOCOA-NUTSTHESQUARE, MONTE GOBAYTHEFORT, MONTEGOBAYCULEBRA CUT, ISTHMUSOFPANAMADEESTREET,COLONFACINGPAGE136136144

PAGE 11

CHAPTERITHEKEYOFTHENEWWORLDQUITEforty milesawaya fan-likeglareflamedbrightagainstthehorizon, looking asthoughitroseoutofthedepthsofthetropicsea.Totherightof usandbutdimlydiscernibleinthelightofthestarsandthecrescentmoonwas a long low-lyingshadowwhichwe knew to bethenorth-westerncoastofCuba;arounduswerethestarlitwatersoftheCaribbean;aboveus a skystuddedwitha milliondistantsunsandstreakedhereandtherewithheavy cloudsfromtheheartofwhichgleamedforthatintervalsbroadsheetsof pallid lightning.Thefresheningwindwhippedthesurfaceoftheseatofoam.Hereandtherefromtheloomingshadow-likelanda friendlylighthousesentforthitsraysof warning.Wewentslowly, very slowly, forwecouldnotentertheharbourofHavanabeforesunrise;butthefascination ofthecitywasalreadyuponus,andsowestoodforhoursonthedeckofthevesselwatchingthelightscomecloser into view. Ihadpassedneartheisland ofCubaonprevious occasionsandhadgazedwith curiosityonitsterrace-like slopesandonthenumerousisletsandcaysthatclusteralongits extensive line of coast.ThelargestoftheWestIndianislands,themostimportantstrategicallyandthemostfertile,ithadalwayshadformeanappealofthestrongest.Itwas Spain'slastpossessioninthesewaters.Itisthelatestof alltheSpanish-American republics. Beforeitbecamefreesomebloody revolutionshadtobesuppressedandmorethanonefierce battlefought;andintheend, as fate would have it,thefreedomofCubawasnotwonbythesamemeansbywhichtherestof Spanish-Americaattaineditsindependence.Provinceafterprovinceoftheold SpanishdominionsintheNewWorldroseandproclaimeditsindependenceafterNapoleonI.haddriventheSpanish kingsfromthethroneof Spainandputhisownfeeblebrotherintheirplace. Natoneofthemchosetoreturnto its old allegiancewhentheSpanish sovereignFerdinandcamebacktohis own.Theyfoughttopreservethefreedomtheyhadwon,andEuropeandAmerica leftthemtowinorlose as fate should decide.2

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2INJAMAICAANDCUBATheywon;butCubachosetoremainloyal,andso toCubawasgiventhetitle of"TheEverFaithfulIsle."Butthetimecamewhen"TheEverFaithfulIsle"initsturnbecamewearyof oppressionandmisgovernment.SomethingofthatstoryI shall telllateron-thelastchapterofitisalreadyknownto alltheworld.Therevolutionwhichbeganin1895 lasted untilFebruary,1898.Inthatmonthanewphase ofthestruggle wasenteredupon, for,withtheblowingupofthe Maine inHavanaHarbour,Americaninterventionfollowed as amatterof course.Interventionwassuretocome;thatitcamesodramaticallywasbutanaccidentintheprocession of events.ForseventyyearstheeyesofAmericanstatesmenhadbeenturnedtowardsCuba.Forseventyyears-forlongerthanseventyyears-theSpaniardhadrealisedthatthedaywouldcomewhenheshould havetofightforthelastremnantof his vastdominionsintheWest.Thesignalforthefinal struggle was givenonthenightofFebruaryIS,1898,anda fewmonthslaterthefleet of SpainunderAdmiralCerveralayawreckandcaptivealongthecoastof Santiago.In WestIndiesthereignoftheSpaniardclosedamidstthethunderofcannonandtheshrieks ofdrowningmen.TheworldwhichColumbushaddiscovered for Spain was finally lost when,weepinglike a child, AdmiralCerverasteppedonboardtheconqueror'sshipandhandedhimhis sword.Somethingof allthispassedthroughmymindonthenightwhenI first sawthelights ofHavanaflaringonthedistantsky,andrealisedthatatlast I wasaboutto seethecityandcountryIhadso oftenlongedto see.Wecreptforwardata snail's pace,andonebyonethepassengersdroppedoff to sleepintheirclothchairsuponthedeck.Butwiththeglimmerofdaylightinthe east,withthefirstpalingofthestarsandlighteningofthesky,wewereawakeandtremblingwithanticipation. Atthreeo'clockinthemorningthegreatlampsalongtheforeshore ofthecity couldbedistinctly seen, blazingina magnificent crescent. At five o'clockthelampshadallgoneout,andthereappearedalongthesea-frontthenobleesplanadewhich formspartofthesea-wall of Havana.Onthenorthbehindthis a longrowof yellow-white houses rose, followingthecurveofthecrescentshoreandstretchingawaytothewest.Onourleft adark-greyfortresssurmountedbyalighthousejuttedoutintotheseaandcompletelycommandedtheentrancetotheharbour;straightinfrontof uswasanarrowopening,andtotherightof itanotherfort.ThiswasLaPunta,thatontheleftwasthefamous MorroCastle of Havana, a fortress massiveandstately,andwiththedignitythatcomesofageandof historic associations.Beforewepassbetweentheseancientfortsandintotheharbourof Havana, wehavealreadyreceivedanindelibleimpression ofthecity asoneseesitfromthesea.Wehaveseenbeforeus abaywhose bluewaterspaleintopearlygreenastheyrollshorewardandbreakinto surfagainsttheshelvingcoral

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD3coast.Wehaveseenthesea-wallpromenadethattheAmericansbuilt,andtheflat-roofedhouses;wehaveseenacitythatrisesfromtheseaandhasputonitsbestrobestogreetthestranger.Itis a citywhichseemsproudlyconscious ofitssplendidappearance,its fine situation,anditsreputationasbeingthefirstandbestamongsttheWestIndiancapitals.Themenwhobuilt thispartofHavanabuiltwell,foronthosewhohaveseenititleavesanunforgettableimpression.Andasthispictureprintsitselfontheretinaofthemind, we passbetweentheforts,andintothesheltered, spaciousharbourof Havana.Letmetrytomakeyou seeitwiththeeyeoftheimaginationandwiththeaidofsuchpoorpowersofdescriptionasmaybeatmycommand.Noonehas everyetdescribeda cityorasceneasitactuallyis:itistheprovinceofthepaintertocatchandfix for ustheworldof colourandof formandlight.Yetawritermayputdowntheimpressions he receivesfromsomebeautifullandscapeorfromsomeinterestingspectacleofhumanlifeandactivity;andsuchaspectacleisthatwhichtheharbourofHavanapresents.Thecity itself is builtupona peninsula, alargepartofwhichiscomposedof alluvial sediment.Theentrancetoitsharbourisbutathousandfeet wide,butfurtherontheharbourwidensto a mileandahalf:inlengthitissomethingoverthreemiles.Onitswesternshore liesthecity,andonemayseeataglancethatHavanaisbuta littleabovethelevel ofthesea,thegroundrisinggentlyfrom thewater-edgeinto lowwoodedhills tothesouthandwest.Ontheleft-hand side oftheharbouras yousteaminwardsarethefortifications oftheMorroandCabana.Thesefollowtheline ofthelowhillsthatprotecttheharbour,andfurtherintherearestillotherfortresses. Allthesemayhavebeenexcellentdefencesinthedays ofwoodenships.To-daytheirusefulness isgone,buttheirpicturesqueeffect is undeniable.TheSpaniardsknewthevalue of Havana.EarlyinthesixteenthcenturyDon DiagodeVelasquez calledit"TheKey oftheNewWorld,"andcommandingasitdoesthestraits ofFloridaandtheGulf of Mexico,thisnamehas acertainpoeticappropriateness.Thefortswiththeirhundredsofembrasuresstandoutgreypatchesinthemidst ofgreen,andoppositetothemHavanaappearsas a mass of yellowish,red-tiledhousesinterspersedwithpatchesofgreen.Green, too, isthewaterof thisharbour,anoily, sickly,darkishgreen,horribleto lookatandhorribletothinkabout.Forcenturiesthefilthandsewage ofthecity has floweduponit.Onceitwas 40 feet deep,nowit isbuteighteenortwenty,andthebottomof it is abedof slimeundisturbedbythetrifling riseandfall ofthetide.Exceptwhenstrongwinds blow,thewaterhereiscalmand,asHavanaisoneofthebusiestportsof tropical America,theshippingoftheworldisrepresentedhere.Theretheylie,theshipsof allthenations. AgreatFrenchmanisanchoredinthecentreoftheharbourandis flyingtheyellowquarantineflag;twoAmericansboatsarebeingladenwithsugar;theflag of Spain floats fromthat

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4INJAMAICAANDCUBAvesselyonder;ourownshipfliestheUnionJack,andthereare other steamersandbargesandschoonerseverywhere.OntheHavanaside oftheharbourahundredlightersliewithfurledsails-averyforestoflargeflat-bottomedboatsandrakishmasts.Fineferry-boatssteamacrossatregularintervals,bearingfreightandpassengerstothelittletownof Regia,whichissituatedoppositetoHavanaandisoneofthecity'ssuburbs.Pertlittlesteamlaunchesflithitherandthitheramongthelargecraft,impudentlydemandingtherightofway;heavybargespursuetheirlumberingcoursefromonepointtotheotherwithsolemnindifference;andeverywherearethestout,strongpassengerboatswitheachitssingleboatman,itsawningoverthesternseats,anditsshoulderof sail.Howbrightandanimatedistheappearanceofitall!TheboatswiththeirawningsandtheirsailshaveremindedsomevoyagersofthecanalsofVenice;andhere,too,thecityrisesfromtheshore,andfromthesurfaceofthewateronemaycatchaglimpseof long,narrowstreets,andchurchtowers,andavenuesof trees.Fromtheroof ofHavana'sChamberofCommercethererises asplendiddome,andfromthedometherespringsagoldenfigurewhichholdsyourattentionforamomentasthevesselpassesby.Alongthelow sea-wallarewharvesandcoveredironpiers,splendidlybuiltandkeptingoodcondition.Abusyharbouritis,andtheentrancetoaprosperouscity.Andlookingdownuponitallaretheweather-wornfortresseswhichtheSpaniardsbuilt,butwhichcouldnotprevent"TheKey oftheNewWorld"frompassingintootherandalienhands.Havanadoesnotwaketobusinessasearlyasthesea-coasttownsofEuropeandAmerica;sothoughyoumaycometoanchora littleaftersix o'clock, itmaybesometimebeforeyouarefreetogoashore.Therearemanypreliminariestobegonethrough.Firstthedoctorcomesonboardandexaminestheship's,papers;thenheinspectsyoupersonallytoascertainyourhealth.Heis satisfiedandleaves;thencomesanotherofficial (called, I believe,theCaptainofthePort),andIthinkhebringswithhimabouttwenty-five"inspectors,"alldressedinneat"crash"uniformsandcaps,andmostofthemlookingasiftheywouldbemuchhappierwithsomerealworktodo.Ittakesthechiefinspectorquiteatimetoexaminetheship'Spapers.Hemustknowthequantityandcontentsof allthepassengers'trunks,aswellasthequantityandkindofcargointheship;hewantsduplicatesofeveryform,andif a singlenameis misspelt,orawronginitialsetdownontheduplicate,theformmayhavetobemadeupalloveragain.Ifthisofficial is satisfied,heleavestwoorthreeof hissubordinatesonboardtowatchproceedings,andbetakeshimselftohislaunchandtoanothership. Now,youthink,wecanlandatlast;butyouaresoonundeceived;forthoughyoumayhavecomesuccessfullythroughthescrutinyofthedoctorandtheexaminationoftheinspector,youhaveyettoreckonwiththeimmigrationagent.Thisofficer willwanttoknowyourstatusinsocietyandyourobjectincomingtothiscountry,andunlesshegrantspermissionyoucannotgoashore.So we:

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD5waitfortheimmigrationagentwhile a hot hate ofCubanofficial routinespringsup inourhearts;andno wonder, fornowthe sun isshiningfulluponthewaterandyonderthegreenavenues seem to promise agratefulplace of rest. Still, even in Cuba,theimmigrationagentdoesarriveatlast,andaftersatisfying himselfthatwe are notChinamenorpenuriouslabourershesays wemayland;onwhichwediscoverthatthelaunchwhichis to take usashoreisnowheretobeseen.Wethereforefind ourselves either. compelled toremainonboarda littlelongerorto takeoneoftheboatsthathavegatheredinscoresaroundthe ship.Thelaunchwillcomelateron, we know,butsomeof us willnotwait for it.WehavehadenoughofCubanprocrastination. Sowespringinto aguadanoandarepulledtowardstheshore.Ina fewminuteswearetreadingonCubansoil.Ineverylandthetraveller isgreetedbyhosts ofportersanxiolls to assisthim(for a consideration)inhis passagethroughtheCustom House.InHavanaitisthesame,thoughofthetenortwelvepersonswhosurroundedme as IlandedIamnotsurewhichwereemployedbytheGovernmentandwhichweregentlemenofindependentandirresponsible position. I onlyknowthatI saw afour-hundredweighttrunkcarefully depositedonthetopofmylightvalise,whichhadbeenplacedonthetruckusedto taketheluggage fromthewharftotheCustom House. Ididnotapproveof thisarrangement,butmyattemptsatremonstrancewereevidentlymisinterpretedas signs ofcompleteapproval, for,afternoddingatme encouragingly,theportershouted"Vamos!"andawayhewenttowhere, inthecentreof asquareformedby low counters,theCustom House officials oftheRepublicwerestanding.Thencommencedanexcitcd dialoguebetweenthehotelagentwhoclaimedmeas his own,andtheCustom House officerwhowasmuchperturbedbythenecktiesIhadbroughtwith me.TheCubanCustoms regulations allowthetraveller tobringwithhimclothingtothevalue oftwentypounds,andIamsurethatthethings Ihadwerenotworthquitethat.Yethe couldnotawaywith thosethreenewties.Hepointedtothemfiercely. I explainedthata civilisedmanwasusuallyexpectedtowearties;thehotelagentcalleddownthevengeanceof heavenuponeveryonewhocouldmakea fussabouta few ties.Theofficialeventuallyyielded,andafterstillanotherofficialhadsatisfied himselfthatthetrunkandvalise IhadlandedwithcorrespondedtothenumberofpackagesIhadreportedtotheship'sofficer asbelongingto me, Iwasallowed togomyway.Wehadbeenoutside ofHavanafromaboutfour o'clock inthemorning,andhadwearrivedathalf-past sixtheeveningbeforeweshould still havebeenobligedbytheharbourregulationstowait until sixthenextmorningbeforeenteringtheport.Wehadanchoredinthecentreoftheharbouratabouttwentyminutesaftersix.YetwedidnotleavetheCustomHousebeforeaquartertoten,andfor all this waste oftimewehadtocontentourselveswiththereflectionthatitwas"thecustomof the country.""Thecustomofthecountry! Itis a

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6INJAMAICAANDCUBAphrasethatyouheareverydayinCuba.Thereisnoreasonwhylargeshipsshouldnotgoalongsidethewharves,forthedraughtofwater is deepenoughtoaccommodatethem.Butthelighteringinterestsarepowerfulenoughto insistuponthemaintenanceof an obsoleteandannoyingsystemwhichcoststheconsumersofHavanaover,000a year,andthereasonisthatlighterageis acustomofthecountry.Everygoodpurposecouldbeserved,andtimeandmoneysaved,byhavingonesetof officers to look overthepapersoftheship.Butitisapparentlyacustomofthecountryto findpublicemploymentforthelargestpossiblenumberof persons. Still, allthesenumerousofficialswerepolite, forpoliteness is also acustomofthecountry.Itis acustomwhichthestrangerappreciates,and so onesooncomestoaddressevenone'sporteras"senior"and"caballero"-as"sir"and"gentleman"-andtopermithimto take,onrequest,alightfromone'scigar.Torefuse to lethimdoso wouldbetooffendagainstacustomofthecountry.*Fromtheroof oftheBelenCollege IamlookingdownuponandoverthecityofHavana,andwithme is aJesuitpriestwhorelatesthehistory of thisinstitutionandtellsmesomethingabouthisOrderand his life."Ileave forSpainonThursday,"heissaying;andI ask,"Areyougladtoreturnhome?""Itis allthesameto me,"he answers; thenhe adds: "ItisthesecondruleofourOrderthatoneplacemustbeto us thesameasanother;wearetohavenopreferences."Hepauses,thencontinues:"InSpain, inthewinter,IcanworkharderthanIworkhere;butheretheclimateis genial,andonefeelswarmandpleasantalltheyearround;so, you see,thereisnoreasonforpreferences.Thebodycanberuledbythemind.Onemaybehappyanywhere."AshespokeofthegenialclimateofCubahewavedhisarmtowardsthecitywhichlaystretchedoutinsilenceandbrightsunshineatourfeet. I followedthemotion of hisarm.Theretothewest,on an eminencecommandingthe city, wasanoldSpanishfort,theCastillodelPrincipe,andtothesouthandwestwerethelow,slopinghillsthatformthebackgroundofHavana.Totheeastwastheharbour,tothenorththeGulf ofMexico;oneverysidewerethehouses::mdthestreetsandtheplazas;andgazingdownuponthemall,uponthered-tiledroofs,thesolidsquareandrectangularhouses,theavenuesandthenarrowthoroughfares-thecityseemedtometobestilldreamingthedreamsoftheeighteenthcentury,andnotyettohavewakenedtothebustleandactivityof to-day.ThereisanoldHavanaanda new.Theold books will tell youthatoncethecitywas all totheeast,alongtheeasternedgeoftheharbour,andwassurroundedbyathickwallanddefend.edbya fort.Thewallhasdisappeared

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD7butthefortis stillthere,andnearitstillclusterthepublicbuildingsofHavana;itspresident'spalace, itscathedral,andits"Templete,"whichmarksthespotwherewascelebratedthefirst MasssunginHavana.There,too,withinwhatwasoncetheboundariesoftheold city,arethenarrowbusinessstreetsofCubaandthesolidstonebuildingsasinglestoreyhigh.AndthereisthePlazadesAnnas,whereoncetheSpanishbandplayedatnight,andthesoldiersparadedintheday.Tothenorthandsouthandwestthecityhasspreadout.Itgrewoutsideofthewalls,andasitgrewitsstreetswidened,itsopenspacesmultiplied,andeleganthouseswerebuiltin itssuburbsandoneitherside ofthebroadtree-shadedavenuewhichnowrunsthroughthepresentcentreofthetown.Itisgrowingstill;itisspreadingitselfoutinnewsuburbs;andasonesauntersaboutthis SpanishAmericancity,onecomesuponinstantevidencesofthechangesthataretakingplace.FromtheheightsofLaFuerzaortheBelenCollegethecityseemsasleeporbuthalf-awake;butinthestreetsbelowthereisactivityandmovement.ThestrangerinHavana,afterleavingtheCustomHouse(whichoncewas achurchthattheEnglishdesecrated),fmds himselfin a narrowstreetwhichrunsalongthewholeharbourfrontandonwhicharebuiltsomeofthegreatbusiness houses ofthecity. Above thisstreetistheonlybitof elevatedrailroadtracktobefoundinHavana;andfollowingthistract,which soondescendstothelevel oftheground,wecatchglimpsesofthesea.Theseaiseverywherehere:totheeastitlooks a sicklygreen,tothenorthitshinesinthesunlight-asheetoflimpidblue.Andrunningatrightanglestothewater-frontareanumberofotherpathsthatlead intothecity. I callthempaths,fortheylook asthoughtheyhadheenhewnoutof a solidblockof houses, sonarrowaretheyandsosteepedin shadow,exceptwhenthesunishighabovetheroofs.Theywerelaidoutsoastoexcludethesun, soastoshutoutits fierceraysandits fiercerglare;theywerebuiltonlyforpedestrianstoo,andby a peoplewhocouldnotimagineaneraofhurryorofelectriccars. I lovetostandatthebeginningofoneofthesestreetsandgazedownintoitscooldarkdepths.Iseeoneitherhandanumberof smallstoresandshops,nearlyall ofonestorey,thatopenona levelwiththestreet.Sohighandspaciousaretheirentrances,youmightalmostimaginethattheside ofthemwhichfrontsthestreethadbeenliftedaway;yetinmanyof theseshopsthereis alwayssomethingofgloomexceptatthebrightesthoursoftheday.Thestreetitselfseemsdeckedoutasfor a festival.TheSpaniardhaspaintedhis househereashehaspainteditinMexicoandthe'Canaries;andredandblueandyellowarethecolourswithwhichhehasadornedthewalls.Theeffect isquaintlypleasing,andtheholidayquality ofthesceneisheightenedbythefestoons ofclothandthecanopieshungoutabove.Thecanopiesare

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8INJAMAICAANDCUBAforthecomfortof thosewhowork inorpatronisetheshops;thefestoonsthatlook likebannersata distanceareshop-signs setting forththathereisthebestemporiumfor Parisian goods,andtherethebest opticiansintheworld. Sign followssign;you walkordriveunderscores of them.Theyflutter inthebreeze,theychallenge yourattention;theymakeof gaudy-colouredHavanaa picture-cityadornedwith flags.Andsaunteringalongthetiny sidewalkwhereallmustwalk in single file, you see exposed inthewindowshatsthatarestillthefashion inParisandrobeswhichyoumayhaveseenthis seasoninthestores inRegentStreet.Andyou noticethateachoftheseshops has a fancy name,suchas"TheHope,"or"TheDove," or"TheGrand," fortheSpaniardloves to give fine-soundingnamestoeverythingheowns.Butonedoes not go toHavanatobuygoods fromParisorLondonorSpain;sotheshopsthatwillenticeyouarethoseinwhichCubanfansaresold,orCubansouvenirs;shopsinwhichSpanish girls,andperhapsaCubangirlalso, willbefound,andwhereyoumaybuya fan for fiftycentsorfive dollars from a quiet, pretty, tired-looking girlwhoneverhurriesandis neverimpatient...only fatigued.Inthisnarrowstreetarealltheotherevidences ofthecommerciallife of Havana. IthinktheCubansmustlovethreeplaces above allothers:thebarbershops,the cafes, andthetobacconist shops.Theseareeverywherein this city ofthreehundredthousandpersons, asnumerousnearly asthehouses themselves. I sit in a cafe, andopposite is a sumptuouslyfitted-out"hair dressing saloon," with its high, adjustable, plush-covered chairs, its huge mirrors,andits stock of cosmeticsandtonics, all infalliblecuresfor baldness. I seethebarberathisbusiness;I see himstoppingeverynowandthentoadmirethework of his hands, for he isanartist. Iwatchthestreamof lifeasitflows by,anditoccurstomethattherearebutfewwomeninthestreetsof Havana.Theheat keepsthemindoors,andthecustom ofthecountry.Theseclusion ofwomenwas a custom whichtheMoorsbroughtwiththemtoSpainandwhichtheSpanishadoptedwillingly. I have only to walk a littlefurtheron,andI shall see houses whose heavydoorsarestuddedwithgreatbrass-oriron-headed nails,andwhose high,widewindowsarebarredwith iron grills.Behindthose doorsandbarredwindowsarethewomen;andifI sitheretilleveningI shall seethemgoingin twosandthrees totheshops. At thishourtheyaredressedintheir loose dressing-gowns,andarewhilingawaythelonghothours in sleeporin some of thoselightfeminine occupationsthatmakenogreatdemandupontheirenergy.Intemperatecountriesthewomenwork;intropical countriesthepeasantwomenworkalso;butthewomenofthebetterclasses rest.InCuba, too, women havenotyetentirely ceased tobethepropertyof men,andthebarredwindowsandmassive doorsarea sign oftheirsubordination. I also noticethattherearevery few blackmenandwomenin this

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THEMORROCASTLEANDMALECONHAVANA.

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD9street.Somehow,theideaprevailsinothercountriesthatCuba,liketheBritishWestIndies,is alandofblackordark-colouredmen,whereasitisforthemostpartacountryofwhiteandlight-coloured men,andissteadilybecomingwhiter. Atanyrate,thoughtheyareheretothenumberofsomethirtythousand,youdonot seelargecrowdsofnegroesinthestreetsof Havana.ButswarthyCubansconstantlypassupanddown;Spaniardsgoby;victoriasdrawnby finestronghorses rollandcIattel'overthehardpavement.Cartsdrawnbypairs of mules,andsometimesbyteamsof mules,creakslowly along,andastheypassyouhearthetinkling ofthebellshungroundthenecksofthemules,andseethebroadredbandsandthetasselswithwhichthehaltersaretrimmed.TheCubanmuleteerloves his animals, iftheappearanceofthesemulesbeanyproofofcareandaffection.PeopleoftheLatinracearenotrenownedfor takingthoughtofthepatientbrutesthatservemankindsowell;yetthehorsesandthemulesI saw in Havana,andeventhedogs,showedas itseemedtomenotraceof ill-treatment.Justthereverse.Thesing-song voices ofboyshawkingthedailypapersbreakupontheairatintervalswithshrill insistence,andnowandagaintheelectriccargoes by.Thecartracksof this cityareof anarrowgauge,andmanyofthelinesarelaiddowninsingletracksononesideofthestreet. Sittingina car, youmayshakehandswithortalktoafriendinthenear-byshoporhouse,withouttroublingto movefromyourseat.On tht: sideoppositeto this singletrackallwheeledtraffic isbroughtto a standstillwhenacaris passing,andthis for fear of accidents.Andthereareotherstreetsthroughwhichonlyoneline of victoriasorlandausmaydrive, forthereisnotspaceenoughfor two.,fHow,then,doesthecrowdmoveabout?"oneimagines someoneaccustomedtothe thl'Onged thoroughfaresofLondonorNewYorkasking;butthereareno busycrowdsinCuba.Therearepeopleinthestreets,butthetideofhumanbeingsthatflowsacrossBrooklynBridgeintheevening,oralongPiccadillyortheStrandwhentheday'sworkisdone-nothinglikethatwill you seeinanyCubantown.Indeed,toonecomingfromthecitiesofEuropeorAmericathestreetsofHavanawillseemalmostdesertedandempty.YetHavanais a populous city,andinits warehousesandshopsanimmenseamountofbusiness is done.Inthe cafe with me, seatedroundthelittlemarble-toppedtables, thecustomersaretalkingandreadingandsippingrefreshingdrinks.Twoorthreeareplayingdominoes,andhavethrownofftheirjacketsso as tobemoreateaseintheirabsorbingoccupation. Sometalkpolitics. Ihearthenamesof Zayas, ofGomez;Iheartheword((Americano"pronouncedwithbitteremphasis.TheCubanis bynatureaneloquenttalker,andpoliticstohim, astoeveryotherSpanish-American,areastheverybreathof life.Thenewspapersarefull of politics, the cajes arefull ofpolitics;yetI witnessnounseemlydemonstration;eventhegesturesofthetalkersarenotviolent.

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10INJAMAICAANDCUBAIcatchsuchexpressionsas"elprogressodelpais,"andIgatherthat,intheopinionofthatbeardedmanopposite,thecountryisnotprogressingunderthepresentGovernment.FromanotherspeakerIlearnthatitis.Butthesedifferingopinionsaregivenquietly,andhoweverlongthesemenmayremaininthis cafe, theywill leavesober,fordrunkennessisnotaviceoftheCuban.Behindthelong,highcounterstandthebar-tenderandhis assistants, all Spanish.ForiftheSpaniardhas lost his politicalsupremacyinCuba,hestillretainshissuperiorcommercialposition:alltheretail business ofthecountryisinhishands,andevel'yoneisagreedas to hiscompetenceandability-as a manof business.Heis a politesalesmanwithademocraticfreedomofmannerwhichnowisemanwoulddeprecate.Heservesyoudrinks, native, Spanish,orAmerican,withcommendablequickness,andmostof hismixturesaregood.Atoneendofhiscounterispiledagreatheapoftropicalfruits:pineapplesandmelons,withmangoesandbananasandsoursopsandcocoanuts. You askfor"pinafria,"andhetakesapineappleandpealsitandcutsitintolargechunksandpoundsitupwithwhitesugarandiceandwater,andhandstheconcoctiontoyouina huge,thicktumbler,andyou finditdelicious.Hewilldothesamewithtangerineormelon;hewill mixyouawhitealmonddrinkof sickly sweetness,oranorangeadeofrefreshingflavour.Oryoumayhavecoffee,withmilkorwithout;anexcellenttonicwhichactsa.sastimulusontheheartandnerves. But, for myself, Ipreferthefruitdrinksto any,andI lovetheCuban cafes fortheirsake. Attheendofanhourorso Ileavemyseatandwandertowardswhatwasoncetheprincipalplaza ofthetown. Iemergefromanarrowstreetuponasquare,andinthesqual'e is aparkwithbenchesandamarblestatue,andplantedoutwithlaureltreesandroyalpalmsandfloweringshrubs.Beforeit istheimmenseyellow-whitebuildingoftheAdministration,withits lofty,imposingcolonnade.Tooneside ofthesquareisthebuildingwheretheSenatemeets.Thissquareisalmostdeserted,thoughhere, too,areoneortwo cafes inwhicha fewmensit,andintheparksomeidlersloungeuponthebenches.Amuleeartpasseseverynowandthen,itstinklingbellsmakingmusicasitmoves. A soldier, a policeman,orapublicofficercomesforthfromthepalace.Suddenlyashadowfallsoverthepeaceful,quietsquare,andlookingupInoticethatdarkcloudsaredriftingacrossthebrilliantblue above.Thenamutteringsoundwarnsmeoftheapproachingthunderstorm,andina fewmomentstherainbeginsto fall. I seekshelter;andforanhourortwoIwatchtherainpourdowningreatsheets,andseethepavednarrowstreetsofoldHavanatransformedintomuddystreams.*WhendoesHavanaappearatitsbest?Ihaveseenit intheearlymorning,swept, clean,andpreparingforthebusinessoftheday.Inwagonettesdrawn

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLDIIbystoutpairs of horses, in victorias, instreetcarsandonfoot I haveseenitsworkersgoingouttowork, itsshopsopening, its cafe proprietorsarrangingchairs forthemorningcoffee,andits newsboysshoutingandsingingthenamesofthepaperstheysell. I have seenitatmiddaywhenthesunblazeddownuponit,andwhenitsstreetswerealmostdesertedandnearlyeveryonehactsoughttheshelterof itscanopiesandcolonnades.AndI haveseenitintheeveningwhenthesunwasgoingdownandarefreshingcoolnessseemedto steal ovelits plazasandalongitsthoroughfares;again, I haveseenitatnightwhenithasadorneditself with athousandlightsandhassentoutitsyoungmenandwomentolisten tothemusicoftheband.Havanaisthenatitsgayestandbrightest,andstrivingtobewhatit soproudlyassertsthatitistheParisoftheWestIndies. I like to seeHavanathen;but,betterstill, I like to seeHavanaafterrainhas fallenandjustwheneveningisbeginningtoshadeinto night.Forthenits skiesarelaminatedwithdelicatepinksandwithgoldandcrimson,andthepaintedcity shinesinthatluminousatmospherelike a city ofone'sdreams.TheHavanathatspreadsitself outbeyondtheold city wallscontainsmanybeautiful homesandasplendidpromenade.At differentpointsalong thispromenade(thePradoitis called)aretheprincipalparksofthecity;tothesouth istheColumbusParkwith its Royalpalmsanditsfountains;tothenorthistheold fortress ofLaPunta,nowpartlyremodelledinto apleasureresortfor music lovers.Inbetweentheseterministandsthestatue oftheIndianWomaninIndiaPark;itis calledLaHabana,andissupposedtobesymbolical of Havana.Andthereis astatueof Jose Marti,theCubanpatriotwhoinspiredthelastCubanstruggle forfreedomandwhodiedinoneofthefirst battlesfoughtin1895.TheyhaveerectedMarti'smonumentinCentralPark,whereitoughtto be, forthisisthefinestandbestsituated plazainHavana.Rounditarebuilt some ofthegreatstoresandclubsandhotels ofthecity,andwhenitis litupatnightsitis apatchofgreenoverwhichawebof light hasbeenthrown.Thereareotherparksin Havana,andmanysquaresplainlyplantedoutingrassandsurroundedwithlaurels.Thesearenotbeautiful,butin time, I suspect,theHavanesewillmakeprettyplazas of them. AtpresenttheirPradoistheirprideandtheirdelight;andstretchingwestwardfromthesouthernendofitistheMalecon,thesea-wallwhichwas builtduringthegovernorshipof GeneralLeonardWood,andwhich,withthefine mansionstothesouth of it,andthegreenandbluewatersoftheGulf tothenorth,isoneofthefinest drivesinallTropicalAmerica.ThePradowithitsavenueof laurels, and, inbetweentheselaurels, itsbedsoflace-plantandothershrubs, is toHavanawhattheChampsElyseesaretoParis. I willnotcomparethetwo.Thereisnothingin allHavanacomparabletothegreatdrivethatleadsfromthePlacedelaConcordetotheArcdeTriomphe;nothinglikethefountainsandgardenstothesouth oftheChampsElysees,between

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12INJAMAICAANDCUBAwhichyoupasstothesplendidbridgethatspanstheSeine,andontowherethegoldendomeoftheInvalidesrisesserenelyintheair.ButHavana'sPradohasabeautyofitsown,anditspeoplearerightto loveit;andthehousesthey haye erectedhereareworthyoftheavenue,builtastheyhavebeenwithtasteandarchitecturaleffect.Infrontofeachisanarcadeorcolonnade,withDoricorIoniccolumns.Massivedoorsofcedar or mahoganyopenona hallpavedwithmarble,andamarblestairwayleadstotheupperfloor.Thehouse isbuiltroundanopenspace,orpatioasitis called,andthis is filledwithshrubsandpalms,andperhapsafountain;andonthispatiotheliving-roomsopen,sothatthegardenis alwaysatone'sfeet,whileaboveisthesky.ColonnadesstrikethedominantnoteinCubanarchitecture.ClearlytheSpaniardplannedthatHavanashouldbea city ofshade,acitywhereonemightwalkforhoursandyetbesafefromtheraysofthesun.Andhebuilthishousesof stone,andsoloftythatasinglestoreymightlook ashighastwostoreys,andathreestoreybuildingmightweartheappearanceof apalace.AsyoupassupanddownthePradoatnightyouwillseethesehouseslitwithelectriclamps,andthroughtheopendoorsandthebeautifuliron-workofthebarredwindowsyouwillcatchaglimpseofelegantlyfurnisheddrawing-rooms,in each ofwhichanumberofwell-dressedpersonsaresitting,inwhichsomeonemaybeplayingapiano,andaboutwhichsmallfresh-lookingpalmsaresoarrangedthattheseroomslook likeconservatoriesfilledwithgraceful,laughingwomen.MostofthehousesinHavanaareofonestory,andinthesethreefourthsofthepopulationlive.Thecityissaidtobeoneofthemostcrowdedintheworld,andthisandthedemocratichabitsoftheSpaniardhaveworkedtogethertobringaboutaclosecontiguityofrichandpoor,palaceandhovel.Fineresidencesmaybefoundinthebusinessquarterofthetown.InthehousesthatfacetheMalecon,evenalongthePradoitself, Ihaveseenplacesinhabitedbypeopleoftheslums.InaveryshorttimethePradowillhavepurgeditself of these,andtheMaleconquarterwill follow itsexample;butto-day, asonewalksalongthesea-wall,one'seyesareconstantlyoffendedbyglaringadvertisementsof TivoliBeerorofLechaCondensadastuckuponagigantichoardingnexttosomemansionwithitsarcadeofrareandbeautifuldesign.Thismixtureof mansions, hovels,andadvertisementhoardings,inthebestresidentialsectionofHavana,spoils itsappearance.True,itmaybetouchingtothinkofrichandpooraslivingtogetherinbrotherlyunity;butproximitydoesnotalwaysmeanunity(itmaycometomeanhatred),and then thereistheinartisticeffect oftheglaringincongruity.Butletsuchreflections be. IamwritingofHavanaasitis, asoneseesitatnightwhenitiswrappedinitsgarmentofdarknessandthestars;andnotofasIthinkitshouldbe. Atthishour,thoughyouseea fewmenhereandthereinthehouses,youwill findmostoftheminthe cafes, andmanyarediningthereastheydineinthe cafes ofParis.ButwhereasinParisyouwill findthe cafe tablesandtherestaurants

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD13crowdedwithwomenalso,youwill seeveryfew ofHavana'swomendiningintheopenair.HereiswhereHavanafailstobelikeParis,inspiteof itsambition,for it isthecustomofthecountryforwomentodineathome.Thiscustomwill slowlyyieldbeforetherevolutionaryinfluenceofthevigorousAmerican;forhiswomendinein cafes andrestaurantswithhim,andHavana'sdaughtersbeholdthemiracle.Alreadya fewarefollowingtheexample.Alltheoldcustomsarebeginningtofeeltheinfluenceoftheforeigner.Istandatthecornerof astreet,andinabalconyabovearetwogirls,pretty,withnicelyfittingwhiterobesandwithchestnuthairpuffedinfrontandneatlygatheredina coilonthecrownoftheirheads,andtiedroundwithblueribbon.Thelightshinesonthemfromtheroombehind;inthestreet below is ayoungmanwhokeepswatch,steadilypacingtoandfro.Heis alover;perhapshehasmetoneofthesegirlsata ball givenbytheclubofwhichtheirbrotherorfatheris amember.TherearemanyclubsalloverCuba-Clerks'Clubs,ConservativeClubs.LiberalClubs,andthelike-andthesegiveballsandparties,andatthesemanyyoungpeoplemeetoneanother.Thenextstepinthepathof love istheparadebeforethehouse,andperhapstheserenade;andthen,iftheladylikeshersuitor,shewill gotothewindowandthecourtshipwillbeginingoodearnest.Itis aSpanishcustomandnotconfinedtoCuba,anditamusesthestrangerwhoisnotaccustomedtosuchpubliclove-making.ButsomeofthetravelledCubansarebeginningtodislike it."Itisnotdecent,"saidoneoftheseto me. "Whycan'tamangointoahouseandtalktoagirlifhewantstotalktoher?""Ah,butit is sopicturesque,"Iobjected."Thereareyourironbars,youknow,andthereisyourbright-eyedbeautybehindthem,watchedoverbymammaandpapaandthewholefamily ofauntsandsisters.Thenoutsideisyourboldloverinthelightofthemoon;andatlast,movedbyhisunweariedattention,sheletsherwomanlyhearttriumphoverhermaidenlymodesty,andsherisesandgoestothewindowandhepoursforthhis loveinspiteof allthelistenersintheworld. I like that.""Itisnotdecent,"repliedmyfriend. Ihavenoargumenttoadvanceagainstthecompellingpleaofdecency.Intimeit willbecome"notdecent"topayone'scourtatthewindowandintheopenstreet,andthenthestreetsofHavanawillnomorebeenlivenedwiththelover'spresenceandthesoundof hisguitar.ButI feelthattheCubangirllovestositthereandseehimpass;andIhaveseenhereyesbrightenwithpleasurewhensomeboldstrangerhaslookedupatherwithopenadmirationin his gaze.Formis ofimportanceinCuba;onebowsdownbeforecustomandfashion;sotheCubangirl impassively looks infrontofherasyoustare.Butthetell-taleeyesbetrayher;intheflashandtwinkleofthem,andperhapsinthefainthalf-smilethatplaysaboutherlips,youreadthethoughtsofherheart.

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14INJAMAICAANDCUBABut"it isnotdecent,"sothetimemaycomewhento lookmaygiveoffence:decencycreatethamultitudeof sins.Inthedimlylightedstreetsin thecentreofthecity friendsaretalkingtooneanotheratthedoorsandwindows. Apartyorgatheringof somesorthasbrokenlIP,andImeetanumberofpersonspouringoutof a smallbuilding:I noticetheyareall women.Inanotherpartofthetownadarkstreetis linedoneitherhandwithhouseswitheachits heavydoor,andineverydoora wicket,andateverywicket a woman.ThisisthefamousSanCedroof Havana,thestreetofill-fame;andsomeofthewomen here, if youmettheminthePrado,you wouldthinktobedaughtersofthebesthousesinHavana. Somearebeautiful.Manyaregraceful..TheSpanishwomanhaslearntorhasinheritedtheartof walking,andso some ofthewomenoftheSanCedrowill movewiththemienofqueens.Thereis no noise inthisquarter,nounseemlydemonstration,nothingvulgar.Thepolice rules here,butIdoubtifitwouldbemuchdifferent even ifthepolicewerekind. AHaytiangeneral,bentuponsackingPort-au-Prince,advised his ragamuffinarmyto pillage ingoodorder,"callingthemhischildren as hegavethisgoodadvice.ThewomenofSanCedrofollowtheircalling"ingood order," sothatnoscandalshall result.Andthithercometheyouthof Havana,andmanywhohavelongpassedtheageof youth. Marriedmencomehere.That,too, is a customofthecountry. I have nothearditspokenof as not decent."Havana'sresidenceshavespreadoutintothesuburbs,andit is inoneof these(thenewest)thatI find aportionoftwentieth-centuryHavana.Intheoldersuburbs, intheCerroandin JesusdelMonte, you seetheoldtypeoftheHavanesesuburbanhouse;massive single-story housesfrontingthestreet,andeachwithits colonnade. Some ofthemaregreatbuildingswithgardensattached,gardensinwhichfan-palmsgrowandRoyalpalms;andlaurelsandcratonsandflaming poin cianas. Someoftheownersofthesebearthenamesoftheold nobilityof'Spainandthesehouses haveshelteredsome oftheproudestfamilies of Cuba.Theyhavebeenbuilt as family mansions, built solidlyandwithnosparingof expense, astheyused to build intheBritishWestIndiesandnever will do again.ButthesuburbthatonehearsmostaboutinHavanaisVedado;its praisesaresungbyeveryvisitor,andoneAmericanwriterhas even calleditanearthlyparadise. IdonotknowwhatParadiseis like,butIsuspectit isnot a compromisebetweenSpanishandAmericanstyles ofdomesticarchitecture.Andthis,amongstotherthings, iswhatVedadois.Itis intheVedadobuildingsthatI seemostclearlytheinfluence of thedominantAmerican;forVedadois unliketheCerroor Jesus del Monte, isbeinglaidoutdifferently,andisbeingresortedtobymanyofthewealthyforeignresidentsof Havana.Thissuburblies tothewest ofthecity, a few miles distant.Tothenorthit overlooks the sea,andwasonce,indeed,a favouritebathing-placeof visitorsandthewealthierclasses.Itis acomparativelynewsuburb,thelandhasnotyetallbeentakenup;largeopenspacesareseenhereandthere,andmost ofthehouses

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD15have a new,brightappearancethatbutfew ofthemwearinthecity.Vedadohasbeenlaidoutinavenuesoflaurels;itsprincipalstreetis a boulevard,oneithersid.cofwhichits finest housesstand.Theyhavepavedthestrectswithmacadamandlaiddowna system ofconcretecurbsandgutters.Itisconnectedwiththecitybythecars,andsomeof its housesarereally beautiful. Many rise totwostoreys,andsometimesthesecondstorey is smallerthanthefirst, sothatonepartofthehousestandsasitwereinside oftheother.Many ofthedoorsarebeautifullycarvedand'ornamented,andopenona loftyporticosupportedbyIoniccolumnsof stone. Someoftheseresidencesaresurroundedbyverandahs,andthcseverandahsagainareshadedbydeep-greenlatticecurtainswhentheglareofthesun isatits fiercest.Andgardensareeverywhere,for here, unlike intheCerroorJesusdelMonte,ortheothernear-bysuburbsof Havana,thehousesdonotopenonthestreetorrunalonginonecontinuousblock.Theyarealldetached,allstandingintheirowngrounds;andsomeofthesegroundshavebeenplantedoutasgardens,andthesegardensarerailed inbyhandsomeironfences;andsothesespacious,ornamentedbuildingsspeakeloquentlyofcomfortwithinandof theopulenceoftheirowners.Butthetaintofjerry-buildingisonVedado. I seeinVedadohousesthattheoldSpaniardwouldneverhave built.Thestyle is Spanish,butthematerialischeap;andthewoodenpalingssurroundingthesecheaphouses-surelytheywerean invention ofthejerry-builder. Nodefencecanbe offered for thesewretchedgreyor whitepalings:theyareoutof placeina Spanish-American city.Andevenmanyoftheironfencesherearefrailandmean-looking.Theysuggesthurryandcheapnessandmodernity.They sugge:i alsothetwentieth-centuryHavanesesuburbthatwill becreatedasthepopulation grows.Thesehousesarecoolerthanthoseinthecity;airandlightandthe blueseaarethecommonpos sessions of Vedado.Butthelittle villawithitspatheticapingofthestyle ofthegreathouse isinVedadoalso,anditwillbefoundinincreasingnumbersineverynewsuburbthatis built. Apartoftheseashore ofVedadohasbeenmadeinto baths.Thehardcoralrockhasbeencutinto squares,withanopeninginfrontthroughwhichtheseaebbsandflows continually,andabath-househasbeenbuiltaroundandovertheseexcavations.Thewaterhereis always coolandclear,and,inonegreatrectangularbath,swimmingisaneasyanddelightful exercise.Oncethefashionablebathing-placeofHavanawaswheretheMaleconnowstands;looking overtheembankmentonecanstill see the coralbathsfilledwithpalegreenwater,butnowfallen into decay.To-daythebathsareatVedado;andatMarianao, some miles away, istheshore-bathingresortof Havana. * Tothesouth-west ofHavanaliesthesuburb, or,moreproperly,thevillage of Marianao.ItisseparatedfromthecityandfromVedadobyalargetrackof waste land,andintravelling overthisyouobtainsomeideaofwhatthesite ofthecity

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16INJAMAICAANDCUBAitself wasoncelike.TheoldwritersonCubatell usthatoutsidethecitywallstherewereswampsandevil-smelling places,andinroughweatherthewatersoftheGulf of Mexico would rollinupontheland.Therewerenogutterstocarryoffthestormwaterswhenit rained,andthefilthandgarbageofthecitythatdidnot find itswayintotheharbourwasoftenthrownoutsidethewallsandlaythereinthesun,rottingandreeking,andbreedinghideous forms of life.Thesaturatedsoilteemedwithrankvegetation,andthisgavetherefugetomyriadsof fliesandmosquitoeswhichpreyeduponthepeopleandspreadthegermsof disease. SoHavanalivedandmovedandhaditsbeingonwhatin rainyweathermusthavebeenlittlebetterthanamarsh;anddrivingto-dayalongtheroadthatleadstoMarianaoonefeelsthatevennowthecity is perilouslynearabreeding-placeof disease.OnleavingVedadothecaremergesonanopenundulatingplain,andinthedistanceoneseesthelowhillsthatrisetothesouthofHavana.Onyourrightarecultivatedfieldsinwhichvegetablesaregrown;toyourleft you seethetallchimneysof somefactory;standingoutsinglyoringroups, like caysandisletsina sea ofgreen,areafewlargetrees .. andhousesappearhereandthere;andcattleandhorses occasionally.Thecarrushesbetweenliving walls ofrankvegetation,whicharesometimeshighenoughtoobscuretheview. You have passed over a lowbridgethatspansa slow-flowing,mud-colouredriverthatemptiesitself intotheseaupontherightandmakes aswampofacreuponacreofthelow-lyingneighbouringcountry.You havepassedanancientfortwhichis said tohavedefiedthepiratesinthepast;andthoughyouarcbuta mileortwofromVedado,itis asthoughyouwereinacountryalmostdeserted,sofewarethesigns of lifeeverywhere.Thedriverleaves hisbrakeandleans carelesslyagainsttherailthatseparateshimfromthepassengersinthecar.Theconductorcomesinsideandsitsdownto smoke acigarandtotalkwith a friendly passenger.Thecargoesatfullspeed;presently,ridingacrosstheopencountryto a red-roofed housesurroundedby royalpalmswhichI seeinthedistance, is atroopofCubancavalry, a finebodyofmenwhose khaki uniforms, slouchhatsandlongswords,andwhose martialappearanceastheytrotalongmountedontheirstrong, fine looking, well-kept horses,makeasplendidpictureinthatlandscapeofgreenandblue.InthedaysoftheSpaniardthousandsof soldiersweretobeseenbynightanddayinthestreetsofHavanaandinothertowns.Theiruniformsbrightenedthescene,themusic oftheirbandsandthesound oftheirbugleswereheardeverywhere. At onetimetherewerequite200,000oftheminCuba,andtheywerethemightyinstrumentandsymbol of Spain'spredominanceinthatland.Nowtheyareallgone;andthoughonesees agoodmanysoldiersinCubato-day,andinHavanaespecially,theirnumberisbynomeansoutofproportiontotherestofthepopulation.Thearmyisbut4,000strong,andis forthe

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD17mostpartcomposedofmenwithwell-formedfeaturesandathleticappearance.IthinktheymustchoosethepickofCuba'smenIforthearmy.Whenonesees atroopofthemridingacrossopencountry,as]isawthemonthemorningIwenttoMarianao,onemustadmitthat,inlooksatleast,theycomparefavourablywithalmostanysoldiers intheworld.NearingMarianaoonecatchesaglimpseof agroupofred-roofedhousesthatlook like amanufacturingdepot,andinfrontof these isthesea.ThencomesMarianao,andoneentersthevillagethroughanavenueofgreattreeswhoseover-archingbranchescompletelyshutoutthe rays ofthesun.Weclimbupa low hillwithhousesoneitherside ofthestreet.1A policeman, big,black,andthepictureofgoodnature, isleaningagainst a wallandtalking to aratherwell-favoured mestizogirl;a few blackwomenloungeaboutsmoking;a cafe ortwohangouttheannouncementthattherethetravellermayhaveboardandlodging;theshopsaredeserted;a fewdogsstrayaimlesslyabout.Inaword,Marianao is a village asleep.iYetitis asummerresortforthefashionable folkofHavana,andsomeof its housesareashandsomeasanyyou will seeinIthesuburbsnearthecity.Theystandinthemidstoftheirgardens,withhigh iron fencessurroundingthem;andas you pass youmayseetheladies ofthehouseseatedinrocking-chairsonthebroadverandahswithlittlechildrenabout therp, andblack nurses.Thesenursesaresaid to lookaftertheirchargeswell,anda nrater lot ofwomenservantsitwould notbepossible to findanywhereinthetropics.Theyarewellpaidtoo,andthechildrentheycarefor lookstrongandhd.lthy-healthierby fflr thanthosewholiveinthecrowdedhouses ofthecity.IThecity houses,intruth,where95percent.ofthepopulationlive,arenotplaceswhereonewouldexpectchildren,or menandwomen, tothriveandbestrong.Thewonderisthatanyescapedtheperiodicalepidemicsof smallpoxandcholeraandyellow feverwhichtimeandlagainbrokeoutinthecityofHavana.Thesoilwassoddenwiththeleakingsandthefilth ofcenturies;manyofthestreetswereunpaved;opengutterstook,thewastewatertothebay,andfromeachguttercamethehorrible smell of soap-waterandkitchenrefuse.Thelatrinesystemwasprimitive:apitsituatbdnexttothekitchenandbelchingodoursintotheliving-rooms.Thuseverycourtyardofthepoorersortof house was awretched,evil-smelling place,andon courtyardsallthe living roomsofthesingle-storyrectangulartenementopened.Everythingcameinandwentoutbytheonedoorthatopenedonthestreet;andinthelittle cellsthatfacedoneanotherandopenedona level withthegroundmanyfamilies lived.Manyfamilies still liveinthem--overcrowdingiscommoninHavana, is,indeed,a .custom ofthecity.Itcosts agreatdealto build a houseofstone,andsolongas 'one oftheseplacesishabitableitwillbetenanted.ItisnowonderconsumptionisthemostprevalentordinarydiseaseinHavanato-dayinspite ofthetropical .climate andthepureairthatblowsfromtheGulf;yetyellow feverhas3

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18INJAMAICAANDCUBAdisappearedandsmallpox,andoneseesthereasonofthis asonepeepsintoorwalksthroughsomeofthehousesinthepoorerquartersof Havana. Most ofthethousandsofcourtyardshavebeenpaved with flag-stonesorbrick,manyofthestreetsarepavedwithbrickorasphalt,andthemodernsewersystem,thoughnotyetcompleted,cmbracesagreatsection of thecity.ThecrowdedtenementsofHavanadonot look unclean now,withtheirpavedcourtyardsanddrains. Ipeepintothem,oneaftertheother as I pass,andI see nakedorhalf-nakedchildrenplayingandcrawlingabouttheyard,andwomenwashinganddoingtheirdomesticwork.Therearcnopatioshere, no tastefularrangementsof palmsandfernsandflowersandfountains;yettherearea fewpalmsandshrubsrangedinpotsandpansaroundthe theseredeemtheseplacesfromuttersordid ugliness,andtestify totheunconquerablecravingof a city population forthegreenthingsof the fieldandtheforest.Thefurniture oftheserooms is abedsometimesofiron,oftenofwood;sometimes a cot"only,whichis simply a piece ofroughcanvasstretchedoveralightwoodenframethatcanbeopenedandclosedatwill.Therearea few rocking-chairs, atableortwo,andawoodencupboardinwhich is storedthecrockeryofthehouse.Inthis room, with its flooring raisedbuta fewinchesabovetheground,a family of fiveorsixpersonsmaylive,andwhenthedooris closedatnightI imaginethattheheatmustbcinfernal.Havanaiscleanonthesurfaceandfilthybeneath,iswhatsomeoftheforeign residentsinthecityarefond of saying,buttheyexaggerate.Thepoorerclasses havecertainlynotyetlearntthevalue of cleanliness,butthehouse-to-house inspectionbysanitaryofficers isnotaltogetherapaperprecaution,andthestreetsatanyrate,arewell kept. Asonedrivesthroughthemafternightfall, one findsthedirtandrubbishof housesandshops allpackedintoreceptaclesorneatlyheapeduponthesidewalkawaitingthestreet-cleaner'scart.Andalldaylongthemembersofthesanitarycorpsmaybeseensweepingthestreetsandtakingtherefuseawayintheirhand-carts. Havana, too, is excellentlysuppliedwithanabundanceofgoodwaterfromtheVento Reservoir,andits sewersareflushedanditsdrainsdisinfected regularly.TheGovernmentknowsthatanoutbreakof yellow feveroranyotherepidemicwouldmeanagraveremonstrancefrom,andperhapstheinterventionof,theUnitedStates;soitdoestryto keepHavanaclean.Intervention willcomesoonerorlater,butatpresent,atanyrate,itdoes notseemlikelythattheallegedneglectingofthesanitaryconditionofHavanawillbethecauseof it.Thereis a ChinesequarterinHavana, asthereis ineveryimportantcityintheworld.TherearemeanstreetsinHavana;streetsinwhicharelittleshopswithfly-blownmeathungoutfor sale,orwithpiles of vegetablesandfruit exposed,ora miscellaneous stock of groceries.Theyareneververy busy,theseplaces.Theymustmakea profit,butquietly,forhurryandbustlearenotcharacteristicofthem.Theflies love them, fortheyswarmtherebythethousand,butthe.

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD19Andsothebeefis sold,andthevegetablesj.. well,thereisenoughleft for God'sothercustomersdonotmindtheflies.andiftheflyhashis meal first creatures. Most ofthebook-shops ofHavanaaresituatedina busythoroughfarefacingCentralParkontheeast;herethebooksandpapersaredisplayedoncounterssetoutonthepiazza.Theliterary tastesofthereadingpopulation, ifonemayjudgebytheliteraturedisplayed for sale,arenotsuchastheSocietyforthePromotiollofChristian Knowledgewouldapproveof.Pornographicliteratureabounds.Frenchnovelstranslatedinto Spanish, Spanish novels asbadas,orifanythinga little worsethan,these translations, you will findinplentyin Havana.Ontheircoloured coversoneistreatedtoscenesinwhichaconventionaldevil with flames andforkmayberepresentedastriumphantorenraged,oroneseesmaskedmenstabbinga half-clothedwomantodeath,whilethetitle ofthebook gives a clue to its contents.Thereareotherworks, of course. "Don Quixote" seems to be a favourite,andSirArthurConanDoyle'sdetectivestoriesareherealso,andAmericantales of the WildWest.Andthereareanti-theologicalworksinabundance.Itis easy to seethatthenewspapersarewellreadhere.ThereareagoodmanypublishedinHavana.Two(theHavanaDaily PostandtheweeklyHavanaTelegraph)areinEnglish;LaLuchahasanEnglishsectionalso;thentherearetheDiario de la Marina,andtheTriunfo,andothers;andtheofficesoftheseareall fittedoutwithlinotypemachinesandmodernengravingapparatus.ThePressisperfectlyfreeinCuba,andisoutspokenjbutnowandthen,unhappily, editorsareshotatbyangrypoliticians,andthismakestheworkofnewspapereditinga little difficultattimes.Theweekly illustratedpaperscontaincartoonsof publicmenandpicturesofpublicevents,andseemto have alarge clientele. InHavana, as elsewhere,thenewspaperbidsfairtobeatthebookoutofthefield;thatis, of course,thesortofbookthatissomethingbetterthanrubbish.Yettheyhave a fine NationalLibraryinHavana(which is hardlyever used)jandoneortwootherpubliclibraries.Theguide.booksneveromit to tell youthatthevolumesintheNationalLibraryareall richlybound;so, Imayadd,arethoseintheCentroDependientes,a Clerks' Clubthathasover20,000membersandthefinest club-house in Havana.Thebuildingis ofthreestoreysandfacesthePrado.Youpassthrougha lofty doorway,withmagnificentlycarved'doors ofcedar,andenteronthefirst floor ofthehousebyamarblestaircase, with richlyworkedrails.Thesplendid, spaciousballroomof thisclub,withitspaintedceiling, its glitter ofelectriclamps, itscushionedseats, itsmarblefloor, itsmirrorsrangedoneitherside oftheroom,andtheveinedmarblearchessupportingthelofty roof is a pleasure saloon of whichanypalace intheworldmightwell beproud.Nowinthisclubthereis a library,andthroughthislibraryIwaspermittedto lookbytheobliginglibrarian.Itisnotlarge,butthebooksarebeautifully

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20INJAMAICAANDCUBAkept,theroomis coolandspotlessly clean,andtheleather-upholsteredchairsarecomfortable.OntheshelveswereancienttreatisesonSpanish-America,andPlato'sworks,andsomeoftheworksofmodernEuropeanauthors.Dickenswasthere,andVictorHugo;BalzacandGoetheandZola. Mr. H. G.Wells is there-theyhaveboundhis"Anticipations"andhis"FirstMenintheMoon"together,andnearhimstandsRibot'spsychologicalstudies;andtherearchistories ofliteratureandthelives ofgreatgenerals. Icouldaddtothelist,butthesenamesareenoughtoshowthattheClerks' Association ofHavanaiscatholicenoughin itsliterarytastes;orrather,Ishouldperhapssay,catholicinits selection of books for its library.ForasI tookupbookafterbookandlookedatits beautifulbinding,as IopenedDumas'novelsandremarkedhownewtheywere,I wasremindedofPorthos'famouswill,inwhichwasmentionedPorthos'libraryofeightthousandvolumes-"all uncut."TheCentroDependientesofHavanahas a finelibrary-allunread. Ileftthelibraryandwenttothebar.Thebusinesslikeappearanceofthatinstitutionshowedthatitwasbynomeans"allunused."Whenonementionsbars,oneisremindedofthewaysandhabitsofthosewhoserveatthem;nowitwillalwaysstrike astrangeraspeculiarthateveninthebarsofthebesthotels inCubahewilloftenfindtheassistantsworkingintheirshirt sleeves.Thewaitersatthehotels, too, willcometo youintheactofputtingontheirdressjackets,and,sofaras Icanremember,noneoftheboyswhoworkedatthehotelIstoppedatworeanythinglike a livery. IthinkIcanrememberseeingtwocoachmenin livery inthestreetsofHavana-theremayhavebeenmore,but1donotrecollecthavingnoticedthem.ServantsinSpanish-America,infact,donotlike towearanythingthatmightseemabadgeof private service.Butthesaying inHavanaamongsttheforeignersisthatif youputaCubaninanofficial'suniformyoumaypayhimhalfthesalaryhecouldearninprivateemployment.Hisdignityisenhancedbytheoutwardandvisiblesignsofpublicoffice.Heisthenmorethanaman:heis apublicfunctionary,howeverhumble.PerhapstheGovernmenthadthisinmindwhentheygavetheirpoliceforceagrey-blueuniformwithcapstomatch.ThisuniformmayhavebeendesignedbytheAmericansortheCubans(Idonotknowwhich),but,atanyrate,itis ahandsomeone,andthemenlook wellinit.Havanahasaboutathousandpolicemen-anextraordinarynumber.Butthepoliceareintendedtodomorethanprotectpropertyandseethatthelawsareobeyed.Armed,everyoneofthem,withaheavyrevolver,fearedandrespectedbecauseofthesupporttheyreceivefromtheGovernment,seeneverywhere-inthestreetcars,inthestreets,intheparks-theyarereally a semi-militaryforcewhichwouldbemosteffectiveincrushingoneofthoseemeutesforwhichthecities of Spanish-Americaarefamous.Theyarewellpaidtoo(thoughtheywearuniforms),andwell looked after. Sometimes, lateatnight,1haveseenone

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THEKEYOFTHENEWWORLD21oftheirofficerssittingmotionlessonhishorseatthetopofsomestreet, his cloakthrownacrosshis shoulders, his lefthandonhis hip,andhiseyesurveyingthescenebeforehimasthoughhewereageneralona battle-field.Hecarrieshimselfproudly:perhapsheisawareof hisstatuesqueappearance,anddelightsinit.Heknowshowmuchheandhiscolleagues oftheforcestandforinthis city,butIdonotthinkhetakesundueadvantageof hisknowledgeandposition.Hemustbeobeyed-thatis wellunderstood-buthedoesnotofficiouslyinterferewithone.AndheandhissubordinatesdokeeporderinHavana,where,Imaysayinpassing,thestrangerisperfectlysafeatanyhourofthenightorday.What,indeed,youcannotbutremarkin Cuba,andespeciallyinHavana,isthepolitenessof allthepublicfunctionaries.Theyshowanurbanityandareadinesstohelpthatwinyourgoodopinionatonce.OnthedayI visitedthePalacewhere(as I havesaidbefore)thePresidentlivesandthepublicofficesaresituated,aparliamentarycommitteewasbusyrevisingtheBudgetfor 19IO,andat I1rst therewassomedifficultyaboutallowingstrangerstogothroughtheprincipalroomsofthebuilding.Butwhentheobjectofmyvisit wasexplained,oneoftheofficials inchargeremarkedthat,afterall, IcouldnotdisturbthemembersoftheCommitteebysimplypassingthroughorneartheirroom.Lateron,whenImetoneoftheUnderSecretariesof State,heexpressedhisregretthatthePresidentwasawayonvacation,andpresentedmewithasplendidAtlas ofCubaandacopyofthelastCubanCensus,givingatthesametimeacopyof thisworktoeachofthefivegentlemenofmyparty.ItwasinthisUnderSecretary'sofficethatImetandhada talkwithPinoGuerra,aboutwhomtheworldhasheardsomething.Itwashewho,in1906,wentoutintothebush,andputhimselfattheheadofthemovementwhichhadas its resulttheoverthrowofPresidentPalma'ssecondGovernmentandtheinterventionoftheUnitedStatesfor asecondtimein Cuba. Amoreunassuming,simple-lookingmanI havenevermet.HewasplacedbyGovernorMagoonincommandoftheRuralGuards,orarmy,aftertherevolution;GeneralMagoon'sideabeingtomakehim,themostpopularguerillaleaderinCuba,responsibleforthemaintenanceofpeaceinCuba.Thisrevolutionistbecomea Major General, wasdressedin a khakiuniformonthedayIsawhim-therewasnodifferencebetweenhisdressandthatof acommonsoldier, hisswordeven, with its plainleatherscabbard,wasofthesamepatternasthecommonarmysword. Pi noGuerrais a littleabovemiddleheightandissparelybuilt.Helooks youstraightintheeyeswhenspeakingto you,andsmiles frankly.Incomplexionheisswarthy;thethin,hookednosebetokensenergy,andiftheupperlipis tooshortto givetheimpressionof inflexible will,thestrong,prominentchinandfirmly closedmouthleave younotwoopinionsas to hisstrength

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22INJAMAICAANDCUBAofcharacter.PinoGuerra'seyesseemtometoindicateastrainofIndianbloodinhis veins,butthismaybeamerefancyof mine, for I havemetEnglishmenandAmericansofgreatforceofcharacterwhohave t.hesamehalf-closed, gleaming, I'ather oblique eyes.PeoplespeakofhiminHavanaas a politicalfactorofthefirstimportance.Hehimselfdoesnotseekt.ogive youanysuchimpression. I toldhimthatIhadheardmuchabouthimandhadreadhisstatementintheNorthAmerican Review,writtenwhilehewasstill arebelin arms,andsettingforththereasonswhyhewasleadinga revoltagainsttheGovernmentof Cuba.Hesmiledatthis,somewhatdeprecatingly,asthoughwhathehaddonewas of little consequence. I askedhimwhathethoughtofthepoliticalfutureofCuba.Hetold me he believeditwouldbepeaceful. Did hethinktheUnitedStates wouldagaininterveneinCubanaffairs?No;he sawnoreasonwhyitshould,andhadno fearsthatit would.Hebelieved, too,thatthenextPresidentialelection would beconductedwithperfectfairnessandthatthewiII of the people would prevail. I suppose he couldnothavebeenexpectedto sayanythingdifferent fromthis;butnow,whenIcometothinkof it, I reallyhadnorightto askhimthesequestions,andhecouldwithperfectcourtesy have refusedtoanswerme.Whatstruckmeabouttheman, too, was this,thathetalkedwith real modestyandasthoughhewerethehumblestservantoftheAdministration. I knowthatPi noGuerracanbedifferentwhenhelikes:menwitha face like hiscanmaketheirpowerandauthorityfelt,andtheirwill obeyed, very effectivelyindeed.ButI speciallymentionhisdemeanourandhis politeness here, because I found itcharacteristicofCubanofficialsandsoldiers generally.Itwascharacteristicofthewhiteofticerwhoallowedmetogothroughtheold fortress ofLaPunta,andequally ofthewell-set-up black soldierwhoshowedwewhatwasinterestinginthatplace.

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CHAPTERIIHAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAY morningthesoundof bellsawokeme.Theinsistentclangingofthembrokeloudly onthemorningsilence;from allpartsofthecitythesoundseemedtocome, pealansweringpeal asthoughthebells calledtooneanother.Islippedoutofbed,wonderingwhatthiscontinuousringingcouldmean.At first Ithoughtofthemule-cartsandthetinkling ofthebellshungroundthenecks ofthesplendidbrutesIadmiredsomuch,butin amomentI dismissedthem:this noisewasfarlouderthananythemules could make.ThensuddenlyIrememberedthatthisdaywasSunday,andthatthesewerethechurchbells cal.lingthefaithful to early mass.InfifteenminutesIhaddressedandswallowedacupof black coffee,andwasstandingonthepiazzaofthehotelwaitingfor a victoria tocomein sight.Thecity still laysleepingas it seemed,wrappedin amantleofdarkgreyclouds. A finerainwas falling, thetreesinCentralParkwerecoveredwithshiningdropsof water,andintheconcreteguttersthousandsofbubbleswereformedbythepatteringdropsof \-ain. Allwasdesertedandquiet,exceptforthepealingof the bellswhichwaswakingthecityandcallingittoprayer.PresentlyHavanawouldawake;indeed,as IstoodthereI sawthatitwaswaking.Thepassingstreetcarscontainedpassengers;one, two,manyvictoriasappeared.I hailed one ofthese:in afewmomentsI wasbeingrapidlydriventhroughthenarrowstreetstowheretheMercedChurchis situated. Men leanedhereandthereagainstthetallcolumnsofthearcadesandcolonnades, twoorthreewomencoveredwith mantillasandholdingumbrellaswerehurryingon, evidentlytosome favouritechurch.Wepassedunderagreatdarkarchthatisoneofthepicturesquefeatures ofthecity,theArchoftheJesuitCollege;thenweturnedonceortwiceandstoppedbeforealargeedificestandingneartheendof anarrowdesertedstreet.Fromwithincamethesoundof an organ. Ientered;infrontwasthehighaltarblazingwithlightsandrichwith flowersandvariegatedcolours;oneitherhandranarowofmarblecolumnssweepingupintoarchesand23

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24INJAMAICAANDCUBAsupportingthelofty roof above.Behindthesecolumnswerethechapelsandside-altarsofthechurch,someofthelatterdecoratedrichly.Thescentofincensefilledthebuildingandhunguponthemoisture-ladenair;atthealtarofficiating was agrey-hairedpriest;andscatteredaboutthechurchweresomeseventyworshipperswhokneltdevoutly whilethesolemnchantwenton.Thischurch,LaMerced, isreputedtobethemostwealthyandthemostaristocraticinHavana.Ithasoneofthelargest congregations,andthefinestchurchorchestrainthecity;itcanseathundreds;butatthismorning'smasstherewerebutseventypersonspresentatthemost,andmost ofthemwerewomen.Thespacious aisles lookedempty,thekneelingworshippershereandtheremainlyservingto callone'sattentiontotheemptyseats,andthelightsonthealtar,butthrowingintorelief asitwerethethickshadowswhichshroudedthebuilding.Fromthegalleryabovethemainentrancetothewest,wheretheorganstands, a singer with a strong, finebaritonevoicechantedtheresponses,andeverynowandthenawomanwould steal acrossthechurchtooneoftheside-altars,and,fixinghereyesuponsomeimagethere,would lose herself incontemplationandprayer,asthoughtherewerenothingelseinalltheworldexceptherselfandhersaint. AstheservicewentonIhadtime to lookaboutquietly.Thewomenweredressedplainly in blackandwhite,andthoughoneortwoofthemworehats,therestworeblack mantillaswhichdrapedtheirshouldersandcoveredtheirheads. Oneortwo of thesewomenwereblack,andthesesatwiththerest, forthereis nocolourlinedrawninCubaineitherthetheatreorthechurch.Thefewmenpresentsatnearthedoorsthatled tothestreet,andoneortwoofthemslipped outtowardstheendoftheservice.Ona fewchairstotheleftaboutfive little girlssatwaiting, alldressedinwhite,andveiled,andwithwhite,slenderwandsintheirhands.Theseweretomaketheirfirstcommunionthatmorning,andpresentlytheyweretakeninfrontofthealtarbyawomanclothedinblack,andtheretheykneltandtookthesacrament,whilethecongregationlooked on.Thisceremonyover, I lefttheMercedandwenttotheCathedral.FromwhatIhadalreadyseen IdidnotthinkthatthepeopleofHavanagreatlycaredtogotochurch.TheCathedralofHavanastandsinoneoftheoldestpartsofthecityandfaces asquare.Thetideof lifeandactivity has, sotospeak, flowedbyitandleftitstranded;otherchurcheshavesprungupinotherpartsofthecity,andhaveacquiredfameasthemostwealthychurchorthechurchwhichtheprettiestwomenprefer,orwherethebestpreachingmaybeheard.Thesehavebeenbuilt with agreaterattemptatshow,orinbetterlocalities, whiletheCathedralofHavanaissurroundedbyshabby-looking buildings,anditssquareispavedwithroughstonesandhas not a singletreegrowinginit.YetHavana'sCathedralhas acertaindignitywhichnoneoftheotherspossesses.Itisnotold,havingbeenbuiltbutsometwohundredyearsagoonthesite ofanolderchurch;buttimehas notdealtkindly with it,andasonecomesuponit with itsdomeandits twosquare

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MILKVE.NDOR,CUBA.

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAYtowersrisingintotheskyandmarkswheretherainhasbeatengreatholesinthelimestoneblocks ofwhichit is built,andsees its huge,dilapidatedwoodendoorstuddedwithrustedironnails,andthetwoplainsmallerdoorsoneithersideof this,andtheheavy,dark-greycolourwhichthepassingyearshavestampeduponit, one isatfirstinclinedto believethatcenturieshavegonesinceitsstoneswerefirst laid,andthatman and theelementshavewarredagainstitandleftithalfa ruin. YouentertheCathedralbyabroadflight of steps,andpassintoasortof vestibulethatopensontherightandleft intotheinteriorofthechurch.Hereyou seeataglancethatthosewhobuiltthiscathedralaimedatnothinglikepicturesqueeffect,butratherata solidsimplicity;sotheweather-beatenappearanceoftheCathedralwithoutismatchedbytheausterecoldnessof its interior,andeventhepaintingsonitsvaultedroof havefadedintoasoberharmonywiththecold,barewallsandheavymarblecolumnsoftheaisles.Thehighaltaronwhich, to-day, a fewcandlesareburning,is inkeepingwiththesombreappearanceofthechurch.Here,atanyrate, isnoneofthatgarishnessandthattawdrytinselwhichsoconstantlyoffendtheeyeintoomanySpanish-Americanchurches.Behindandoneithersideofthealtararearrangedthechoirstalls of black, polished mahogany,andthewalls of thischancelareinlaidwithslabsofblackmarble, sothatthegleaminglightsonthealtarshineoutagainstabackgroundof semi-darkness.Thereareside-altars here,andoneortwopaintings,andacoverednicheinwhichtheremainsofColumbusarebelieved to havereposeduntiltheywereremovedto Spain in 1898.ButSanDomingostill claimsthatthebonesofthegreatGenoeseareintheCathedralofthecitywhichColumbusfoundedhimself,andwhichistheoldestinall Spanish-America. I leave thisdisputetothoseinterestedinit;butI thinktheCathedralofHavanawasnounfitting resting_ place for Columbus,sinceheseemedtohavelovedCubabestof alltheislandsthathediscovered for Spain.IntheCathedralontheSundayofwhichIwritea specialserviceinhonourofsomesaintwasbeingheld. Inoticedas Ienteredthatonlyaboutone-thirdoftheinteriorwasprovidedwithseats,andthisaddedtothebareanddrearappearanceofthechurch.Butwhatwasmoresignificantthanthiswasthenumberofworshippers.Icountedthem:twelveinall-ninewomenandthreemen.Atthealtarwerethreepriests, allrobedinvestmentsofwhitesilkembroideredwithgold.Theyworethetonsure;andattendingatthealtarwasoneothermandressedinordinaryclothes,andtwo aCOlytes,eachnotmore, I should say,thanaboutfourteenyearsof age. Astheserviceproceeded,oneoftheseacolytesswunga silvercenserwithrhythmicalmotion,thesmoke oftheincenseburningwithinitfillingtheaisleswithitspungent,oppressive scent.Thenbydegrees, astheminutesslipped by, afewotherpersonsstraggledinto the building,andafteranhourhadpassedthereweretwenty-fivepersonsinthe

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26INJAMAICAANDCUBAcongregation.Butstilltheceremony'wentonwith its fullwealthof ritual, :so thatyoumighthavethoughtthatthechurchwascrowdedto overflowing,andthatthislong,impressiveservicewasbeingfollowedbyhundredsofdevoutandeagerlisteners.ThensomethinghappenedwhichshowedmethatthedemonofangercouldnotaltogetherbeexorcisedevenbythepresenceoftheBlessedSacramentuponthealtar.ThemomentcameforreadingaportionoftheScriptures,andoneofthepriests,asharp-faced,elderlyman,foundonturningroundthattheacolytehadnotbroughttheBible.Hespoketotheboy,thenseizinghimbythearm,gavehimasharppushandsenthimofftobringthebook.Ontheboyreturningwithit,theoldmancaughtholdofitandpulleditsharplyoutof hishands,pushinghimawayashedidso. No oneseemeddisturbedbytheincident;perhapsitwasnotuncommon.Butwhateverspellofimpressivesolemnitytheremayhavebeenabouttheceremonywasbrokenformebythatopendisplayoftemperonthepartofthispriestintheveryactof officiatingatthealtar,andinperformingoneofthemostsacreddutiesimposeduponthepriesthoodof hisChurch.Thefirstpartoftheservicelastedanhour.Thatover,thedoortotheleftofthealtaropened,and,precededbyanacolyte, ayoung-lookingpriestcamein.Foraminuteortwohestoodwiththeothersbeforethealtar,justa littlebehindthem,thenhewenttowardsthepulpit,andhiscolleaguessatdownwithinthealtarrails.Mountingintothepulpithebeganbyprayinginaudibly,mutteringafewwords.Thenheroseandmadethesignofthecross,andthenheprayedagain.Presentlyhebegantopreachin ascarcelyaudiblevoice.Hecontinuedthusforaboutaminute,thenhis voice rose,androselouder,andina littlewhilehewasrapidlypouringouthissermonto his fewpatientlistenersandtheemptyspacesofthechurch.Asoldierstoleintolisten,thenwenthis way.Anoldwomanpeepedin at thedoor,andthencamefurtherin.Heseemedtonoticenothing,thewordscamerolling in asteadytorrentfromhis lips,whilehisrightarmcuttheairinemphaticgestures.A lifewithoutreligion,heinsisted,couldonlyendinshadowsandnight;buthisrhetoricneverdeepenedintofervourorrosetohigheloquence;onemighthavethoughthehadstudiedthissermonbyheart,andperhapshehad.Hepreachedfor fifteenminutes,thenstopped;mutteredanotherprayer,andthenwentonagain.Thesermonmusthavelastedhalfanhour.Butatlastitwasover,andwhenhecamedownandrejoinedhiscolleaguesthefourofthemdisappearedintotherobing-room,andintheintervalaboywentroundwithanarmfulofhugewaxcandlesandhandedeachof usone.Welitthemwithwaxvespers,thecracklingsoundgivenoffbytheseastheyignitedseemedstrangelyoutofplaceinacathedral.Inalittlewhilethedoorsoftherobing-roomopened,andthetwoacolytesappearedholdingalofttwogreatsilvercandlesticksinwhichcandlesblazed,andbetweenthemcameapriestwitha massive silver crucifix,and

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAYafterhimaboyswingingacenser,andbehindthemallthethreeofficiatingpriestsmarchingunderacanopyheldbyfourmenwhohadbeenamongstthecongregation.Theypausedbeforethealtar,andweweremotionedtotakeourplacesnearthem.Thenturningtheirfaces tothenorththeyledtheprocession,chanting,andaswemovedawaytheorganinthegalleryabovetheentrancethunderedforthin atremendousburstof music,andthegreatbellsinthetowersbrokeintoclamorouspeals. Slowlywemoved, astragglingcrowdofthirty-foursouls in all.Mingledwiththechant,andthepealingofthebells,andthesoundoftheorgan,wasthesteadypatteroftherainasitbeatdownupontheroofsandonthehardpavementoutside;mingledwiththesmokefromthecenserwasthesmokegivenoffbythecandlesweboreinprocessionroundthechurch.Itwas apatheticcontrast:thefull-dress ritual,thesplendidrobesofthepriests,themusic oftheorgan,theclangingofthebells,thenoise oftherain,andthevolumeofsmokethatwentcurlingandfloatinguptothecold,painted,lofty roof,andthenthishandfulofwomenandmenstragglingwithirregularstepsinthewakeofthecrucifixheldhighbeforethem,andlookingasthoughtheytookbutlittleinterestintheserviceorthechant.Itwasoveratlast.WestoppedbeforeanaltaroftheVirgin,andtheprieststooksacramentfromthesacredchalice,andweextinguishedourcandlesandgavethemback,andwentoutoncemoreintothestreetsandtherain.IhadbeenintheCathedralupwardsoftwohours. Ihadassistedataspecialservicewithahandfulofworshippers.Ihadseenbuta few ofHavana'speopleatchurch,andif Iwasinclinedtothinkitwastherainwhichpreventedthemattendingthatday, I was tolearnlateronthatrain isnohindranceinHavanawhenpleasurecalls to its people.ThefollowingdayIaskedaJesuitpriestaboutthereligiousconditionofthecountry."Themenhavenoreligion,"hesaid,"thoughmanyofthewomenhave.Thereisverylittle of real religionhere."SomewritershavewrittenasthoughHavanawerea cityofchurchesandtemples,butIshouldsaythatcomparedwithmanyanotherSpanish-Americancity,andconsideredpositivelyfromthepointofviewof population,ithasbutanordinarynumberofplacesof worship.TheCatholicchurchesnumberlessthantwenty;anditis onlysincetheendoftheSpanishdominioninCubathatProtestantshavebeenallowedtobuildachurchinHavana,orinanypartoftheisland.Intolerancewas rifeintheisland.NoProtestantceremonycouldbeperformedinpuhlic,noteventheburialservice;andthisrigidrule wasneverrelaxed.TheChurchwassupportedbytheSlate. Ayearlycontributionofsome$400,000 (,000)waspaidoutoftheCubanTreasurytotheecclesiasticalauthorities;andallthehigherecclesiastics,aswellasmostofthepriests,

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28INJAMAICAANDCUBAwereSpaniards.Theisland was divided,asitstill is,intotwodioceses,theeasternandthewestern;attheheadoftheeasterndiocesewastheArchbishopof Santiago, attheheadofthewesternwastheBishop of Havana,andboththeseprelatesreceived asalaryof$18,000ayearbeforetheChurchwasdisestablishedunderthenewregime.InadditiontotheaiditreceivedfromtheState,theChurchinCubaacquiredrichesbythesamemeansthathavehelpedtomakeitsowealthyaninstitutioninmanylands.Devoutladies gave oftheirsubstancetoHoly Chmch, richmendyingbequeathedpropertytotherepresentativesofGodonearth;thepropertyofthepriests multiplied,theyownedestates,theybecamepowerful;butwhenevertheSpanishGovernmentwasindifficulties,orthoughtitwas,itdidnothesitate toplundertheChurch.Sowhatitgavewithonehanditoftentookbackwithanothera littlelateron,andthereligiousorderswerethechief sufferers. Still,theChurchinthedaysoftheSpaniardswasneververypoor.Theauthoritiesin Spainmusthave clearlyperceivedthattheSpanish ecclesiasticsinCubaformedastrongfactorinfavour of thecontinueddominationofSpain;hencetheyweretreatedwell,andnoprelateinCubawasbyanychanceofanyothernationalitybutSpanish.TheCubansfelt thisdeeply;theysawthattheirsons,howevertalentedanddistinguished, could nomorehopeto rise toplaceandpowerintheChurchthanintheArmyorthePublicService;littlewonderitwas, therefore,thattheChurchhadlittle influenceuponthem.TheCubansareCatholics nominally,andwhennotpositive unbelieversorFreeMasons,theydosubscribetothedoctrinesoftheirChurch.Butthemenaremostly indifferenttoreligion,andifthereis noopenhostilityshowntotheChurch,thatis becausetheChurchhas largelyceasedtobeSpanishandhasbecomeCuban. AftertheSpaniardwasdrivenfromCubaandtheChurchdisestablished, aSpaniardwassenttoHavanaas Bishop. Hedidnotremain f::>r long.Thepeoplewouldnottoleratehim;theyhadnotforgottenthatSpanishprelateswereoncetheinstrumentsof Spanishtyranny,orattheveryleastthe symbols of it. Sotheyhissedhimandthrewstonesathis carriage,andeventuallyhe wasrecalledandaCubanputin his place. Agoodmanyofthepriests inCubaarestillSpanishof course,butas time goesontheirproportionwill steadilydecrease.And,ifonemayjudgeby allthesigns ofthetimes,theinfluence oftheCatholic religion willsteadilylessen also, asitis lesseninginSpain,asithas lessenedinFrance.MyfriendtheJesuittoldmethattherewas lit lierealreligion in Cuba.Thepoorattendanceatthechurches,thecessation ofimposingreligiousprocessionsthroughthestreets, arecentsuggestiononthepartofsomeCubanpoliticiansthatsuchprocessions shouldbeforbiddenbylaw-allthis showswhat is theinfluenceandstatus of religioninCuba.Thestatistics of illegitimacymightalso beregardedasindicatingtheprevailingreligiousindifference;butI shouldnottakethatview myself. A religionmaybe believedquitefervently,andyetmayfail to influencethemorals of acommunitytoanyremark-

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MAKING LOVE, CUBA.

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAY29ableextent. Belief isonething, its influenceonconductis quiteanother;andso,thoughreliable statisticsarelacking, IamsatisfiedthatthepeopleofCubawerenotmoremoralwhentheyhadgreaterfaithinthedoctrinesoftheChurch.Yetthepriestscontinuetheirministrations,theJesuitslabouringhardespecially.ThisOrderisnowbuildingtwonewchurchesinSantiago;theircollege(theBelen)inHavanaistheleadingeducationalinstitutioninthecityforgentlemen'ssonsundereighteenyears ofage;heretheynotonlyteachlanguagesandliterature,butsomethingofthephysical sciences aswell;here, also,theymakethemeteorologicalandastronomicalobservationswhichhavegainedfortheircollege aworld-widereputation.Iwentthroughthis institutionwhenIwasinHavana:thepriestwhotookmeroundwasa Spanial"dwhospokeEnglishfairlywell;hewasa genial,culturedmanwhomitwasa pleasure to meet. Like allthebrethrenof his Order,hewasdressedinfull black,withblack bootsandcap, asombrefiguremovingaboutthesquaresandcorridorsofthelarge,ramblingbuilding.Eighthundredboysareeducatedthere, he toldme,alargenumberbeingboarders.Thefatherscantakenoblack scholars,forthatwouldinjuretheschool,buttheyhaveSundayclassesfortheblackboys ofthecity,atwhichthecatechismistaught:classandcasteprejudicewillnotallowthemtogofarther.Thesepriests, followingtheestablishedpolicy oftheirOrder,doeverythingintheirpowerto influencetheboysintheirchargeinfavour oftheChurch;theyareincessantintheirwatchoverthem;theytreatthemkindly, looking welltotheircomfort,andtheytrytoshieldthemfromall irreligiousandimmoralsuggestions. Nopartof aboarder'slife is left unsupervised.Inthechapel,intheschoolroom,intheplayground,inthesleepingcorridor,thewatchfuleye oftheJesuitfatherisuponthem;andsotheatmosphereoftheinstitutionsurroundsthemandhelps to mouldthemtotheserviceand "to thegreatergloryof God." IspentaninterestinghourattheBelenCollege. Iwentthroughits museums, its library, itsartgallery(whichcontainsa fineChristintheGardenof Geth semane),andits Boys' ChapelandtheBelenChurch.FroudesaidthattheJesuits ofHavanaweretheRoyal Society of Cuba.Theyareto-day,perhaps,themostzealousworkersforthecauseof CatholicityinCuba.Theirsimple life, theil" devotiontotheidealoftheirfounder,theirunhesitatingsacrifice ofcomfortandfriendsandpersonalambitiontowhattheybelieve tobetheinterestsoftheChurch,all servetoplacethemamongitsbestagentsandapostles.Yetthoughtheyhavebeeneducatingthebetter-classyouthsofHavanaforgenerations,Havana'sleadingmenarenotthestrongestsupportersoftheChurch.***Ataboutoneo'clockonthesameSundaythatIwenttotheCathedral, Iwasminglingwiththecrowdofboysandmenthathadcollectedunderthe

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3INJAMAICAANDCUBAcolonnadeswhichfaceCentralParkontheeast. Many oftheshopsandstoreshadbeenopenforsometime;thecafesweredoinga good trade,thecigarsellersandbarber-shopkeepel-s lookedhappy,andeverynowandthenaboythrusta red,orgreen,oryellowprogrammeintomyhand.FromtheseprogrammesIlearntthatthetheatreswouldbehavingperformancesthatafternoon,andeventually Idecidedupongoingtothe"Moulin Rouge," where,itwas said,certain"escultural"ladies woulddelighttheaudiencewithexhibitions ofdancingandwith songs.Ontheprogrammesof thistheatreit isstatedthattheperformancesatthe MoulinRouge"are"formenonly" -" dedicada a los caballeros."Therearetwoof these"menonly"theatresinHavana,andtheynever lack forenthusiasticaudiences.Sometime yearaCubangirlwhohadbeentrainedin SpainreturnedtoHavanaandwasemployedatthePayretTheatretodanceandsing;andto allaccountssheperformedherpartexceedinglywell. Yet fewcaredto seeorhearher;shecouldnotdrawacrowd.So,aftera while,sheleftthePayretTheatreandenteredintoanengagementfor a seasonwiththe"MoulinRouge." Shedancedbeforemenonly,andsangtothem;andin a weekherfame hadspreadall over Havana,andthecitywasravingabouther.ThemanagementofthePayretTheatresaw itsopportunity.Overturesweremadetotheyoungactress,and,shortly after,thePayret'sbillsannouncedthatthe"escultural"youngladywould infutureperformattheTheatrePayret.Themovewasa wise one. Men, women,andchildrenwentto seethisactressdance.Nightafternightshedrewthousands,andmanyhadtobeturnedawayfromthetheatre'sdoors.Thiswas significant ofthesortofentertainmentsHavanaloves.Andwhileveryprettyvarietyperformancesmaybeattendedbyaudiencesnumberingfrom fifty to ahundredpersons,the"Alhambra"andthe"MoulinRouge"have no reason tocomplainof lack ofpatronage.ThemenofHavanaarefaithful tothem.Havana's"MoulinRouge"is asortof barn,withapitanda long gallery.Thestage islarge,theorchestraisdividedfromtheaudiencebyalightrail.InthepitonthisSundayeveningtherewas alargenumberof respectable-lookingmen;inthecrowdedgallerytherewereall sortsandconditions of persons, some ofthemtheverydregsofthecity. Blackandyellowandswarthyandwhitefacespeereddownuponthestage.Chinamen,mestizos, negroes,andwhiteCubanswerehuddledupina whistling,perspiring,malodorousmassthatwaseverymomentgrowingmoreimpatient.Cries, shrill whistling,impatientexclamations brokeout;thepitwasmoreorderlybutwas obviouslyimpatientalso.Andwith everymomentthenoisebecamelouder,untilatlast,obeyinga signal fromsomeonehalfhiddenbythecurtain,theorchestrabrokeinto sound.Itmighthavebeenthetuneof a devil'sdance.Themusichada fierce,brutalqualitythatwas clearlyintendedtoarouseevery evil passionwithinthesoul of man.Itsuggested a wildabandonmenttotheanimalimpulses;ithissedoutmaddesire;itscreamedas ifenraged.Thenitbecamestaccato,anditsharsh

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAY31pulsationswereaccompaniedbythesteadybeatof the heels ofthesound-intoxicatedmeninthegallery.Suddenlyitstopped.Thecurtainraseslowlyandthelightswentout.Thenona whitesheetwasthrownapicturefromacinematograph.whichImustnotdescribe.Therealentertainmentoftheafternoonwasyetto come, however; this was adramaintwo acts,andtheplaybillsproudlyannouncedthattheworkhadbeenprohibited:intwosecondsyou quiteunderstood why.Thenfollowedsongsanddances,thedancersworkingthemselves into aperfectfrenzyof savagemovementfromwhichall suspicion ofdecencywasabolished;andthesesweating,writhingwomenonthestagewerecheeredontofurtherexertions,bythescreaming,applauding,delightedaudiencewhichhadnowlost all contralof itself.ThescenewasinstrangecontrasttothatIhadwitnessedintheCathedralthatmorning-instrangeandsignificant contrast.Andmuchworsesceneshavetakenplace in Havana.Inthemonthof June,atthe"Alhambra,"thedancerscameonthestagewithoutclothing,andthecinematographexhibitionsrepresentedthevery lastperfectionof indecency.Fightsoccurredamongstthoseanxious toobtaina goodseat;tickets soldata vastlyincreasedprice;duringtheperformancesthetheatrewas aperfectpandemonium.Butthiswasmorethantheclergyandthebetterclasses ofthecitywould stand.TheBishop ofHavanagatheredroundhimthebestelementsofHavanasociety,andpressurewasbroughttobearupontheGovernmenttoputanendtothesedemoralisingorgies.TheGovernmentintervened;butwhat i.'> nowpermittedisnotmuchworsethanwhathasbeenprohibited.AndtheGovernmentwillhardlyventureonafurtherprohibition.TheAmericanstriedtoputastoptowhattheyconsideredwerethemoredemoralisingpastimesoftheCubanpeople,butwhattheydidisrapidlybeingundonebytheCubanGovernment.Thelatterdeclaresitispowerless:thepeoplewantcock-fightingandlotteries,andtheywill havethem;so cock fightingandlotterieshaveagainbeenlegalised.Intime,maybe,thegreatbull-ringatRegiawillagainbethearenaofbloodyfightsbetweenpain-maddenedbullsandnimblematadors,butbull-fighting is stillprohibidaatthemomentthatI write.Thelust ofbloodandofmoneymustneedsbecontentwiththeexcitementofthelotterydrawingsonSundayafternoons,andthecruelcombatsofinfuriatedgame-cocks.SundayinHavana,as in allLatincountries, isthegreatdayfor amuse ments.Thelottery,whichhasbeenrecentlyre-established as astateinstitution,announcesthewinningnumbersonSundayafternoon,anditsannouncementsarefeverishlyawaitedbythousandsofpersons.ThisiswhattheHavanaTelegraphhadtosaytheotherdayabouttheopeningofthelottery. Most extensivepreparationsaregoingonfortheopeningofthelottery;themachinewhichservedintheold Spanishdayshasbeenfurbishedupandprovidedwithanelectricmotor,andallothergamblinghasbeensuppressedthatthere

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32INJAMAICAANDCUBAmaybeanaccumulationofhard-earnedwages onhandtobeinvestedinlotterytickets.Heretoforeall effortstostopgamblingintheclubsofthecitywerevain, especiallyinthepolitical clubs,butnowthereisnoplayinginanyof these,notevenintheMiguelistaClubitself.Gamblinghasbeendeclaredintolerablyimmoral, unless yougamblewiththeGovernment,inemulationofthePresident'svirtuous example."This,of course, is a politicaloutburst;yetitisquitetruethatthePresidenthimselfchosethenumber1895 forthefirstdrawingofthenational lottery. .TheHavanatheatres,althoughlarge,canclaimbutlittleinthewayofappearance.TheHavaneseareveryproudoftheirOperaHouse,butIfounditarathershabbystructurecapableofseatingsomethreethousandpersons,theentrancetothisbuildingbeingthroughoneofthelargest cajCs inthecity.Itisnotsingularinthisrespect.ThestrangerwhoisdirectedtotheHavanaOperaHouseandwhofinds himselfinalargeroomwithabaratoneendof it,inwhichscoresofmenareseatedroundlittle tables, smoking,sippingcool drinks,andtalking,maywellimagineatfirstthathehas blunderedintoa public-house.Buthehas only to walkstraighttowardsthebigdoorsinthecentreofthewallfacingthe caje's entrance,andhewill findthathehasmadenomistake. Aftergivinguphisticketandpassingin,hewill seebeforehima spaciousamphitheatre,thepitofwhichiscrowdedwithseats,andwhichisprovidedwithgalleriesrisingverticallyoneabovetheothertotheroof.Thesegalleriesareallverynarrow;theloweronesaredividedinto boxesinwhichtworowsofchairsfacingoneanotherareranged,sothatacompanyof ladiesandgentlemenmaycomfortablysitinoneoftheseboxes astheydoathome,andtalkduringtheintervalsoftheplay.InaCubanhouse (it isthesameinotherSpanish-Americancountries)theladies sit oppositethemenunlessrelatedoronveryfamiliar terms,andthosewhomanagetheCubantheatreshavethoughtfullyprovidedthatthereshallbenodivergencefromthiscustomin atheatrebox.Theseboxes have nocurtains;theyareseparatedfromeachotherbytheflimsiest ofwhiterailings;youenterthemthrougha flimsy slatdoor;andas aruletheyarepatronisedbywomen.Itiswhenthereissomespeciallyattractiveperformanceatoneof theseplacesthatHavana'sfashionable folkareseeninallthegloryoftheirwarpaint.AHavaneseaudiencepridesitselfuponitsappreciationofgoodactingandsinging:thewomenshowtheirapprovalby going inhundredstoheartheirfavourites,themenexpresstheirdelightbycheeringvociferously,bythrowingbouquetsonthestage,andbymakingpresentsofjewellerytopopularactre'sses.Thereis alwaysanItalianorSpanishOperaCompanycruisingaboutinCentralAmericanandWestIndianwaters.Thesecompaniesseemto be asmuchapartoftheseregionsoftheworldastheskyorthesea itself.The

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THEPRADO,HAVAA.

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAY33prima donnasarefrequently Ifat;thetenors, too, have oftenreachedanagewhen,inspite of hardshipsandthevicissitudes of fortune,theirabdominaldevelopmentindicatesthatthey havelongsince passedthedays of love'syoungdream. Yet onemustbethankful forwhatthegodsprovide, so aWestIndianaudience willturnout in thousands to hear aprima donna,aged forty five, declare in quaversandhigh notesthatshe is onthepoint of committing suicide because a cruel unclepreventsherfrom beingunitedtothedearobjectofherlove, whomaybefat, florid,andfifty years of age. Such acompanygoingtoHavanadoesnotoften leave dissatisfied. Yet some very good companies havegoneto Havana,andnota few"artistes,.who have won fameinEuropehaveappearedbefore the footlights oftheGrandOperaHouse ofthatcity.Duringthesummerthereisnooperain Havana,buttherearealways varietyentertainmentsatwhich youaretreatedto exhibitions of balletdancingbyan"incomparable"dancerwho (sotheprogrammeinforms you) delightedandastonishedthepeople ofParislastyear;andthen, since eventheincomparableonemaynotsuffice,thereareviewsfroma cinematograph,andjokesbya world-famed comedian, also incomparable."AndwhatamusesmeabouttheHavanatheatresisthequitecheerfulwayinwhichtheaudienceispermittedto seewhatisgoingonuponthestage beforethecurtainrisesandafterit falls.Thereis alwayssomethingthematterwiththecurtain;itpersistently refuses tocomerightdowntotheflooring ofthestage, nor does it always hidethewings ofthestage from view. So one, sitting inthepit, seesquiteeasilywhatisgoingonuponthestage;andifithappensthatsomeonehasdiedinthelastsceneofanactyou havebeenwitnessing,itisnotatall uncommon to seethedeadmanrise withremarkableagilityandtake himself off.Theenterprisingadvertiser has alsomadethemost oftheopportunities which these theatres afford him for publishingtheexcellence of his goods to theCubanworld;andsoonmanya drop-curtain I have seen flaring advertisements ofbeerandbiscuits, whilethepictureof a watch, rising like asunout ofthesea,andsendingforthbrightrays of light, hauntsmymemorylikeanevildream.I sawthatpic-tureonthecurtainofthePayretTheatre,andrememberthatunderneathit wastheveraciousannouncementthatwatchesofthatmakearethebestandthecheapestintheworld.Thepriceschargedatthesetheatres(exceptduringtheGrandOpera season)arevery low.Inthecourse ofaneveningthreeentertainmentsmaybegivenatthesame play-house, each lastingaboutanhour. Youpaya shillingortwo (25or50 cents),andattheclose of onepartof theperformanceyou leave or buyanotherticket as you please.Butthesevariety shows,thoughvery good fortheprice,arebutpoorlyattended;you see very fewwomenatanyof them, for example. Andthemen,asa rule,preferthe"Moulin4

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34INJAMAICAANDCUBARouge"orthe"Alhambra."IimaginethattheactorsandactressesattheordinaryrespectableHavanatheatremustoftenruefullyconcludethatwhilerespectableactingispraisedinthepress,itis alittletoooften(likevirtue)itsownreward.FromwhatIhavewrittenitwillbeconcludedthatthemoraltoneofHavanaisnothigh.Thewatchwhichmothersandfatherskeepovertheirdaughters,theinsistencethatalllove-makingshallbedoneundertheeye ()f a relative,thepartialseclusion ofthewomen,thedisinclinationtoallow ayoungwomantogoanywherealone:allthisfindsanexplanationintheSpanishproverbwhichrecommends"abrickwallbetweenamaleandafemalesaint."TheCubanwomanisreputedtobeafaithfulwifeandadevotedmother.TheCubanhusband,itis said,regardscontinenceasanadmirablething-forhiswomenfolk.Tenyearsago,accordingtoavailablestatistics,25percent.ofthewhiteCubanchildrenwereillegitimate.Thepercentageamongstthenegroescouldnotbeascertained,butwasbelievedtobeverymuchhigher.ThelastCubancensus(whosefiguresaresuspect)givestheproportionofillegitimatestotherestofthepopulationassomethingover12percent.Thefiguresshowatrulywonderfulimprovement,animprovementtoogoodtobetrue.So IglancedoverthestatisticsgivenbytheCubanGovernmentinitselaborate"CensodelaRepublicadeCuba, 1907 "-andremembertheywerepreparedfortheperusalofothersbesidesCubansandresidentsinthecountry.AforeignerlongresidentinHavanatoldme,too, astorywhichhedeclaredillustratedacommonenoughphaseof life inHavana.Hewasstayingataboarding-housewithanumberofotherpersons,andamongstthemwasayoungcouplewhomhethoughtapatternofmutualaffection.Theymusthavelivedinthehouseforovertwoyears,whenonemorninghenoticedthatneitherwaspresentatbreakfast.Ashehadbeenonfairlyfriendlytermswiththem,hecasuallyinquiredofthelandladywhathadbecomeof Mrs.D--,andwastoldthatshehadleft forgood;hadgonetothecountry,thelandladythought.AndMr.D--?Oh,hewastobemarriednextweek!Thenthelandlady,whohadknownallalongthetruerelationsexistingbetweenMr.D--andhis lady,explainedthatthegentlemanbelongedtoaverygoodCubanfamilywhowantedhimtomarry;andhe,inordertopleasethem,hadseveredhisconnectionwiththesoi-dissanteMrs.D--,butnotonemomentbeforehethoughtitabsolutelynecessarytodoso."Andthatsortofthing,mydearsir,"saidmyfriend,"iscommonenoughhere."Hewasagreatmoralistinwords,andsohewentonto tellmeinnumerableothertalesreflectinguponHavanasociety,toeachofwhichheaddedasevereremarkofcondemnationthoughInoticedthathetold hisstorieswithinfiniteenjoyment.Idoubtednoneofthem.Hewasabachelorwholived in lodgings,andsoshouldknow.

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HAVANAATPRAYERANDATPLAY35Butenoughof reflectionsuponCubanmorality. As I wl"ite IthinkIseeabevyofHavana'sfairestdaughtersgracefullywalkingundertheshadeofthelaurelsthatformtheleafyavenueofthePrado,andthisbringstomymindthememoryof aSundayeveningpromenadewhenthesunwas sinking, aglobeof gold,andwhenthestarswerebeginning,onebyone, topeepoutofthepalebluedomeabove."Itissomethingwecanall enjoy," saidanAmericantomewhenspeakingof thisSundaypromenade.ItissomethingeveryoneinHavanadoesenjoy.Itisatthispromenadethatyouseea realcrowdinHavana;notahurrying,busycrowd,butthousandsofpleasure-seekerswhoseonethoughtis oftheenjoymentoftheevening.InCentralParkandontheMaleconthebandsareplaying,andastheduskdeepensthethrongof well-dressed people increases. Motor-cars,privatelandausandvictoriasdriveupanddownthePradoandalongtheroadthatrunsbesidetheembankmentfromLaPuntatowheretheMaleconends.Butbyfarthegreaternumberofpersonsarewalkingaboutorsittingonthefauteuilsprovidedbythemunicipality,andfortheuse ofwhicha smallamountischarged.Most ofthewomenarebareheaded;andthelithe, sinuous bodies of thosethatarestillyoung,withthelightfromtheirdarkeyes,andtheirgracefulmovements,andtheirself-conscious,studiedlook of indifferenceastheypassgroupsofyoungmenwhostarewithboldadmirationatthem-allthismakesapictureI shouldnotwillingly forget. Thewholeblessed familygoesouttogether,.,ayoungAmericanremarkedindisgustto me."Theywillnottrusta girlalone."Thatistrue: thewholeblessedfamily,"ormostof it,doesseemtogoouttogether.Andmammaisgenerallyfat, whilethespinsterauntrunsto skinandbone;papa, too, Isuspect,is abitofasavagewherehisdaughtersareconcerned. His swaggerandthedefiantsetofthestrawhatthathewearsseemtouttervaguebutterriblethreatsagainstthosewhowouldventuretoo far. Still,thankheaven,thereisnothingtopreventyourstaring;so whilethebandplays you followthegirlswithyoureyes, feelingsurethattheyalsoarelooking(butfurtively)atyou.TheCubanwoman,asI havehintedabove,hasatendencytogrowfatorthinasshepassesfromyouthtoage.Butsheisprettyandgracefulwhenyoung,andfor somuchthestrange!ismostthankful.Shealmostinvariablycarriesa fan,andhaslearnttomanipulateitwiththesamedexteritywithwhichsheuseshereyes;withtheslightestmotionofherfingers itopensorcloses rapidly,andshefansherselfwitha series ofquickmovementsfascinating to behold.Manyayoungman,I fancy, would,onapromenadenight,ashewatchesthesegirls,votemostcheerfullyfortheabolition ofpapaandmamma.Hewould like toseethegirlsalone,withtheirairsandgraces,theirsoftmovementsandtheirquickorlanguishingglances.Andnodoubtafutureemancipatedgenerationwill seemammarelegatedtothecompanyofhercontemporaries,andpapasentaltogether

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAabouthis business.Butthattime is notyet;so, meanwhile,"thewholeblessed family,"orthemajorportionof it, strollsupanddownthePrado,oralongtheMalecon,andthestrainsfromthebandfillthetropicnightwithmusicandthemoonupabove aidsthelampsofthecitytoshedbrightnessonthescene;andtothenorththewaves oftheGulf of Mexico eternally rollshorewardandbreakin surf againsttheshore,andthewindcomesstealing overthatwide expanseofwater,bringinga sweet,refreshingcoolness tothepleasure-lovers of thili queencity ofthe Andsothehours steal on,andgraduallythecrowdthinsandvanishes,andHavanaretirestorestafter adayofprayerandpleasure-orof pleasure merely, ali someobservers would say.

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CHAPTERIIITHE PEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRYTHEharbourofHavanawasbeginningtoawaketothebusinessofthedaywhen,alongwithanumberofotherpassengers, Isteppedonboardtheferry-boatthatwas toconveymeovertoRegia.Inthislittletownwastherailway linethatconnectsHavanawithSantiagodeCuba, thecapitalcity ofthegreatProvinceofOrienteattheotherendoftheisland. Fiveyearsagoitwouldnothavebeenpossible togorightthroughthecountrybytrain, for althoughtherewereseveral lines of railwayrunninginCuba,theywereallindependentandalldisconnected.To-daytheyhavechangedallthat:to-morrowtheywillimproveonwhattheyhavealreadydone.Road-buildingandtheextension oftherailway systemhavebeguningoodearnestsincethedawnofCubanindependence,andsoonecannowseeCubawithoutanyconsiderabledifficulty.Tenyearsagotheordinarytravellercontentedhimselfwitha visit to Havana.ThetraindidnotleaveRegiapromptlyat7.30, as itwasscheduledtodo.ThereasonwasthatneitherthetrainnoranythingelsepaysstrictattentiontoscheduletimeinCuba.ThiscontemptforpunctualityisoneofthecustomsofthecountrywhichI failedtoadmire;anyhowwedidstartatabouteighto'clock,andafterpullingOlltofthestationandleavingthelittle town, wefoundourselves intheopencountry-inthegreenundulatingplainsandunderthebrightbluesky of Cuba.Whatacontrasttothecity itwas!Wehadleftthenarrowstreetswiththeirpaintedhousesbehindus,andwerenowinthemidstofcultivatedfieldsdottedhereandtherewith peasants' houses,interspersedwithclumpsof heavy-foliaged trees,cutthroughbypathswhichshowedredorblackaccordingtothenatureoftheearth,andwateredby dark,gleamingstreamsthatflowedandgurgledbetweenbanksfringedas far astheeye couldreachwithRoyal palms.HerewaswheretherealwealthofCubalay.Herewasthesoil whose fertility is sowonderfulthatitnever needs manure,wherethecane-farmerdoesnot havetoreplanthislandwithnewcanesfor sevenandsometimesfortenyears. Sorichisthissoilthatfromthesameroots freshcaneswillspringandbe as full37

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAoflusciousjuiceasthosehegatheredlast season,andsodeepdownisthislayerofblackorredearththatatsomeplacesyoumustdigfor ayardortwobeforeyoureachthehardlimestonerockbeneath.AndnaturehasinotherwaysbeenkindtothisislandofCuba.Ithasgivenheragenialclimatewhichvariesslightlyasyoutravelfromwesttoeast,andwhichisalmostcoldinthewestinwinterandneverunbearablyhotinthesummermonths.Inallthefourseasonsoftheyearit is still alandofbrightsunshineandgenialtemperature:ifnot,perhaps,inthetowns,thenatleastinthecountrydistrictsoverwhosewholeareathetradewindsblow,bringing :i refreshingcoolnessfromthesea.It ii alandofplacidbeauty,smiling, fertile,andwithsomethingfeminineaboutitslowwoodedhills an.dpurlingwaters.Anditisthesoftl'ichness oftheisland, itsthreethousandvarietiesof plants,itsthickcarpetofvariegatedgreen,itsdeepblueskies,andits millions ofpalmsandtreeswhichgrowinluxurianceonitsbroadplains,initsdeepvalleys,andonitsmountainpeaks,thathavegainedforitthetitleof"ThePearloftheAntilles."TheshapeofCubahasbeenlikenedtothatofahammer-headedshark.Thesimilarity exists.Frompointtopointtheislandis900mileslong,andiseverywherelessthan100milesbroad;inoneortwoplacesit is lessthan2Smiles across. Most ofitis flat country,excepttotheeastandwest.Inthecast a well,definedmountainrangesendsuploftypeaks,thehighestofwhichis8,000feet;inthewestthereisalsoarangeof lowmountains,andinthecentreoftheisland,runningthroughit like abackboneasitwere,arespursoftheSierradelosOrganosandgroupsofhills; but,onthewhole,Cubaissingularlyfreefrommountainousprojections.Theisland isdividedintosixprovinces.Theprovincetotheextremewest,PinardelRio, isthesceneofthetobaccoindustryofCuba.ItishereandinthefarmsimmediatelywestofHavanathatthetobaccoisgrownwhichhasmadeCubafamous,andwhichgivesemploymenttothousandsofmenandwomen.IhavealreadyspokenofthetobacconistshopsinHavana;andoneofthemostinterestingsightsofthatcityalso is itstobaccofactorieswiththeirthousandsofworkers,bothmaleandfemale,andtheiratmosphereofbusynessandskill.Thetobaccoiscultivatedonvegas,orsmallfarms,bymenwhoknowtheirbusinessbyinstinctasitseems.Everyfarmis alittlecommunityinitself;therethehousesofthefarmerandhisworkersaresituated,andtherethevegetablesforhomeconsumptionaregrown;sometimes,too,thesevegashavegardensforthecommonenjoymentofthecommunity,andthereareshedsforthecattle,andthetobaccodrying-house.Thesevegasarehardlyeverlargerthanfortyacres.Themenwhogrowandtendthetobacco(chieflywhiteCubans)knowthatwhilethesoilandclimatewilldomuchtobringtheleaf toperfectionandgiveitthefine flavourthattheconnoisseurloves,everythingmaystillberuinedbyunskilfulhandlingorcarelesssorting,andsotheygoabouttheirworkwithsomethingofthe

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY39careamothershowsinlookingafterherchild.Thebestqualityof leaves is carefullysortedoutfromthoseofslightlyinferiorquality,andthenthebetterqualityof leaves issortedout.Andsotheprocesscontinues,untilthepoorestqualityofthetobaccohasbeenpickedouttobeused illthemakingofinferiorcigars,whilethefiner leavesareallneatlymadeupintobundlesanddulylabelledaccordingtotheirworth.Butthefinishedworkofthegrowerandsorterisbuttherawmaterialofthemanwhomakesthecigars. Agreatdealdependsuponhimalso.Heknowsit,andtakespridein hiswork.Seatedatinnumerabletablesinsomegreatfactoryinthecapital,withtheirknivesandtheirpotsofpasteathand,and,withcigarsintheirmouths,hundredsoftheseworkerssitforhourafterhourintheday,rollingandcuttingthecigarsthataretogoallovertheworld.Inthecentreoftheroom,percheduponasortofpedestal,sitsthereaderofthefactory,themanwhoisemployedbytheCompanytoreadaloudtothemenwhoareatwork.Itis acuriouscustomthis,butthecigar-makeris apoliticianwhereverheisfound,andwantstohearwhatthe'newspapersaresayingonthetopicsoftheday.Sothereaderreadstohimasheworks,andinlisteninghemanufacturesthefinecigarsfromwhichCubadrawssolargeaportionofherrevenue.Tobaccoisgrowninotherprovinces,aswellasinPinardelRio;throughall of these,withtheexceptionofPinardelRio,thetrainpassesonitswaytoSantiagodeCuba.ThelineItravelledbyis asingle-track,broad-gaugerailwaysystemownedbyanEnglishandCubanCompany;thefirst-classcarstheyprovidearefairlycomfortable,andarefittedoutwithstraw-covered,reversibleseatsandelectriclamps(thoughsomearestilllightedbykerosene lamps).Thepriceof a ticket fromHavanatoSantiagois 2S.6d.AfterwehavebeentravellingfortenorfifteenminutesthecharacteristicfeaturesoftheCubanlandscapebegintounrollbeforeoureyes.OnemayhavereadbeforecomingtoCubaoftheRoyalpalmandofhowitgrowsinprofusioninthisland;butnoamountofdescription,nopilingofadjectiveuponadjective,noexcessofpoeticsimile,cangiveanytrueideaofwhatthesepalmslook likeasoneseesthemrisingoutofthegroundingroups,insinglestems,orincountlessthousandsforhundredsof milesupontheway.Theyarefewerintheeastthaninthewest,andafterpassingthroughHavana,Matanzas,andSantaClaraoneseesanothervarietyofpalm,afan-palmwhichisnotasstatelyastheRoyal palm,butwhichhasneverthelessabeautyofitsown,withitscrownofshortfan-likefrondsshiningadarkgreenintheraysofthesun.RankafterrankoftheseRoyalpalmsappearandvanishasthetrainspeedspast;sometimestheyputoneinmindof aregimentofsoldiersmarshalledoutthereupontheplain,orof aforestthathasnotbeenallowedtogrowupatwill,buthasbeentrainedandlookedafter,sothateverytreehasbeengivenroomenoughtospringuptowardsthesunlightandtospreadoutitsbranchesintheair.Theystrikeanoteof stateliness, sonobleandsogracefulisthelook

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INJAMAICA AND CUBAofthem.Thewindpassesthroughthem,andthelonggreenbranchesswayhereandthere-thousandsuponthousandsofthemmovingatonemoment.Grassgrowsabouttherootsofthem,long,thick,andemeraldgreen;acarpetofbeautifulcolourfromwhichtheslender,grey-whitecolumnsriseupandexpandintowavingcrownsofgreen.Reddish-brownpenguinhedgesshowwhereacarefulfarmerhassoughttoprotect his crop.Astreamtumbles over itsrockybed,perhapstojoinfartheronsomeriverthatflowstowardsthesea.TherearemanyriversinCuba;thecountryis alandofstreams.But so narrowitisthatbutfewofthesearelarge,andonlyoneortwoarenavigableforanyappreciabledistance.TheRioCautoisthelargest;theothersflow chieflynorthandsouthtoemptythemselvesintothesea.TherainfallinCubais copious,andsotheseriverssupplythelandwiththewaterthatitneeds;butmanyofthemsinkintothelimestonecaverns,whileothersspreadthemselvesoutonthelow-lyinglandsofthesoutherncoast,andthushelptoformthevastcienagas,orswamps,ofCuba,wherethecrocodilelurks,andsavagelandcrabsfindshelter,andfiercemosquitoesswarmi:lmillions. Evilplacestheseare:death-trapsandpoisonous;yetIcanimaginethat,inthedaysgoneby,manyafear-maddenedslave flyingfromadailytortureworsethandeathmayhaveplungedintothemasbehindhimheheardthethunderofthehoofs ofpursuinghorsesorthedeep,awfulbayingofthebloodhoundstrackinghimtohisdoom.Andtohimtheymayhaveprovedaplaceofrefuge.Thecattleploughingintheheavyblacksoil ofthecountryside,andthegroupofhutsnearby, tellmethatIampassingoneofthenumeronsfarmsofCuba.Thisis asmallone,probablynotmorethan40acres;andaglanceatthelabouringoxenshowsthattheyareharnessedtoawoodenplough,acrookedbranch,oneendofwhich,thrustintothesoftearth,turnsitupinheavylumpswhichmustafterwardsbebrokenbythehoe. Aprimitiveprocess,yetitservesthefarmer'spurposewell.Thelandissosoftthatityieldstohis efforts,thesoil issorichthatevena superficialploughingwillgivehimgoodreturns.YetitmustnotbethoughtthatmodernagriculturalimplementsareunknowninCuba:theyarebeingusedmoreandmoreeveryyear.I findthatinthethreeyears,1905-7,Cubapurchasedover[,172,000worthofagriculturalimplementsfromAmericaandtheUnitedKingdom,andithaspurchasedmoresincethen.TheAmericanmaybetrustedtopreachthevalueofmodernimplementsandmethodstotheCuban.Standingatthedoorsofthehutsonthisfarmarea fewwomen,white,looselydressed,butwiththeirhairneatlyplaitedandparted.OneofthemholdsanakedchildofaboutfiveyearsoldinheranTIs.ThiscustomofleavingthechildrentogonakeduntiltheyarefiveorsixyearsoldisonethatwilldiehardinCuba.Idon'tthinkithurtsthechildrenmuchinthissunnyclimate,butthesightis a littlestartlingatfirst. Astrong,fine-lookingAmerican

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THECATHEDRAL,HAVANA.

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, THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY41fromtheSouthernStates,seeingmelookatthechild, offerssomeinformationonthesubject."Alaw hasbeenpassedprohibitingmotherstolettheirkiddiesgonakedafterfouryearsof age,"hetel1s me,"butnobodyobeysit.Thelawsherearea joke.Everythinghereis ajoke!Why,intheinteriormanyoftheboysandgirlsneverputonanythingbeforetheyaresixteen." Myinformantwasanintel1igentmanwhohelpedtomakethejourneyinterestingforme.HehadbeeninCubaforfourteenyears,andcordial1y dislikedthepeople.Hefoundthema joke, abadjokeapparently,forhislaughwhenhespokeofthemwasnotappreciative."Yes,sir," hecontinued,"boysandgirlsnakeduptotheageof sixteen.Whatdoyouthinkofthat?Andtheoldermenal1patriotswhofoughtinthewarofliberation!Everybodyhereis apatriotandfoughtinthewarofliberation;andwhenitcametopayingoffthearmysomeyearsago,itseemedasthougheverypersoninthecountryhadbeenengagedina life-and-deathstrugglefor freedom,andpatriotical1yexpectedto bepaidfor it. Iknowhundredsof these patriots,andonlyoneofthesewasaprivatehewasnotevenasergeant-heinsistsuponit. Iregardthatmanassomethingrareandwonderful,foral1theotherpatriotswereeithercolonelsorgenerals.Oneprivate, sir, to athousandcolonels!Itis a joke." Ilaughed;"Buttheyfoughtwel1?" Isuggested."Theyranawaywell. Ineversawsuchpeopleforgettingoutofthewayofanarmyinmylife. Yousimplycouldn'tcatchthem-thepatriots!"TheSpaniardsfoughtal1right.TheSpaniardsandwearegoodfriendsnow, youknow;weappreciateoneanotheranddespisetheCubans."Thereisnodamned,high-fal1utin' nonsenseabouttheSpaniards.Butwe allweptovertheCubanbeforeweknewhim.GeneralWoodcameoverhereandtalkeda lotofnonsense,andspenta lot ofmoneyfor nogoodpurposewhatever.TheyhavemadehimCommander-in-ChiefoftheUnitedStatesArmy, because, I suppose, heentertainedtheCubanladiesatbal1sanddancesatthepalaceinHavanawhenhewasGovernorhere.Hebuilt a million-dol1arroadfromSantiago totheSanJuanhil1,sothattouristscouldgoandseewheretheboldRooseveltdidthegreatdeedthatmadehimbecomePresidentoftheUnitedStates.Wecal1thatroad"Wood'sFol1y" over here.Fancybuildingsucharoadinacountrythatneeds mads todevelopitsagriculture!Itis a joke." Mycandidfriendrelapses into silence,andintheintervalI scrutinise closelytheotherpassengersinthecar.Therearethreeorfour Americans, a fewCubanladieswithchildren,andnumbersof men,al1Cubanspresumably,whoaregoingonto MatanzasorCamaguey. I strol1intothesecond-classcarriage;hereanothertypeoftropicalhumanitypresentsitself forstudy:rough-lookingmen,withouttheirjackets,andswarthyin complexion,and

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42INJAMAICAANDCUBAwomenwithfiguresandfaceswhichindicatethattheybelongtotheworkingclasses,areseatedhere. My friendtheSouthernerwill tellmethattheCubanwomandoesnotwork;butthen,heisjudgingbytheAmericanstandards,andjudgedbythosestandardseventhelower-classCubanwomandoeslittle.ButwhenIrememberthateventhesimpledutiesofthehomemusttakeupsometime,whenIthinkofthegirlswhoareemployedinthetobaccofactoriesofHavana,andwhenI calltomindthedemandswhichatropicalclimatemakesuponone'senergy,I willnotagreewithanywholesalechargeof lazinessbroughtagainsteitherthemenorthewomenof Cuba. Iknowthatinthecities it istheSpaniard(as Ihavesaid before)whoisthemanof business. I know, too,thatthemeninthecitiesandtownsdonotseemasrobustandarenotsoenergeticasthosewhoworkonthefarmsandestates.TheLatin-Americancitydwellerdoesnotlovethestrenuouslifeandisnotfittedforit;yet,afterall,itis chieflythenativeCubanwhogrowsandmanufacturesthesugarandcigars,andwhocultivatesthefruit,whichCubaexportsinsuchlargequantities.Heis asplendid hand atcuttingtimber.Heis fairlygoodatcattle-raising.Somerailway-mensayheis agoodhandatheavyrailroadwork,butothersdenythis;so IsupposethatsomeCubansdonavvyworkfairly well,whileothersdoitbadly.InthelightofallthisIcannotrefrainfromdifferingfrommySouthernfriend'sopinionsonCubansasa whole. I lookoutofthewindowagain,andinthemiddledistanceI seetheforestsofpalms,andbehindthese,againstthehorizon,thererunsalowrangeofgreenhills.Thesunisnowhighintheheavensandtheheathasstilledthelandscapeto sleep. Iimaginethatoutyonderthesilence is as thesilenceofnight,unbrokensavebythechirpingofsomeinsectorthelowingofthecattleastheywanderaboutcroppingthejuicygrass.Picturesquegroupsofpeasants'hutswepass, a littlesettlementhereandthere,withits shops, its houses,anditsvegetablegardens,andbefore wecometoMatanzaswepassbyagreatsugarestatewith itssquareand\'ectangular fields ofcane,itsred-roofedfactorywiththetallironchimneysrisingsuddenlyintothesky, itsavenueof Royalpalmsleadingupto a low housesurroundedbyverandahsanditsgroveofyoungcocoanut-treeswiththeirfrondsof yellowish-green.Weareintheprovinceof Matanzas,oneofthechiefsugardistrictsoftheisland.Sugar is growneverywhereinCuba;itoccupiesaboutone-half ofthecultivatedareaofthecountry;itgivesemploymenttothebulk ofthepeople:andwhile, inother \Vest Indianislands,thecane-sugarindustryhas fallenuponevil times, inCubaitflourishesandhasnothingtofearfromthecompetitionofthebeet;andnowonder,forwhatbettersugarlandscanyoufindanywhere?IknowthatJavais saidtohavesomeofthebestsugarsoilsintheworld;butthis flat,rollingcountrywith itsthicklayerofvegetablemould, its numerousfineharbourstothenorthandtothesouth, its easyaccessto the

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY43seafromeverypoint;thisislandofCuba,Ithink,hasnothingtofearfromJava,whichisnotevennowasimportantasugar-producingcountry as Cuba.Youmustrememberthatthecanecanbegrownonalmosteverypartof it,andthatof itsareaof40,000squaremiles(excludingtheislandsand cays alongthecoast)onlyabout3percent.wassaidtobeundercultivationin 1899.Picturetoyourselfthisislandwellsuppliedwithroadsandanextendedrailwaysystem(asitonedaywill be).andsteadilyattractingworkersfromSpainandtheotherWestIndianislands,andyoumayformsomeideaoftheposition it willoccupyasoneoftheworld'ssourcesofsugarsupply.Evennowthelargernumberofitssugarestatesaresplendidlyequippedwithmodernmachinery.AndthelatestprocessofsugarmanufacturewillbefoundinCubato-day. Alargesugarestateis a village,withitsbarracksfortheworkers,its20,30,or40milesofnarrow-gaugerailwaytracksforthetrainofcarswhichbringthecanesfromthefieldtothefactory,anditshundredsofdraught-oxenanditsgangsoflabourers.Theindustryhereiscarriedonuponagrandscale,withexpensivesugarcentralsandanenormousoutput.Thisoneislandalonecansupplyalltheworldwiththesugaritneeds.Yet,fiftyyearsago,Cubaproduced,notsugarchiefly,butcoffee,andonlygaveupthecultivationofthatberrywithreluctance,andinobediencetosterneconomicnecessity.To-dayBrazil isthegreatcoffee-producingcountryoftheworld.Fiftyyearsagoshehadalreadybeguntothreatentheothercoffee-growingcountrieswithherpromiseofenormousproduction.TheCubanssawthedangerthatthreatened;theircoffeeplantationshadalsoseverelysufferedthroughthehurricanesof 1843and1845;sotheruinedcafetalswerere-plantedincane,thefruittreesthatonceshadedthedelicatecoffeeplantdisappeared,andwherethetendershrubhadonceblossomedintosnow-whiteflowers ofdeliciousperfume,thegreenbladeofthecanenowappeared.Thusaneconomicrevolutiontookplace.andCuba,whichoncehadproducedgreatquantitiesofinferiorcoffee,begantoproducegreaterquantitiesofsuperiorcanesugar,andintheproduction of thisshewillnotbebeatenbyanyothertropicalcountryintheworld.*AndnowInoticethattheappearanceofthecountryhasslightlyaltered.Wearenowrunningthroughavalleyalmostentirelysurroundedbyhills,andthroughthis valley ariverflows,andhereandtherearehousesandgroupsofpeasants,andhorsesandcatlle,andplotsofcultivatedground,and-butsuddenlyIceasetoobservethescene,forwehaveemergedfromthevalleynow,andsurelythatstretchofsparklingbluewateristhesea,andthere,climbingfromtheshoresofthatnoblebayupthelowshelteringslopesofthehills, is acity-Matanzaswithitsred-roofedhousesanditssix-and-thirtythousandsouls.Thetrainstopped.Wehadbeena littlemorcthantwohoursupontheway,

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAanditwasatthisstationthatweshould stay for twentyminutes for breakfast. Soweleftthetrainandstreamedintothestation,andherewesatdowntoamealpreparedinCubanstyle, which is a stylequitedifferent from thatwhichprevails intheAmerican or theAmericanised hotels ofHavana.Inthelargewaiting-roomseverallongtableswereset,andheapeduponthemwas food of all sorts anddescriptions.Greatdishes ofricecoloured red andyellow,andcookedwithlarge pieces of fowl or fresh fish, or withshrimps,werescatteredallabout.Beefloppedwithegg,eggsfriedinoil,Cubansteaks swimmingina rich gravy,ripeplantainsslicedthickandfried to agoldenbrown,sweetpotatoesandyamsandavocadopears-thetableswereladenwith all these.Andinthecentreofeachtable,formingasortof ridge, or backbone,was a row ofbottlesandwaterjars,andclaretdecanters,andfruit-stands filled with fruits; anddisheswithslices ofcreamcheeseandguavajellywereplacedinbetweenthosecontainingmoresolid food.Whatamixtureitwas!Wesatonbenchesrangedoneithersideofthetables,andwhilewewerebeing served I lookedaroundme.Cubansof all coloursandcomplexionswerethere-black,white,andbrown-andsomeAmericans,andaChinamanortwo. My friendfromtheSouthernStates sat next to anegro;Iglancedathisstrong-featured,ratherproud-lookingface-hedidnotseemdisturbedbytheproximity.JohnChinamaneats quickly,undisturbing,andundisturbed.Andeveryoneassistedeveryoneelse to foodanddrink,some of us talking,someeatingin silence.Here,atanyrate,wewereallona footing of equality. AttheotherFondasinCubayou will also find a mixedcompany-youcannotexclude amanfromanhotelorrestaurantinCubaonaccountof hisraceorcolour.ButinthehotelsfrequentedbyAmericantourists, Iamtoldthattheysometimeschargehighratestocertainguestswhomtheydonotwant;ortheyperhapsdiscoverthatthereisnotaspareroominthehouse.Butthepoorerestablishmentsdonot"enturetodothis;and,formypart,whenI saw aSouthernersittingsidebyside with a negro,andneartoa Chinaman,withoutevincinganydisapprobationwhatever, I feltthatatlastthelion was (temporarily)lyingdownwiththelamb.Weatewithremarkablerapidity,havinglittletimeto lose.Theplatesandglasseswereofanextraordinarythickness, of execrablepattern,andclumsybeyonddescription. Some of usbeganwith fruit, followingthisupwithfriedeggs;claretmixedwithwaterwasthefavourite drink,andfordessertwehadbananasandnativecreamcheese flavouredwithslices ofguavadulce. Itastednearlyeverything-Ipaidthepenaltyafterwards-andI confess I foundmostofitgood.Thedisheswereoilybeyonddescription,andsomeofthemeats bad atendencytosweetness;stilltheywerepalatable,andtheprice ofthebreakfastwasmoderate-anAmericandollarforeachperson.Thisrestaurant,Iunderstand,andtheothersatthedifferentstationsalongtheline,areeitherownedbyorruninconnectionwiththeRailway Company.Thewaitersat

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COUNTRYHOUSEWITHAVENUEOFROYALPALMS.

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY4SMatanzas, I noticed, too,wereSpaniards,butatthestationeating-housesfartherontheywereallChinamen;andallthecookswereChinamen.WeleftMatanzasatabouteleven o'clock,andasthetraindrewoutofthestation IagaincaughtaglimpseofthecityandofthebayintowhichtheYumuriemptiesitself.TheValley oftheYumuriis believedtobethemostbeautifulspotin allCuba;here, too,arethefamouscaves of Bellamar,greatlimestonecavernsthatreachadepthof400 feet,andwhichareoneofthetourist-shrines of Cuba.Butitisthebayof Matanzaswhichcharmedme, so calmitis,andso beauti ful isitssurfaceofblueandfrosted silver.AndhereImayremarkonthepeculiarformationof somanyoftheharboursof Cuba.Theyarenearlyall ofthemlongandnarrow,andenteredbyanarrowopening,sothatthecities builtupontheshoresofthesebayscannotalwaysbeseenfromthesea. SantiagodeCuba, for example, is socompletelyhiddenbythehillsoneithersideofthewindingchannelwhich formstheapproachto it,thatonemaypassneartothecoast,and,butforthepresenceoftheMorro Castleattheentranceoftheharbour,neversuspecttherewasa citywithinahundredmiles of it.Thesepouch-likeharboursareformedbythe erosionofthelimestonerocksbythesea.Thereef mck thatforthemostpartformstheCubancoastishardandresisting,butimmediatelybehinditis a softersubstance:hencethenumerous,narrow,protectedbaysoftheisland.Theharbourof Cienfuegos,forexample, isthoughttobeoneofthesafestintheworld:whilethatof SantiagodeCubaisoneofthemostshelteredandmostbeautifulthatIhaveever seen.AndmanyotherofCuba'sharboursmakeadmirableanchoragesfor ships. After leaving Matanzaswesettledownforajourneyof severalhours;forthoughwe shallstopatdifferentstationsalongtheline,thedestinationofmostof us is Camaguey,andthatplacewemayreachatnineo'clock to-night. My friendlySouthernerisjoinedbyanotherAmericanwhoshareshis viewsontheCubansituation,thinkingitsomewhatof ajoke;butthenewcomerismorecharitabletowardsthepeople,andso tellsmeoftheirgoodqualities,whichinformationI receivemostgratefully.Thetorporwhichfollowsafteraheavybreakfastfallsuponall of us.Itiswarminthetrain,andpresentlymanyofthepassengerssettlethemselvesdownto sleep inattitudesthatsuggestthewrithingofmenstretchedoutonbedsoftorture.Theguardcomesin,andseeingus all comfortable,oratanyrateresigned,proceedshimselftomakethebestofthesituation,andbeginstodosobysittingdown,pickinghis teeth,andspittingonthefloor.Heis aCubanbutspeaks English,andhetells youhehas lived forsometimeinCanadaandtheUnitedStates. Most oftheguardsonthislinespeakEnglish(this to facilitatetheAmerican traveller),andall ofthemarequitepreparedtogiveyou any informationintheirpowerwithaneasy familiaritywhichisnotintendedtobeoffensiveandisnotinrealityso. Still,anyoneaccustomedtothehabits of thosecountrieswherea railwayguardissupposedtokeepto himselfandnotmixon

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAfriendlytermswiththepassengers,wouldbea littlesurprisedattheconductoftheguardsonthisCubanrailwayline.Shortlyafterthisparticularonesatdownbeforeme,hepulledamangooutof hispocket,and,pealingit,threwtheskinuponthefloor. Slicing offtheheavy fleshandjudiciouslysamplingit,hebeganto talk, tellingmeaboutthecountry,andthepeople,andtheAmericans,whomhedidnotseemto love.AnotherguardwastalkingtomySouthernerwithhisrighthandrestingfamiliarlyonthelatter'sshoulder,andacigarbetweenhis lips.Everythingandeveryonesuggestedakindof lazyindifferencetoclassdistinctions,todisciplineandorder;andiftherewasnotmuchconversation,thatwaseitherbecausewewerelazyorhadnothingtotalkabout;itwas notbecausewewereproud.ThevillagesweseeafterpassingMatanzasarelarger,morenumerous,andofmoreprosperousappearancethanthosewepassedbefore.Someofthesesettlementsaretowns,andIknowofnothingmoreinterestinginitswaythanoneoftheseCubantownssetdownontherailway line,withitschurchanditsbetter-classhouses,anditshutsanditsstreetsandlanes,andperhapsa tinypark.Colontown,as Irememberit,wasatownofthebettersort:aprettyplacewithred-tiledhouses,anda plazawithastatuein it,andstreetspavedwithcobble-stonesandmacadam;aplacewithamixedpopulationofwhitesandnegroesandmestizos,whoall looked carelessandhappy,astheyslowlymovedaboutorstoodloiteringatthethresholdsoftheirdoors.ButEsperanza,situatedfartheronupontheway, wasaltogetherdifferent.Esperanza,orthevillage inEsperanzathatI saw, isperhapsa typicalCubansettlementupon'whichfortunehas smiled.Itis a mass ofroomyhutsdividedfromoneanotherbynarrowlanes.ThehutsarethatchedwiththefrondsoftheRoyalpalm,andthesidesofthemareeitherbuilt ofboardsoroftheflatend-portionofthefronds.Therearea few tiledhouses there,andachurch;butthedominantnoteofthesceneisstruckbythegrey,painted,comfortablehuts,andthepatchesofbananatreesandsugar-canenearthem.Thesunwasshiningdownuponit allasIsawitonthedayofwhichI write,andthespearsofthecane-plantgavebackthelightin flashing reflections.Abovethevillage a flock ofvultures(theJohnCrows)circledandwheeled,andjustoutsideof itsboundariesa fewhorsesandcattlestrayed.Twoorthreeshopssuppliedthecommunitywithits fewwants,andbeforethese,asbeforeeveryvillageshopin Cuba, anumberofhorsesweretetheredtothepolesthatsupporttheprojectingeves ofthelittlewoodenbuildings,eachofwhichissurroundedbyanarrowverandah.Thesevillageshopsareallthesame. Some ofthemhangoutthesignthattherethetravellermayhavefood,ormayhave hishairorbeardattendedto. I< FondayBarberia,"saysonesign; I< Ropay ArticulosdeFantasia,"saysanother.Sothatclothandclothingandfancygoodsmaybepurchasedthere,aswellascondensedmilkandbeef.

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY47I imagine, too,thattheseshopsarethegossip-housesandclubsof these settlements. Menridingfrom differentpartsoftheadjacentcountrydistrictsalightatthese places to"passthetimeofday"andhave a little talk.Thisexplainsthenumberofsaddledhorses I see here,andIcanpictureagatheringofthesecaballerosintimes ofrevolution;Icanseethemspringout oftheirhigh-peaked, hollow,richlyworkedsaddles,eachwithalongmachetehangingathis sideandaguninhishand,andallgesticulatingfiercely,anddiscussingtheall-absorbingtopicoftheday.ThenI seethemmovingoffinagroup,andtrottingacrosstheplain untiltheyareswallowedupina forest of Royal palms,ordisappearbehindthedistanthorizon.Andas I seesomeofthem,now, jacketless,good-humoured,andarmedwiththemachete, Isuspectthatina tusseltheywould not prove to be merelythejokethatmySouthernfrienddescribesthemtome.ltwas, I think,atthestationwhichwaslabelledColonthataboyled in a blindbeggar,evidentlyoneofthecherishedinstitutions ofthetown.Thecryfor almsrangplaintivelythroughthetrain,andInoticedthatbutfew persons refusedtoassistthebeggar.Thisscenewasrepeatedatmorethanone stationfartheron,andtakes placeeveryday, nodoubt.Youdonot hustlethebeggarhereanel givehimtotheguardiansofthepoor;you lookuponhimaspartofanorderedschemeof life,andgivehimyourpence,andreceivehis blessing,quiteas amatterof course.Buttherewassomethingelseacceptedas amatterof course also,whichIdidnot appreciate. Amanwentfromcartocarsellingpapersandillustratedmagazines;IthoughtI wouldbuyoneortwo,andIdidso.Hehandedmethe andon his givingmethechangeofthesilver coin withwhichIhadpaidhim, I lookedathishands.Tomyhorror, I sawthatthemanwasaleper-thesigns ofthediseasewereall toovisible-andIhadtouchedhispaperandmoney!I calledtheSoutherner'sattentionto his case,andaskedhimifleperswerenotsegregatedinCuba.Thisgavehimanopportunitytolaunchoutuponadescriptionof alltheloathsome diseases ofthecountry,andthecarelessness oftheauthorities indealingwiththem.Andhere, Iamafraid,hewasnotaltogetherwrong.Ablindbeggarledthroughthetraintopleadforalmswas a object,andillustratedtheeasy-going kindliness ofthepeople.Butaleperallowedto sellpapersonatrainwasenoughtomakeonesick.Theleprosy ofCuba,fortunately, is said tobenon-contagious;neverthelessonedoesnotfeelveryhappyforsometimeafteronehascomeintocontactwithamansufferingfromleprosyorsomeotherdangerouscontagiousdisease.SantaClara,theprovincethroughwhichonepassesafterleavingthepro vince of Matanzas, isthelargestsugardistrictof Cuba,andoneofthebestcultivated. Signs ofitsprosperitymaybeseeninthesuperiorappearanceof its peasants' huts,andinthesize of itssettlementsscatteredalongtheline. AndyetwagesarelowerinSantaClarathaninalmostanyotherpartofthe

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAisland. I say thisontheauthorityofthelatest statistics Ihavebeenable t(l obtainuponthesubject;fromthemIlearnthatwhileinCamaguey, aprovincewithonlyfourorfivesugarestates,therateofwageforanagriculturallabourerwas3s. 8d. adayin 1907, itwas2S.9td.inSantaClara.Ontheotherhand,itcosts alabourermuchlesstoliveinSantaClarathanelsewhere:theaveragecost of amonth'sboardfor alabourerinSanta Clara isputdownatabout 16s.4d.little over9S.a week.ThebestpaidworkersinCubaareunquestionablythoseemployedintobaccogrowing-butthese, of course,arenearly all skilledmen'Inthecities, too,thepriceoflabouris high,somedomesticservantsgettingasmuchas a week.WagesfluctuateinCubaas elsewhere,andastheexploitation oftheislandcontinueswageswill rise.Thecountrywillrequireamuchlargerpopulationthanithas ifitis tobedevelopedproperly,andpartofthelabourforceitrequiresmustbeattractedbyhighwages. Aftertheindependenceofthecountrywasattainedin1898, astreamofemigrantsbegantopourintoCuba.Thecensusof 1899 gavethepopulation as 1,572,799souls;thecensus of 1907 givesitas2,048,98o-analmostincredibleincrease.Nownearlyone-thirdofthispopulation livesintownsandcities of 8,000inhabitantsormore.Thismeans(stated differently)thatover 600,000personsinCubaaretownandcitydwellers;andifwe tookthetowns of 1,000inhabitantsandmore,weshould findthatthepeoplewholive intownsandcitiesnumberednearly 900,000. Manya town, however, suppliesthesurroundingcountrydistrictswithworkers;so,inspeakingofthecitydwellers,thefirst figure givenabovemorefairlyindicatestheproportionoftheurbantotheruralandagriculturalpopulation.Buteventhatproportionisentirelytoo large.TheCubanclearlylovesthelife (such as it is) to be foundinthestreetsandplazas of his towns,butthecitybredmanwillnotdomuchtowardsdevelopinghis island. As fortheCubanlabourer,althoughadmittedtobegood-humouredandimitativeandwilling. he isveryapttotake offence,andveryquicktoresenta realoranimaginedinsult. Speak hal'shly to him;andyoumayfind yourselfsuddenlyattacked;andwhenhe isarmedwithhismacheteheisnomeanantagonist.Hemayevendoworse.Hemaysetyourcane-fieldsonfire.Theknowledgethatthisis possible keepsmanya"boss"toaperfectcourtesy;nordoesthelatterresentbeingcalledbyhis Christianorhissurnamebyhis labourers.Fortheydonotmeantobediscourteous.Theymerelyfeelthattheyarequitetheequalofthemanwhoisplacedinchargeof them. IhavemetmanymenwhohavehadgangsoftheseCubansworkingunderthem,andoneandall havetoldmethesamestory.TheunmarriedCuban,theysay, is almost hopeless as aworker-asanAmericanepigrammaticallyputit, Heis allnecktieandaffection."TheCubanyouthloves a gaudy-coloured neckcloth,andhealwayswantsawomannearhim:awayfromhis wifeorhis fiancee,orthewomanwhostandstohimintherelation of wife, hedoesbadly.His

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BRINGINGCANETOTHEFACTORY.CUBA.

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY49thoughtsarealwayswith "a certainshe,"eventhoughhemaynotbeconstanttoone. Now,womenarefewerthanmeninCuba.Whilethegentlersexpreponderatesinmanyotherlands,inCubaitismorethan100,000lessthantheother,andthisalonewould be agoodreasonforthenotveryhighmoraltoneofthecountry.Solongasthisgreatdisproportioncontinues, too,theCubanwill always have a liking forthetowns,where,naturally,thewomenprefertolive.Thispreponderanceofmalesinthepopulationhasprevailedfor over acentury.Astheauthorsofthelastcensustell us, "En todos los census, losvaroneshanconstituidounamayoriadelos habitantes."In1841,58percent.ofthepopulationweremen;thisproportionbecame 51'8 percent.in 1899; in 1907 itwasputdownas52'5percent.Andthecause?Theslavetradeinthefirst place,andemigrationinthesecond.SlavescontinuedtobetakentoCubaupto1845,andmostoftheslavesimportedweremen.ShortlyafterthiscommencedtheintroductionofindenturedlabourersfromChina,andintwentyyearssome130,000oftheseworkerswerebroughttoCuba.Most ofthemweremen,andtheyweresobadlytreatedthat,in1877,theChineseGovernmentrefusedtoallowanymoreofthemtobetakentotheisland.ThereareonlyaboutII,OOOoftheseChineseinCubato.day,andthereis now alawprohibitingtheentranceofnewarrivals.Theothershaveeitherdiedorhavereturnedhome,orhavemigratedtootherlands. AstheChineseareadisappearingquantityintheCubanpopulation, Imaydealwiththeminafewwordsoncefor all.Theyareindustrious, law-abiding,andfrugal;theyarerestaurant-keepers,vegetablegardeners,andcooks. Afewworkonthesugarestates,wheretheirservicesareappreciated,fortheChinamandoesnotneglecthis work.Forexample,thecanejuicemustboilforacertainlengthof timebeforeitbecomestransformedintothecrystals'thataresentabroad.Iftheliquid ispouredouttoo soon,itisspoilt;ifallowedto boil too long,thecrystalsarenotoftherequiredsizeandquality.NowitisjustpossiblethattheCuban,attheverymomenthisattentionshouldbefixedupontheboiler,mayrememberthathewantstolighthis cigarette.ButtheChinamanstandstherewatchingwith awonderfulpatience,andattherightquarterof asecondheupsetstheboiler,andthesugarisdonetoperfection.Still,heisnotwantedinCuba.Thatisland willneverbedevelopedwiththehelpoftheChinese.Anotherreasonforthepreponderanceofthemale population ofCubaisthenumberofmaleemigrantswhichhasbeenpouringintothecountrysincetheestablishmentofCubanindependence.ThesearechieflyfromSpain,andarethemostprizedandprobablythemostvaluableelementoftheCubanpopulation.Theyaresplendidworkers,andpeacefulonthewhole,andthoughinthepastagoodnumberof thosewhowenttoCubadidnotalwaysremainthere,thelikelihood isthatthelargerportionoftheSpanishemigrantswill5

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50INJAMAICAANDCUBAsettle forgoodintheisland,wheretheywillmergewiththepeople,whoare ofthesameraceandwhospeakthesamelanguageas themselves.Itwill also beapparentthatthesteadyemigrationofSpaniardstoCubamustleadtothegradualdisappearanceofthedarkerelementsoftheCubanpopulation.Thesestrangerswill seek wivesamongstthewomenofthecoun try,andthecompetitionofthemales forthewomenwillendin avictoryforthewhitemen,who,foronething, will bebetterable tosupporttheirwives.Asamatterof fact,thecolouredelementofthepopulationhasbeensteadily'decreasinginproportiontothewhitesfornearuponacentury.Thenegronever throve inCuba-hediedthereeasily-andthe mixture oftheraceshasfurthertendedtodiminishthenumbersofthe bbck man.Sowefind to-daythatmorethantwo-thirdsoftheCubansareputdowninthecensusaswhite-adoubtfulstatement-whiletheremainderaredividedinto mestizosand blacksr thelatterbeingleast of all.Theprocessofmiscegenationwillcontinue.Cubawillsteadilybecomemorewhite,andthestrainof black blood intheveins ofthepeople will pro bably helpthemtobeartheeffects of a tropicalclimatebetterthantheyotherwise would.Itis this islandandthecolony ofPortoRicothatwill fur nishinthefuturesome most valuabledataonthequestion of white colonisation inthetropics, a question ofsomeimportancetoboththewhiteandthedarket races oftheworld. *NighthadfallenwhenthetraindrewintothestationatCamaguey.Fromthestation Ipassedintoa street, lithereandtherebyfaintlygleaminglamps..Exceptforoneortwo hotel boys,anda few victoria drivers, I saw110one:thecitywas asleep.Thecity is always asleep, as I foundwhenIwanderedaboutonthefollowingday-ithasbeensleepingfor over two centuries.Whatanimpressionitmadeuponme!Ihadreadoftheindependenceof its people, ofhowithadbeenoneofthecentresof revolution inthedayswhenCubafoughtwithSpain forindependence,ofhowitwasthe"whitest"ofCubancities,andofthesuperiorbeautyof itswomenandthebraveryofitsmen.WhatdidIexpect?Icannottell;yetwhatI saw inCamagueywassomethingIhadnotexpected;foritwas allnewto me,andstrange:a curious citywhichlivesuponthefewtraditionsithasacquiredwithtime.Itisaninlandtown, builtuponthesite ofanancientIndianvillagewhosenameitbears.ThenametheSpaniardsgaveitisPuertoPrincipe;butPuertoPrincipeis aseaporttothenorth:andthoughoncethecityitself was there, fearoftheterriblepiratesdrove itsinhabitantstomoveintotheinterior, untiltheycametowhereCamagueynowstands.Thewholeprovinceofwhichthecityisthecapital is alsoknownas Puerto-

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY51PrincipeorCamaguey.ButeventheCubanmightbea little puzzledatfirst if you spoke of itbyits Spanishdesignation.IntheWestIndiestherehasbeena conflict ofnamesas well as a conflict ofracesandnationalities,andinmanyinstancesthenativenameshave won."Cuba"itself isanIndianword,buttheisland hasbeenchristenedmanya time. Columbus called 'it"Juana,"thenitwasrenamed"Fernandina."Shortlyaftertheynamedit"Santiago,"then"Ave Maria,"then"Alfa y Omega."Buttherewasadistrictinthecentralregionoftheisland called"Cubanacan,"andthisname,truncatedto Cuba,waseventuallybestowedonthewhole country.InasomewhatsimilarmanneranIndianvillagehasgiven its nameto aprovinceandcity,andthepeopleofthispartofCubaareproudto speak of themselves as Camagueyans.ItwasearlymorningwhenIwent out intothestreetsof Camaguey,andwhatfirststruckmewasthesilencethatseemedtoreigneverywhere. A fewwomenweregoingtochurchintwosandthrees;amanortwo loiteredatashopdoor;butwhatothersignof life wasinthiscity ofthirtythousandsouls?...Yes;Iremembersome othel'thingsasI recallthatancienttown. Irememberlittlecartsdrawnbygoatsandlookedafterbyboys,whichwentaboutwithvegetablesandwithbottles of milk.AndwheretheAlamedastands,withitswithered-lookingtreesallcoveredwithdust, Irememberseeinga strayhorseortwo,andamanwhoineffectuallytriedtopersuadehimselfthathewastryingtocatchthem.Otherscenesrisebeforemelikedarkspecksonawhitecurtain.So IrememberthatI foundtheshort-circuitelectriccaraftersomesearch;andsaw a fewmorepeoplehereandthere;and-yes,Camaguey is notdeadbutsleeping;butonemaybeexcused ifatfirstoneistemptedto write ofitas dead.Thestreetsofthisinland citycurveabout, oftheirownvolition asitseems. ParallelstreetsareunknowninCamaguey;theancientfounders of this placemusthavehatedthestraightlineandlovedthecircle.Therehasbeensomeattemptatpavingthesethoroughfares;butwheretherough cobble-stoneorthemacadamends,thesandbegins;andin aCamagueyanstreetI havesunktotheanklesinsand. Most ofthehouseshereareof a single storey,andold;thewalls ofmanyofthemarecrackedanddilapidated;thelow stepsleadingtothedoors of theseplacesarenarrowandencroachuponthetinyside-walks;often,too,theyarebroken-fallento piecesthroughageanddecay.Thewoodenwindowgrillesprojectintothestreets.Theyarebigandclumsy,nothingatall liketheplainorfancy iron-workthatone sees in Havana.Wheretheyarebrokentheyhavesometimesbeenpatchedwithpiecesofcloth;butatthebesttheycannotbeintendedtosecure privacy, for Ihaveno difficultyinpeeringintotheinterior oftheliving-rooms as I passalong;andthereI seethescantilyclothedwomen lolling in rocking-chairs,andthenakedbabiescrawlingonthefloor.Thereishardlyanyfurnitureinthehouses ofthepoorersort.Oneortwotables, a bed, a fewrocking-chairs-thatistheinventory.Thehouses

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52INJAMAICAANDCUBAofthebettersort, Iamtold,arefurnishedfairlywell;butthedoorsandwindowsof allthesearekeptclosed;andsowhenIpassedthroughastreetwherearesituatedthehouses of tht'; aristocracyofthetown,itseemedtomeasthoughIwerein aplacedesertedby its people.Theonebrightthingin allCamaguey is itsliquorshops. Isawnocustomersinthem;neverthelesstheirshelveswerenotcoveredwithdustaswasthecasewiththeotherretailestablishmentsI saw.Itscathedralandchurches,largethoughtheyare,areuglybuildings,andthealtarsinthemarcdeckedoutwithartificial flowersandtawdrytinsel. IthinkitwasinthecathedralthatInoticedascoreortwoof ricketybenchespaintedblueandprovidedfortheuse ofworshippers,theentirebuildinglookingdeserted,squalid, miserable,outof repair.AndthebeautifulwomenofCamaguey?Isawjustnineofthem-or,atleast, Isawninefairly good-looking girls,andIsupposethesewererepresentative oftherest.It was atthecornerof astreet-No.35 Calle Soledad, tobeprecise,thatIcameuponsomethingthatlooked like a little shop, inwhichsomegirlsandamanweregathered.Ipeepedin ;theeaselsandpaintingsaboutshowedmeatoncethatitwasanartschool-orwhatisconsideredsuchin Camaguey-andtheagesofthepupilsmayhaverangedfromfourteentotwenty-one.Thefeaturesofthegirlswererathersharp,buttheireyeswerebrightandtheywereamerrylot;thepicturesscatteredaboutwereexecrable,andtheroomitself, a plainwoodenstructure,mustsurelyhavebeenusedforretail-tradepurposesinthenotdistantpast. Apriestdrapedinalongbrowncloakandwearingsandalson hisnakedfeetpassesupthestreet. Achildortwocomeoutof a housenearby,andruninsideagain.Everyoneseemsbentuponavoidingtheopenair:is itthatthehabitof seekingshelter-acquiredinthedayswhenthefearofpirateswasuponthepeople of thistown-hasclungtothemthroughall thesegenerations?Strollingbacktomyhotel I leanagainstthedoor,andfromhereIcanseewherethestreetendsandtheopenroadbegins.Therearenosuburbshere,nogradualtransition fromtowntocountry:oneceasesandtheotherbeginsabruptly,andthegrassgrowsroundthecity,disputing its boundarieswithit.Grassgrowsinthestreetsofthecity, in those silent,desertedstreetsthroughwhichlife moveswithsuchmonotony.Camagueyisthegreatcattle-rearingprovinceof Cuba,andin travellingthroughitonepassessavannahaftersavannahofrichparanaorguineagrass,andthousandsof cattle.Sometimesthegrassgrowssohighthatnothing else canbeseen;eventhecattlearehiddenbythelongspears.Thesoil of thisprovince is notso rich asthatofotherportionsof Cuba,beinglargelycomposedofsand;yetit serves its purpose, forCamaguey is themeat-supplyingprovinceof Cuba. Now, as Istandatthedoorofthehotelandnotewherethehousesceaseandthesandandgrassbegin, Ipictureto myself how easy it wouldbefor alltheselowandancientstructurestobeburiedandforgottendidall thesepeopleleavethecity for twoorthreeshortyears.

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRYHoweasyforruintoovertakethisplacewhichstrikessuch an un harmonious' notcinthecentreofthesegreensavannahs.Thesilenceandoppression of vastnessarealreadyuponit;yet,intheend,thecommercialspiritofthe age willconquerthespiritoftheplains;foreveninCamagueytwoorthreenewbuildingsarebeingerected,andlandagentsarethere,andaspeculationinlandhasbegun.WhoownsthelandinCuba?Cubanschiefly,butforeignersalsoownagooddealof it. Anattempthasbeenmadetoeffectlegislationprohibitingforeignersfromacquiringland;ithasprovedunsuccessful,andsothetransfcrsofpropertycontinue,muchtotheannoyanceofthosefar-seeingCubanswhoperceivethatthestrengthofthestrangerwillbechiefly in hisownershipofland.IwastoldinHavanathattheyoungerCubansarehasteningtogetridoftheirpossessions, sothattheymightgotoenjoythepleasuresofParis,Buthere,inCamaguey,Iheara ,:lifferent,and,I believe, atruertale.Itis aland-speculatorwhotellsittome,anAmericanwhoseyearlytransactionsamounttomanythousandsofpounds."TheCubanneverwillingly sells hisland,"hesays;"neversellsituntilnecessitycompelshimtodoso.Whenhecomesandoffersmesomanyacres,Iknowheis in difficulties,andI offerhimmyownprice.'Oh,no!'hesays, ,couldn'tthinkofsellingforthat,wouldmuchrathernotsell.'ButIdon'tbudge,forIknowwhatwillhappen;sohegoeshomeandtalksthematteroverwithhis wife,andturnsitoverinhismind,andintheendhecomesbacktomeandweclosethebargain.Butheonlysellsundercompulsion."ThatIbelievetobethetruth;yet,inspiteofthisreluctance,somcofthelandisbeingsold.Foronething,notmanyCubanshavecapitalenoughtodeveloptheirproperties,andthetemptationtorealiseonwhatbringsthembutlittle, ifany,profitmustalwaysbegreat. Howdothesepeoplelive?"Iaskmyinformant,aswestandtogethel'atthedoorofthehugehotelthatwasonceabarracksforSpanishtroops."Howdotheylive?IhavebeeneighteenyearsinCuba,andhavemadeitmyambitiontobethebest-informedmanintheislandonCubanaffairs. I liveinthiscity,andI likeit;Iknowagoodmanyofthepeople;yettimeaftertimeIhavefoundmyselfaskingtheverysamequestionyouhaveaskedme. IamnotsurethatIcananswerit,butI willtry.Youseethoselittlegoatcartsgoingabout?well,theygofromdoortodoorsellingvegetables,andawomanorchildwillcometothedoorandwillbuyaquarterof acabbage,oraplantain,orafewbananas,anda smallportionof fishorbeefisboughtattheshops;butit is chieflyvegetablesthatthesepeoplelive upon.""Buttheymusthavemoneytobuythese," I said."Wheredoesthemoneycomefrom?I seenooneworkinghere,andnosignsof industry.""Well,it is like this.Everymanhere,moreorless,ownsapieceoflandorafewheadof cattle. Now, afewofthemwillgointopartnership-thatis,

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54INJAMAICAANDCUBAtheywillputalltheircattleunderonemananddividethecalvesamongstthem.Thesecalvescanalwaysbesold,andsoalittlemoneycomesininthatway.Thenthereareoneortwosawmillsnearthistown,andasugarestate,andtherailwayshops. Alltheseemploy some ofthepeople.Andtheseliveuponso littlethattheydon'trequiremuchmoney.NobodyworksveryhardinCamaguey.'Thatwasobviousenough;andifthesecretof ahappylifebeaminimumofexertionandaminimumofwants,Ithinkthelowerclasses ofCamagueyhavelearntthatsecret.Greattwo-wheeledcartsdrawnbyteamsof oxencreakedpastthehotel,eachtakingoneortwohugelogs ofwoodtothesawmills.ThesecartsweredrivenbyswarthyCubans,eacharmedwithawhipwhosethick,taperingleatherthongmeasuressomethreeorfouryards.Dogssneakedabouthereandthere,bigbruteswhichmusthavedescendedfromthehoundsthatwereusedtohunttheslavesinthedaysgoneby. Ileftmyhotel,wherethethreemaleguestshadsatdowntoagameofpokerwhich(sofarasIcouldmakeout)hadbeeninprogressforaweekortwo,andstrolledtowardstheendofthestreet.ThereIfounda victoria,andtakingit,wasdrivenintotheopencountryoverwhatwasbycourtesycalled a road.Inthelast"CensusoftheRepublic"wearegiventwopictures:oneiscalled"UncaminoprimitivoenCuba,"theother,"UncaminoCubanodeconstructionmoderna."OnlythosepersonswhohavehadsomeacquaintancewithauaverageCubanroadcanunderstandwhytheCubanauthoritiesaresoanxioustoshowthedifferencebetweentheoldroadsandthosetheyarenowbuilding.TheSpaniard,whilehefoundedsubstantialandevenfine cities,systematicallyneglectedtobuildevenpassableroadsinanyofthecountrieshewonfromtheIndians.Hereandtherehepavedapath,likethefamousgoldroadacrosstheIsthmusofPanama,inorderthatthemuletrainsbearingthegoldandpreciousstonesfromtheminesmightreachthecoastsafely.Butmuletracksandnarrowpathwayscutthroughtheforestrepresentedalmostallthatwasdoneinthewayofroad-buildingforthepurposeoffacilitatingtravelandthedevelopmentofthecountry;andthis policy ofneglectingthemeansoftransititwaswhichpreventedSpainfromeasilyandcompletelysubduingtheCubanrevolutionists.TheSpanishsoldiers,thoughbrave,couldnotreachtheenemy,andsopassedmostof theil"timeinthetowns.Theenemy,knowingeveryinchofthecountryandallthedefiles ofthehills,mockedattheefforts oftheGovernment.So,froma military as well asanagriculturalstandpoint,somegoodroadswouldhaveprovedablessingto Spain. As IplungedandjoltedoverthestretchofearththatformcdthcCamagueyanroad,andsawthedeeptrenchesdugoutbytherains,andthegreatholeshereandthere,andthehillockseverywhere;asoneveryhandwasvisibleanabsolutedisregardfortheconveniencesofcommunication;as Iperceivedthatwhentherainsfellthisroadmustbeentirelyimpassablebymanorbeast;I feltthatatanyratetheAmerican

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY55hadrenderedgoodservicetoCubabyinstitutingasystemofmodernroad building.Nexttosanitation, this wasoneofthereal benefits oftheAmericanoccupation.Justoutsideofthecity,hoveringontheboundariesof it,andperhapsofficiallyincludedaspartof it,standsasettlementof huts.Oneortwogreattreesovershadowthem,andthenear-byshopmarkstheircomparativeindependenceoftheretailersofthetown.Imentionthemparticularly, for Inoticedthewidegapsinthesides ofthesehuts, Isawwherethenailshadgiven,andhowtheroughplanksofunpainted,weather-beatenwoodhadfallenapartfromoneanother,andIwonderedwhynoonehadtroubledtomaketheseplacesdecentoncemore,andwhythepeopleshouldbecontentedtoendurethediscomfortsofrainandwindwhena littleexertionmightmakethemcomfortable.Itcouldnotbepovertythathadcausedthesehutsto fall to ruin. Isawbreadfruitandbananatreesgrowingnearthem;thedogsthatprowledarounddidnotlookill-fed;goatsandpigssearchedforfoodhereandthere,andhorsesweretetheredunderthetreesortobrokendownremainsofwhatoncemayhavebeenfences.Itwasnotpoverty,itwasindolence-itwasthespiritofmananaandthespiritofsleepthathadbroughtaboutthisgeneralneglect;andyetonewouldhavethoughtthatthemiserywhichtherainyseasonsmustinevitablybringwouldhaverousedanyonetoasenseofthenecessityofmakinghishabitationrain-tight.Whentherainsfall heavily, astheydoinMayandJuneandinOctoberin Cuba,thehardearthoverwhichthesehutsarebuiltmustbecomesodden,andinthismudtheirownersmustwalkorstand.Yeta fewplankslaiddownandnailedtoabeamortwowouldconstitutesomesortof flooring.Butnooneseemstothinkof it,andinCubatherearehundredsofdwellingslikethese.Idon'twondernowthatconsumptionisprevalentinCuba.AndnowwhenIcometo lookbackuponitall, IthinkthatthemostinterestingthingIsawinCamagueywas itscemetery,forthatseemedtotypifytheplace.TherearetwogreatburialgroundsinHavana,andone,whichI visited,containsmanysplendidmonumentsandthemausoleumsofsomeoftheoldestfamilies ofCuba.But, I was told, youeitherboughtapieceofburiallandfor alargesumofmoney,oryourenteditfor somanyyears-fiveyearsfortendollars-andif youdidnotrenewyourleasethebonesofthepersoninterredweretakenoutandcastintoaditch-asortofmodernGolgothamadeupoftheskullsandtheskeletonsofthepoor.IntheEspadaCemeteryofHavanaarenicheswhichmayevennowberentedfor atermof years,andall overCubathissystemofgraverentingprevails.ButaCubanguide-bookinformedme(withmuchevidentsatisfactiononthepartofthewriter)thatinCamagueyonecouldrentagravefortwentyyears,afactwhichismentionedtoshowthattheCamagueyanshavegreatrespectforthedead,andlove tothinkofthemaftertheyarelaidto rest.InscribedinLatinabovethegateoftheCamagueyanCemeteryI visitedwerethewords:"BlessedarethedeadwhodieintheLord."Theimpressivetext,

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAthesilence,theshadowscastuponthegravesandtombsasthelightcloudstrailed slowlyacross the sun,theblack-clothedwomanandchildhangingawreath upon a family vault,andweepingsilently,therustleamongthegrassandweeds as agreatlizardranfromonegravetoanother,andtheoccasional shrillshriekof ablackbirdhoveringamongthebranchesof a tree,...I shallneverforgetit all, so sadandsoappealingitwas,andsosymbolicofthisstillsleepingcity,andperhapsalsooftheancientIndianvill:.ge ofwhichonenowremembersbutthename. I was toldthatthetrainwould leave Camaguey for SantiagodeCubaat12.20;so Iwenttothestationatthathour,andwaited until long ;'dst oneo'clockbeforethetrainarrived.Here,atanyrate,weremanysigns of life. About ahundredpersonshadgatheredto seesometenmenandwomenleave forotherpartsofthecountry,andthesestrolledaboutandlounged,andfromtheappearanceofmostofthemIgatheredthattheyweretheloafers ofthetown. Most ofthemhadjustenoughenergyto live.AndthoughCamagueymaybethewhitest ofCubancities,thepersonswhofrequentits railway stationareof all colours,mostofthembeingswarthy,manylookingemaciated.A black policeman strollsnonchalantlyupanddown, a blackwomanlovingly caresseshernakedbabyas she pullsatthestumpof a cigar, amanwhorentsastandonthestationsells sweetdrinksandbrandyandclaret to thosepersonswhowantto buy.Healonedisplayssomeenergy;therestof usarelanguid, indifferent.Butat lastthescreamof asteamwhistle isheard,andshortlyafterthetraincomesin.Thosewhoaretoleave by it taketheirseats,andpresentlyweareleavingthecity ofCamagueybehind.And10!it hasputonanewappearance, forthereitstandsinthedistance, red-roofed, substantial-looking, withitschurchtowers soaring serenelyuptowardsthesky.Itstandsthere, for alltheworldlike a prosperous.opulentcity,andwhile Istareandwonderatthemiragewhichdistanceandanewpointof view havecreated,itslowly fadesfrommysight. *.* Onceagainwewereamongthefieldsandplains,andCamagueybecamebutanincidentinthisjourneythroughtheisland of Cuba.Andnowthemonotonyofthescenerybegantopalluponme, as hourafterhourpassedandstill we sawthesametypeof settlements,thesamesortof towns,thesamerolling savannahs,andtheeternalunvariegatedgreenofthecountryside.Nowandthenwepasseda forest,with its thick,tangledundergrowth,andthatwasarelief;butweknewthatitwouldnotbebeforenightfallthatweshouldreachtheeasternendof Cuba,withitsmountainsandvalleysanditsnobleforestsanditsmurmuringstreams.Andas we travelledeastwardtheheatincreased,andtowardseveningwefound ourselves inthemidstof a terrific storm.Thislasted an hour,andwhentheskiesclearedafewstarspeepedout,andthenthemooncameupandlightenedthedarknesswith a faint silver glow.

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ACOUNTRYSCENE,CUBA.

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY57Whenshould wereachSantiago?I was positivelyinformedinHavanathatatrainleavingCamagueyattheusualhourwould arrivebetweennineandteno'clockatnightatSantiago.ButafternighthadcomeonInoticedthatthetrainhadsloweddownconsiderably,andwasevenstoppingeverynowandthen.Thesestoppagesmightbeincludedintheregularitinerary-butthentheymightnotbe. So IthoughtI would asktheguardwhenwewerelikely toreachourdestination."Atten-oreleven-ortwelve,"hetoldme,pausingthoughtfullyas hementionedeachhour,perhapswiththeideaof givingmetimeto choosethehourI fancied most.Ten,oreleven,ortwelveo'clock;andtheproperhourwasnine!Iinquiredof afriendlypassengerifthistraineverkepttoitstime table.Heassuredmethatitdid-sometimes.AndthenIlearntthecause ofthepresentdelay.Somethinghadgonewrongwiththeengine,andwhenthetrainwentatits usualspeedtherewasdangerof fire.Thereasonwhyitstoppedso often,andblewitswhistle (asitnowoccasion ally did), wasbecauseanothertrainwascomingintheoppositedirection,andsotherewasthepossibility of a collision."Andwe wouldtelegraph,"addedtheguard,"onlythetelegraphwiresaredown." Achapterofaccidents,truly;butIwastoldthattherereallywasnotmuchtocomplainof."For,"saidthepassengerwhohadspokenalready,"sometimesthebridgesaresweptaway,andwehavenoknowledgeofituntilsomethingbeginstohappen.Youcannevertellwhatmaynothaveoccurredduringa heavyrainhere."Thiswasnot exactly reassuring,andIbeganto feelthatCubantravelhadmanydisadvantages. Iboughtacupof black coffeefroma boywhowentaboutthetrainwitha kettleanda wirebasketinwhich,onlittle hooks, anumberoftinycupswerehung.AfterwardsIwenttothecompartmentwherehe satandaskedhimforsomebeer:heopenedthebottleandhandedittome-therewerenoglasses on thetrain. Iwentbacktomyseat,and,sittingdown,lookedoutofthewindow.Itwasteno'clock,wewereintheprovinceof Oriente,thelargestprovinceinCuba;butIcaughtno glimpse of hillsorvalleys. Isawnothing.Everythingwaswrappedinsoftdarknessaswithamantleorashroud.Somewhereontheroad,atoneoftheside stations,wepassedthetrainwhichmighthavecollidedwithus,andthereforewererelievedofthatanxiety.atanyrate.Teno'clockpassed;theneleven. Imusthave fallenasleepafterthat;forthenextthingIheardwasa voiceaskingmeifIwantedaboytotakemythingsto a hotel.WasthisSantiago?No;Santiago wasthenextstation:I shouldbethereinaveryfew minutes.AndhalfanhourafterwardsI wasindeedinthecity of Santiago. I lookedatmywatch.Itwastwo o'clock. SantiagodeCuba,situatedatadistanceof 869 milesfromHavanabytheCubanrailroad, isnexttoHavanathemostimportantcityintheisland of Cuba.Drivingthroughitsstreetsattwoo'clockinthemorningIrememberedthatfact;whenI sawitinthelightofdayInotedalsothatitwasvery unlike Havana. Istayedatthebesthotelinthecitythatnight,andseveralincidentsoccurredwhichhave

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAcausedmetorememberthatexperience.First,therewastheheat:onlyinColonandPanamahaveIfoundithotterthanin SantiagodeCuba.Thentherewerethecats,whichkeptupa livelydisputeamongstthemselves untilaboutfour o'clock inthemorning.Aftertheyhadretired(whethertorestornotIdonotknow)somemeninthestreet,whichmybedroomoverlooked,begananargument,fromwhichmyattentioncouldonlybedivertedbytheshrillpipingofthemosquitoes inmyroom. I fell asleepwhenthedawnwasbreaking,andwasrathergladthattheporterdidnotcometo callmeupatsix o'clock, ashehad most faithfullypromisedto do.Henevercamenearmeatall-asamatterof fact,hesimplypromisedandforgot.LateronIwastolearnthattotrustto the memoryof a hotelservantinSantiagodeCubawasto place one's faithinsomethingapparentlynon-existent.IfinHavanathemajorityofthepeopleonemeetsarewhiteorlight-hued,inSantiagothemajorityareblackordark-coloured.TheprovinceofOrienteistheoneprovinceofCubawherethenegroesoutnumberthewhitesandthewomenoutnumberthemen;its capital is alsooneofthehottestofCubancities.Thecity of Santiago hasinthepastbeena mostimportantadministrativeandrevolutionarycentre.Itis builtontheside of a hill,andso itsstreetsrunupanddownatsteepgradients,orterminatesuddenlyagainsthighbanksofearth,orbreakawayinprecipitousdescentsof some 30or40 feet. Youstandatthetopof astreetandlookdownattheshopsandhousesoneitherhand.A littlefurtheroninthesamestreet,andyouarelookinguptowardsmorehousesandmoreshops. I have amemoryoftheArchbishop'sPalace:that, too,climbsthehillonwhich,itis built. Irememberseeingapublicschoolnearthehospital, ahandsomestructurewhichtheAmericanssaywastheworkofGeneralWood.Itoverlooksthehospitalfromthetopofaneminence.Andsoonofnearlythewholecity;onlyalongtheseafrontisthereanythinglike a fairlycontinuousstripof level land.Onestreetofthecity,indeed,consists of seven flights ofconcretesteps, fourstepstoeachflight,andeachflightendingonabroadplatform. Similarconstructionswill have to beprovidedinotherpartsof Santiago ifoneistomovefreelyfromonepartofthecity totheother.ForhereandthereI havecomeupongreatmasses ofearthovergrownwithgrassandweeds,andupthesteepsides ofwhichagoatalonecanclimb.WhatimpressiondidSantiagodeCubaleaveonme?ThisiswhatIhadreadof itinaCubanguide-book:"Itis to-daycleanandhealthy,andoneofthemostalluringanddelightful cities to visitonthisside of the Atlantic." Ifounditoneofthemostunhealthy-looking places Ihadeverseen,andoneofthedirtiest.TheyhavebeendoingmuchtocleanSantiago,andalreadyaportionof itsstreetshavebeenpaved.Butmostofthemareunpaved,andsomeare

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY59simplythefilthiest ofgutterswithno side-walksandwithhardlyadryspotonwhichonemayplaceone's feet.IntheCaIleSanPedro,Iremember,Ihadto walkbetweenthecar-lineswhichwerelaidonatrackspeciaIlypavedforthepurpose.Oneithersideweretrenchesa footormoredeep,andthesewerefiIledwithslimeanddecayingvegetablematterandwithsoapwaterwhichgaveoff a horrible stench.Noteveninthecity ofPanama,in itsworstdays,hadI seenanythingtoequalthis. Most ofthehousesinSantiago lookoldanddilapidated,andthestepsleadingtothemhaveencroacheduponthenarrowstreets. Sothatanunpavedstreetrepresentstothenewcomerthelastwordofwretchedness.Yet as IheardmanypipesbeingplayedbymusicalmindedpersonsinSanPedroStreet, Isupposethatanysympathyexpendeduponthepeopleof Santiago wouldberesentedas animpertinence.IfIhadseenscores of nakedbabiesintheyardsofHavana,inthesettlementsalongtheline,andattherailwaystationatCamaguey, IwastoseetheminhundredsinSantiago.Theyweremostly black here,andtheytrottedaboutinthebackstreetsandbesportedthemselvesonthedoorstepswithallthemodestythatcomesofinnocence.Themenandwomenofthecity, however, lookedprosperousenough;andtheshopsfilledwithmerchandise,andthestirinthestreetsandtheindependentdemeanouroftheinhabitantsoftheplace, allshowedmethatSantiagodeCubawasathrivingcityandthecapitalofawealthyprovince.ThecopperminesofCubaaresituatedbuta few milesfromthetown,andtheoreisshippedfrom Santiago.Thebananaindustryiscarriedoninthisprovince,hardwoodsarecutandexported,andcoffee, cocoa,andsugararegrown.Withits high hillsanddeepvaIleys, its moistheatandcopiousrain faIl,theprovinceofOrientewiIlonedayproducemagnificentcropsofeverykindof tropicalproduct.Itspeoplehavegreatfaith initsfuture;they,indeed,caIl themselves Cubans,andcalltheircityCuba:theotherpeopleoftheislandtheyalludetobythenameoftheprovincesfromwhichtheycome."WearetheCubans," saidoneoftheinhabitantsof Santiago to me."TheonlyArchbishopinthecountryistheArchbishopof Santiago,andthiscitywasthefirstcapitaloftheisland." AIl ofwhichistrueenough;butHavanawillneverlose its primacy.Foronethingthegeographicalsituationof Santiago is nottobecomparedwiththatof Havana,eventhoughitliesinthetrackofthePanamaCanal.ThenitspeoplearemorebackwardthantheHavanese;andthecity itself, with its50,000souls,canneverequalHavanainsalubrity,norcanexistence beeveraspleasantthereasinthecapitalcityoftheisland.Indeed,this cityofSantiago,despiteits historyandtheaspirations of its people, still giveseveryindication ofbeingbutatropicalprovincial city.Andthedominantnoteofitall is agood-natured,lazyindifference;thus,insomeofthebarbershopsI seewomensucklingtheirbabies,andinsomeof the smaIler provisionshopsI seehalf-clothedchildrensittingcontentedlyuponthe

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60INJAMAICAANDCUBAcounters.AndinthestreetsIcomeupongroupsofhorsemenfromthesurroundingcountrydistricts,allcontentedlyhavinga talk,andapparentlyquiteoblivious ofthefactthatthepedestriansmightresenttheirblockingoftheway.SantiagodoesnotsleeplikethecityofCamaguey.Herethereissomeworktobedone,andthepeopledoit.Buttheydoitin awayoftheirown,andalways(asitseemedtome)witharocking-chairnearathand.Itisnotacitythathustles.Butitcontainspoliticians inabundance,andifthereiseveranytroubleinCuba,Santiagowillparticipatein it. IwasbookedtoleaveforJamaicabytheweeklyserviceboatwhichconnectsKingstonwithSantiago,andIwasinformedthatthevesselwouldleavethewharfattwelveo'clocksharp.Attwentyminutesto twelve,accordingly,Iwasonboard,thearrangementwithmyhotelbeingthatmyluggageshouldprecedemebyatleast an hour.Butrememberingmyexperiencewiththehotelporter,IthoughtIwouldinquireifthethingshadarrived.Theywerenowheretobefound.Nobodyontheshiphadseenorheardanythingofthem.HadIanytimetospare?Iaskedthepurser."Fifteenminutes,"hesaid;thevesselwouldleavepromptlyonthestrokeof twelve. Ihadtomakeupmymindbetweentheriskofbeingleftbythevesselorlosingmyclothes.Ideterminedtotaketheriskknowingthat"promptly"mightmeananythingin Santiago. Idroverapidlytothehotel,andwasatfirstassuredthatmytrunkshadbeentakentotheship,sincethecartmanhadsaidthathewouldtakethem.Thatfaithfulservant,onmyearnestrecommendation,wassoughtforandfound.Hewasverysorry,buthehadquiteforgottenmyluggage.Hecouldnotunderstandhowhehadforgottenit; itwasthemostextraordinarythingintheworld.Infact,thewholeaffairseemedtoappealtohiminthelightof amosthumorousincident,andheevidentlyexpectedtobetippedfor his forgetfulness. Iwentbacktothewharf,tremblingwithanxietyastowhetherIhadbeenleftbehind,andinmyhurryIgavethecab-drivera five-dollarinsteadof aonedollarbill. Irushedonboard,happythatIhadsecuredmybaggageandhadnotmissedtheboat.Whenshouldweleave?Iinquired;"Immediately,"Iwasgravelyinformed.Itwasthenhalf-pasttwelveo'clock.Weleftattwo.Whilewaitinguntilweshouldimmediatelyleave, Ihadtimetoreflectuponthepeculiarmonetarysystemof Cuba.\VheninHavana,IhadfoundthatSpanishandAmericanandevenFrenchmoneycirculatedfreely,whileall thecityweretheshopsofthemoney-changerswho,tojudgebythenumberofthem,mustdoanactivebusiness.Cubahasnocurrencyofherown,Spanishgoldandsilverhavingbeenthecoinageoftheislandforcenturies.AmericanmoneywasalwaysacceptedinCuba,andoftenAmericangoldwasatahighpremium;then,withtheindependenceoftheisland,cameapropositiontomaketheAmericandollarthestandardcurrencyofthecountry.Thispropositionhasnotbeenactedon,andinHavanaIfoundthattheSpanishcoinagestillheldfirst place,intheretailbusinesstransactionsofthecityatanyrate. Mysurprise

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THEPEOPLEANDTHECOUNTRY61maythereforebeimaginedwhenIfoundtheywouldnotacceptSpanish silver frommeintheshopsof SantiagodeCuba. Andeverywhereinthatcityyouwill findthesellersdemandingAmericanmoney.Indeed,althoughit isbutlittlemorethantenyearssinceSpanishsoldiersswarmedinthestreetsof SantiagodeCuba,theSpanishcoppercoinsseemedto havecompletelydisappeared,for some ofthepeopletowhomIshowedthemdidnotknowwhattheywere. I gave a boysome;hehandedthembackto me, sayingthatnot even themoney-changerswouldhavethem.YetinHavanatheyarethemeansbywhichall smallpurchasesaremade.Theinconvenienceofthisrefusal toacceptSpanishmoneyin Santiago will bebetterunderstoodwhenthereaderistoldthatthesmallestAmericannickle coininuse inthecity is a five-centpiece;sothatifanyarticlecostsbutacentyoumustpurchasefiveata time,ortake asortof promissorynoteinlieu ofthechangefromthepettyretailer.Theshopsmustbenefitimmenselybythelack ofcoinsof a smalldenomination,for I noticlld thattheyinsistedonselling apairofthingsfor five cents,onthegroundthatitwasimpossibletosellonealone.WhytheGovernmentofCubadoesnotmakeSpanish coins legaltenderinSantiagoaswell asinHavanais aproblemthatperhapsonlytheCubanmindcansolve.PerhapstheAmericanswill eventually settle thiscurrencyquestion for theCubans.

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CHAPTERIVTHEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANSITwasatthePayretTheatreinHavanathatIwitnessed onenighta significantdemonstrationofCubanpolitical feeling. Severalitemsoftheprogrammewereperformed;thencamearatherprettyfeature oftheevening'sentertainment.Thisconsisted of abandof girlsmarchingroundthestage tothetuneofthenationalanthemsoftheleadingcountriesofEuropeandAmerica,anddisplayingbymeansof littlewhiteshieldsthenamesoftherulers ofthesecountries.Oneachshieldwaspainteda letter,andasthegirls movedroundthestagetothesoundofthemusic,theseletterswerearrangedto formthenameofeachruler.Oneafteranotherthenationalanthemswereplayed;thencamethe Marseillaise,andIthinkIdetecteda faintmurmurofappreciationfromthespectators. II YankeeDoodle"followed,andthenameof II WilliamTaft"stoodoutinboldlettersontheshields:itwasreceived indeadlysilence.ThefirstbaroftheSpanishanthemnextcamefromtheorchestra,andthelettersheldinfrontof usspeltout II AlfonsoXIII."Youmighthavethoughtthatthatmonarchhimselfhadenteredthetheatre!Menandwomen,theaudiencebrokeintoloudcheering,andIdonotthinktheycheered Jose Miguel Gomez,Presidentof Cuba, more,whenhisnamefollowedthatoftheyoungsovereign of Spain.Tenyearsagotheywould have hissed AlfonsoXIII.andapplaudedthePresidentoftheUnitedStates.ButtheglamourofAmericaninterventionhaspassed,thesoberreality ofAmericandominationhas daily tobefaced.Andthispeoplewhofoughtfortheirfreedomandwhohopedforcompleteindependencefearnowthattheyhavebutmadeanexchangeof masters. Thefutureis dark," said aCubantomeoneday(hehadbeentheheadofanimportantrevolutionaryJuntainthelastrevolution); II thefuture isverydark."Wewerein SantiagodeCuba,andhewasshowingmeanewsuburblaidoutbytheAmericansandbeingbuiltintheAmericanstyle.Heseemedtothinkthateventhissuburbcontaineda vague,darkhintofthefuturethatthreatened-itwasAmerican,anditsignifiedthepresenceoftheAmericansintheland.62

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANSButtounderstandtheCubansituation to-day wemustgobacka little intothehistory ofthepast.InmyopeningremarksI told ofhowCubahadcometo winthetitle of"TheEverFaithfulIsland,"Thistitlewasbestowedupontheislandbecauseofthefamousoathof fealtywhicheverymemberoftheProvincial Councils sworetotheirtruesovereignsafterINapoleonhadexpelledthemfromthethroneofSpain;butwhenthelegitimatedynastywasrestored,theCubansdiscoveredthattheyhadto dealwithmenwhowereincapableof ruling,andwith anationtowhomthebitterlessons of colonial misfortunehadtaughtno wisdom.In1825cametheroyaldecreethatstrucksoterribleablowattheaspirations of thoseCubanswhohadhopedforsomeprogresstowardspolitical freedom.Thatdegreegave totheGovernor-General ofCubaallthepowersandauthoritybelongingtotheGovernorof a city in astateof siege.Itgave to him"themostampleandunboundedpower, not only tosendawayfromtheislandanypersonsinoffice,whateverbetheiroccupation, rank, class,orcondition, whose continuancethereinyourExcellencymaydeeminjurious,orwhoseconduct,publicorprivate,mayalarmyou,replacingthemwithpersonsfaithfultohisMajesty,anddeservingof alltheconfidenceofyourExcellency;butalso tosuspendtheexecution ofanyorderwhatsoever,oranygeneralprovisionmadeconcerninganybranchof the administration, as yourExcellencymaythinkmostsuitable totheroyal service."Thosewords,conferringthepowerof adespotupontheGovernor-General of Cuba,proclaimedalsothedoomofthesovereignty of Spaininthelast ofhergreatAmericanpossessions.Twoyearsbeforethepromulgationof this royaldecree,anuprisinghadactually beenattempted,buthadbeenpreventedwithnogreatdifficulty. Afterthepromulgationofthedecree,revolutionarysentimentspreadapace,anddiscontentwithSpanishdominationgrew.Butthecurseofslavery wasupontheland;atthebackofeverywhiteman'smindwas the fearthata revolutionary movementoncestartedmightlead tothefreeing oftheslaves;andtheterriblewarningof Hayti,theislandnot50 milesfromCuba, was sufficient tomaketheCubanshearinimpotentrageatyrannyfromwhichtheywouldotherwisehavetriedto free themselves. SothecauseofCubanindependencelanguished,butwasneverwholly forsaken.Theill-fatedexpeditionsofNarciscoLopez,theVenezuelan,andColonelCrittenden,theAmerican,showedthatthemoredaringspiritsinCubawerepreparedtomakeanefforttowardsthefreedomoftheirnative land.Thesehadplannedto joinLopezandCrittenden,buttheformer,althoughheactuallylandedatCardenasin1850,hadtore-embarkhismenandwasnearlycapturedby aSpanishwarshipashefled to KeyWest.ThenextyearhelandedagainonCubansoilandfoughta disastrousbattlewiththeSpanishtroopsnearHavana.CrittendenandhisAmericanassociateswereshot,LopezwasgarrotedontheSeptemberI,1851.

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IN JAMAICAANDCUBAApeacethatwasnotpeaceenduredforovertwentyyears.Inthemeantimeoppressiongrew,andmisgovernmentmultiplied its evil effects. Taxeswereenormously high,andtheproceedsofthemwentintothepocketsoftheSpanish officials chiefly. Once, as in1877,theamountraised in taxesamountedtotheextraordinarysum of,000,000 ($60,000,000),andthisin acountrywhereproductionwashamperedbylackofcommercialfreedombecauscof Spain's insistencethatCubamustbuywhatsheneededfromSpain!Thepopulationatthattime, too, onlyamountedto1,509,000persons. A yearlycontributionof$6,000,000wasmadeto theSpanishTreasury,Spain's Colonialsystembeingbasedupontheprinciplethatthecoloniesmustassistthemothercountry.FromProfessorRobertHill's"CubaandPortoRico"Itakethefollowingstatementofhowtherevenueraised in1884wasexpended.Itamountedto$34,269,410."Ofthissum, $12,574,485 waspaidforoldmilitarydebtsincurredbySpain insuppressingCubanoutbreaksandotherwiserivetingtheshacklesoftyrannyupontheCubanpeople; $5,904,084 fortheMinistry ofWar; $14,595,096 ornearlyone-halftherevenue, forsupportingSpaniards, asfollows:pensionsofSpanishofficers, h68,000; payofretiredSpanishofficers,$918,500;salaryof Captain-General,$50,000;salaries of colonial officials (all Spaniards),$1O,II5A20;churchandclergy(all Spaniards),$379,757;military decorations (toSpaniardsonly),$5,000;payof gendal-merie (all Spaniards),$2,537,II9;expensesofSpain's diplomaticrepresentativesto allAmericancountriesexcepttheUnitedStates, $121,300. Thisleft,195,745fortheordinaryadministrationoftheisland,suchas education,publicworks, sanitation,thejudiciary, &c."Byonebudgetwe mayjudgetherest.Theisland wasgovernedbymilitarymen;everyGovernor-GeneralhadtoholdtherankofLieutenant-GcneralintheSpanishArmy;thegovernorsofthesixprovincesofCubawereall generals,andtherewerethirty-foursubordinateadministrative positions called captaincies,andthesealsowereheldbyofficers oftheArmy.Theposition of Spain inhercolony was,infact,thatof aconqueror;yettheCubansweremainlypeopleofSpanishdescent.Withaveryfew exceptions, however,tobeborninCubawastobecountedas a Cuban,andtobecountedas aCubanwas tobetreatedwith injusticeandsuspicion.Sucha situationcouldnotpossibly last.Thesignal of revolt was given in1867;by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, awealthyplanterandlawyerofSantiago,whoheadedthefirst rising.ThusbegantheterribleTenYears Revolution.In1868adeclarationofindependencewasformerlyproclaimed,andin1869aconstitutionwasadoptedbytherevolutionists.Theconstitutiondecreedtheabolition of slavery.Thiswas a wise provision.Ithelpedto winthesympathyofthenegroforthecause of freedom,andstrucka blowatthepolicymaintainedbytheGovernmentofpittingwhiteagainst black.Theonethingto thecreditof Spain inCubawasherlegislation affectingtheslaves. Slavery wasnotonlydefinitely abolished in1884,butthenumberof slavesthen

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANSsetfreewasmerely25,000.Longbeforethis,repeatedenactmentshadamelioratedtheconditionoftheslaves:theyhadtherightof marriage,theycould insistuponbeingtransferredfromonemastertoanotheriftheyso desired,theycouldpurchasetheirfreedombypayingthepurchasemoneyininstalments,andtheirvaluewasfixedbyadisinterestedtribunal.Then,aboutthesametimeasthebeginningoftheTenYearsRevolution, alawwas passedgivingfreedomtoeverychildwhoshouldbebornof a slave,andtoeveryslave of sixty years of age.Freenegroes, too,wereallowedtobeararmsas volunteers, a privilegedeniedtowhite Cubans.Thefollowers of Cespedesthereforeactedwithwisdomwhen,bytheirconstitutionadoptedatGuaimaro,theyproclaimedtheabolition of slaveryunderthe"CubanRepublic."Buttherevolutionwasill-fated. Yearafteryearthestruggledraggedwearily on,buttheCubanswerenotrecognisedas belligerents,andsoarmsandammunitioncouldonlybebroughtintotheislandbyfilibusters,andfoodandmoneycouldonlybeobtainedbytherevolutionists levyingcontributionsontheplanters.Therevolutioncametoanendin1878.Itsenergyhadperhapsbeenalreadyexhausted,andthismayhavebeenthereasonwhyitsleaderssoreadilylistenedtotheoverturesofGeneralCampos, whose policy,onhisarrivalinCuba,hehadproclaimedtobeoneof conciliation.Promisesof rdorm weremadebytheSpanishGovernment,whichafterwardsprovedillusory.Andthetotalresultofthestrugglewasanexhaustedandalmostruinedcountryandanappallinglossoflife. Spain is saidtohave lostbetweeneightyandonehundredthousandmenintheTenYearsRevolution, whilethecost ofthewaramountedto ,000,000.ThiswaschargedtotheCubanTreasury,and,in consequence, taxeswereincreased. SothegulfthatseparatedtheSpaniardsfromtheCubanswidenedanddeepened;andmanyofthenatives whohadfledfromtheislandduringtherevolutionrefusedtoreturn.Some settledinJamaica,othersindifferentpartsof Spanish.America;butthevastmajoritymadetheUnitedStatestheirtemporaryhome,andtheretheyorganisedthemovementthatwasfinallytoleadtotheoverthrowoftheSpanishpowerinCuba. Juntas,orrevolutionary committees,wereformedinCuba,intheUnitedStates,inJamaica,inCosta Rica,inSanto Domingo,andelsewhere.TheheadquarterswereinNewYork.Fundswereraised,armssecretlypurchased,andthenonFebruary24, 1895, ashadbeenarrangedby Jose Marti,"theApostleofFreedom,"thestandardof revolution washoistedinCuba.Thistimethemajorityofthesoldierswerenegroes,andtwo oftheleadersofthemovementwerethe Maceos, mulattoes both.TheTenYearsWarhadbeenmainly awarof whitemen;nowall classesandcolourswereunitedinthestrugglefor freedom.Oneofthefirstactsoftherevolutionistswasto form a ProvisionalGovernment,andMartihavingbeenkilledatthebeginningofthewar, aCamagueyangentlemanofnobledescent,theMarquis6

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66INJAMAICAANDCUBASalvador Cisneros yBetancourt,waselectedpresidentoftherepublic.Hewasawhiteman. So was Maximo Gomez,theCommander-in-Chief oftheArmy.Buthis second incommandwasAntonio Maceo,andthroughoutthewarnegroesandwhitemenfoughtsidebysideforthecommoncause.Andtheblackmanwasthecommonsoldier,onhimfellthebruntofthefighting. Slaveryhadnotbredinhima savagehateofhismaster;andsowhenthewhitemanappealedtohimhedidnotappealinvain.Therevolutionlastedthreeyears.Thewarwascarriedonwithsingularfiercenessonbothsides. At first General CamposwassentfromSpaintodealwiththerebels,andheagainendeavouredtotrytheeffects of a policy of conciliation.Butthistimetheinsurgentleaders wouldnotlisten to him,andall hisattemptstoconfinetheirforces toonepartoftheisland,andthentoforcethemto a decisiveengagement,failed completely.Theyeludedhis troops,theybrokethroughhis lines,theyfelluponsmallbandsof Spanish soldiersanddestroyedthem,andtheylaid wastethecountryastheymoved.Theplanoftherebelswas tomakeCubaanunprofitableplaceforSpaintohold, evenatthe cost ofthedevastation ofthecountry.Everytownorvillagethatdidnotshowactivesympathywiththecause ofCubaLibrewas destroyed, sothatitwasbetterto jointherebelsthantoremainneutral.Thehorrorofthesituation forthepeacefulpeasantmaybeimagined;for ifhewasleft alonebytherebels, he fellunderthe suspicion oftheGovernment.Camposhavingfailed,theterribleNicolaWeylerwassenttotakehis place.Hewasknownas"thebutcher,"andhepromptlyproceededtoshowhowwell hedeservedthename. Sothattheinsurgentsshould find as little aid as possible,andwitha view ofstrikingterrortotheheartsoftheCubans, hegatheredthepeopleofthecountrydistrictsintoconcentrationcamps, military zoneswheretheycouldbewatchedbysoldiers,andwheretheywereorderedtogrowfood asbesttheycould. Ihavewalked inoneoftheseoldconcentrationcampsinHavana.To-dayitis aparkfilledwithpalm-treesandfloweringshrubsandplashingfountains. A littlemorethantenyearsagoitwas filledwithemaciatedmenandstarvingwomenandchildren.Thefilthandwretchednessofthesecampswas indescribable:manythousandsofpersonsperishedin them.InthemeantimeplantationsandrancheswerebeinggiventothetorchandtheswordbySpaniardandCubanalike,andthecivilised worldwonderedwhenthecarnagewouldcease. Several oftheCubanleaders,including Jose Maceo,were slain. GomezandGarciastillcontinuedthestruggle.Theinsurgentsendeavouredtosecurerecognition asbelligerentsfromtheUnitedStates,butcouldnotsucceed. Spain, however,hadreceived a clearwarningfromAmericain1896whenPresidentCleveland saidinhis message to CongressthatthetimemightcomewhenconsiderationsofhumanitymightconstraintheGovernmentoftheUnitedStates

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS67*to takesuchactionaswould"preservetoCubaanditsinhabitantsanopportunitytoenjoytheblessings of peace."Thewarningwasnotwithouteffect, for,towardstheclose of1907,WeylerwassupercededbyGeneralBlanco,andthenewGovernorcamewithordersto establishaninsularparliament,tobreakuptheconcentrationcamps,andtotakestepstorelievethesuffering ofthestarvingnon-belligerents.WasSpainsincere?Wecanneverknow.Whatwedoknow isthatwithBlanco's arrival hostilitiespracticallyceased, more,perhaps,becauseoftheexhaustion oftherebelsthanbecause oftheirconfidenceinthenewreforms.ButwhetherSpainwassincereornot, she wasgivennoopportunityofprovinghergoodfaith.ForinFebruary, 189M, theMainewasblownupinHavanaHarbour,andinApril ofthesameyearwarwasdeclaredbetweenSpainandtheUnitedStates.ThattheAmericanshadbeenpreparingforinterventionbeforethedestructionoftheMaineismadeevidentbythemessagewhichPresidentMcKinleysenttoCongressinDecember,1897.Herefusedto recogniseCubanbelligerency,buthesaidthat"Ifitshallhereafterappearto be adutyimposeduponusbyourobligations to ourselves, to civilisationandhumanity,tointervenewith force, it shallbewithoutfaultonourpartandonly becausethenecessity forsuchactionwillbeso clear as tocommandthesupportandapprovalofthecivilised world."TheCubanshaveneverforgiven Americaherrefusal tograntthembelligerentrights."WecouldhavebeatenSpain," saidmorethanoneCubantomeintheisland,"ifwehadbeenallowedtoraisemoneyandimportarmsopenly." Menwhospeak likethisbelievethatAmericaninterventiontook placeforthesake of Americaandnotfor thesakeof Cuba.Andso,buta few yearsaftertheclose of amostterriblerevolutionwhich,withitsbattlesanditsconcentrationcamps, costCubafully twohundredthousandmen, we findthenameofWilliamTaftreceivedinsilenceinapopularHavanatheatre, whilethatof AlfonsoXIII.isapplaudedtotheskies.**Acountrydevastatedbycivil war,accustomedtodespoticgovernment,withnotraininginpoliticsandstillinfectedwiththevirus ofrevolution-thiswastheCubawhichtheAmericansundertooktomake"a freeandindependent"republicof.Therewassomedoubtatfirst as towhethertheUnitedStates would reallyhandovertheadministrationofCubanaffairs to Cubans. A fewableAmericansarguedthat, aseconomicfreedomwasthechiefdesideratumof Cuba,thatcountrywouldbesatisfied if, forsometimeatanyrate,theUnitedStatesauthoritiescontinuedtogovernher,whileremovingthevexatioushindrancestotradeandcommercewithwhichSpainhadhandicappedthedevelopmentoftheisland. Annexationwasadvocatedbysome,andtheseweresupportedbytheviews of conservativeCubanswhodoubtedthecapacityoftheircountrymenforself-government.It

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68INJAMAICAANDCUBAwasconfidentlyassumedthat"themoretheCubansknowoftheUnitedStatesandofourinstitutions,thebettertheywill like us."ButthemajorityoftheCubanpoliticiansandsoldiersshowedplainlythattheyexpectedCubatobecomearepublic;accordingly,in1902,theConstitutionoftheRepublicofCnbawasadopted,its firstarticlesettingforththat"ThepeopleofCubaareherebyconstituteda sovereignandindependentState,andadoptarepublicanformofgovernment."Theotherarticleswhichfollowarealldrawnuponthemostapprovedrepublicanpattern.AllCubanshaveequalrightsbeforethelaw;everypersonarrestedshallbesetatlibertyorplacedatthedisposal of acompetentjudgeorcourtwithintwenty-fourhoursimmediatelyfollowingarrest;innocase shallthepenaltyof confiscation ofpropertybeimposed;theprofessionof all religious beliefs, as well asthepracticeof allformsof worship,arefree;primaryeducationiscompulsoryandgratuitous;andso on totheendofthechapter.ButattheendofthechapterthereisanappendixknownasthePlattAmendment,andArticleIII.ofthatAmendmentreads,"ThattheGovernmentofCubaconsentsthattheUnitedStatesmayexercisetherighttointerveneforthepreservationofCubanindependence,themaintenanceof aGovernmentadequatefortheprotectionof life,property,andindividual liberty,andfordischargingtheobligationswithrespectofCubaimposedbytheTreatyofParisontheUnitedStates. now tobeassumedandundertakenbytheGovernmentof Cuba."ThisamendmentproposedbySenatorPlattandforcedupontheCubanpeople(whocouldnotpossiblyhaverefusedtoacceptit), is reallythemostimportantpartoftheCubanConstitution. More willbeheardof itoneofthesedays.TheGovernmentofCubawastransferredto its peopleonthe20th of May, H)02. Dr.EstradaPalma,whohadbeenheadofthechiefCubanrevolutionaryjuntainAmerica,andwhorepresentedtheConservativeParty,waselectedPresident.I was toldbyanAmericaninCubathattheelection wasmanagedentirelybytheAmericansintheisland,andthatmanypeoplevotedforPalmaundertheimpressionthathewas someoneelse!Thismayhavebeenso;butinanycase it iscertainthatEstradaPalmahadworkedwell forthecause ofCubanindependence,andpossessed areputationforintegrityandsingle-mindednesswhichwassecondtononeinCuba.Problemspresentedthemselvesfromthefirst tothenewCubanAdministration.TheAmericanshadcleanedHavanaandhadimprovedsomeoftheothercities.Theyhadbegunroadsandhadestablishedasystemofcommon-schooleducation.Buttheyhadspentmillions ofdollarsonthework,andthePalmaGovernmentfoundtheTreasurydepletedwhenitcameintopower;yetithadhadtopromisetocontinuethesanitation oftheisland, thisbeingoneoftheprovisionsimposeduponitbythe United States.Ithadalsobeenagreed(it ispartofthePlattAmendment)thatCubashouldcontractnodebtstherepaymentofwhichcouldnotbecoveredbytheordinaryresources oftheannualbudget.Nevertheless, no sooner wasthenewGovernmentinstalledthanthesoldiers oftherevolutionbegan

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANStoclamourfortheirpay.Theseweredifficultiesenough,buttheyweremet;revenuecameinrapidly,suchisthewonderfulpowerofrecuperationpossessedbytheisland.WiththeconsentoftheUnitedStates, aloanwasraisedandthesoldierspaidoff(mostofthemoneygoingintothehandsofAmericanspeculatorswhohadboughtthedebtfromthesoldiersinadvance,whileassuringthemthattheywerenotlikelytobepaid).TosomeoutsidersitseemedatfirstthatCubawouldreallysetanexampleof progresstotherestofLatin-America,butsucha beliefleftthecharacteroftheaverageLatin-Americanpoliticianentirelyoutofconsideration.Foronething,theLiberalswerenotsatisfiedwiththeGovernment.In 1905 theLiberalsofCubaheldacongressanddrewupapoliticalprogramme.QneofthechiefprinciplesofthatprogrammepledgedtheLiberalPartytoworkfortheabolitionofthePlattAmendment.ThiswassignificantofthegrowingfeelingagainsttheAmericans,whowerebelievedtobeonthesideoftheCubanConservatives.Thesecondpresidentialelectioncameoffearlyin 1906, andDr.PalmawasagainelectedPresident.Thatfraudhadbeenusedatthepollswasunquestionable.ThePresidenthimselfwasanoldman,andhadneverbeencountedambitious;yethehadundoubtablyallowedhimselftobepersuadedthatthesafety ofCubadependeduponhisretainingoffice.Hehadbecomethetool of self-seeking politicians,andnoonewas reallysurprisedwhen,inAugust,1906, arevolutionbrokeout.ThemassofthepeoplewerewiththeLiberals.TheConservativesinCubawill tellyouto-daythatthiswasbecausetheLiberalleadersbaselypanderedtothelowesttastesofthemobbypromisingthembull-fightsandcock-fightsandlotteries,andperhapsthereissomethinginthis.Butwhateverthecause,thefactremainsthatPinoGuerraeasilygatheredanarmyofmalcontentsandbegantomoveonHavana.ThenPalmadidadeedforwhichheiscursedbysomeCubansandblamedbyothers,thosewhopraisehimbeingfewindeed.HesaidhecouldnotsetCubantofightagainstCuban,brotheragainstbrother.ButhedidnotsurrenderofficetotheLiberalinsurgents.ItwastoAmericathatheturnedinthathourof difficulty,andalreadytheAmericanshadpreparedtointervene.InSeptemberPalmaresignedofficeasPresidentof Cuba,andonthe17th ofthatmonthMr.TaftwasproclaimedasProvisionalGovernor.PresidentPalma'senemiessaythathebetrayedhiscountry."Becauseheandhispartycouldnotretainwhattheyhadwonbyfraud,hewaswillingtosacrificetheindependenceof Cuba." Icannotundertaketodiscussthemotivesof amanwhosacrificedmuchforhiscountrywhenhecouldnothavehopedtobeitsPresident;yetthepublicadmissionthatCubacouldnotgovernherselfinpeace,comingfromoneof hisreputationandposition, waswithoutdoubtamoreformidableindictmentagainstherthananythatcouldbedrawnupbythepeopleoftheUnitedStates.

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70IN JAMAICAANDCUBAThesecondperiodofAmericaninterventionlasteda littleovertwoyears.InJanuary, 1909, GeneralMiguel Gomez,whohadbeenelectedPresidentbyanoverwhelmingmajorityofvotes,assumedchargeoftheaffairs of State.TheAmericantroopsevacuatedCuba,andwereallowedtoleavewithouta singlemarkofappreciationoreven cordiality.Ontheotherhand, aSpanishtraining-ship,theNautilus,goingtoHavanaalmostbyaccidentlast year,waswelcomedwitheverymanifestation of joy.EnoughcouldnotbedonebytheCubanstomaketheSpaniardsstayin Havana onelongfiesta.Thesh'eetsweredecorated,rocketswerefired,threewholedaysweredevotedtopublicrejoicing;andwhenthe Nautilus left,thesea-wall ofHavanawasthrongedwiththousandsofcheeringspectators.Why?IputthequestiontoaCuban." After all," he said,"weareofoneblood,fatherandson."ButtheSpaniardwas acruelparent,accordingtotheCubansthemselves.Andevento-daytheSpaniardswholivedinCubabeforetheindependencemost cordiallydespisethenatives.Yetitis Americawhoistheenemy,inthemindoftheaverageCuban-betweenAmericanandCubannolove exists.Thereason isnotfarto seek.Theexistence of Cuba as"asovereignandindependentState"maybe formallystatedintheconstitution,butthesovereigntyandindependenceoftheisland is certainlynotrecognisedbytheAmericanGovernment.ItdoesnotappearthatWashingtoninterferedtoosharplyintheinternalaffairs ofCubaduringthePalmaadministration.ButsincethenewGovernmentassumedofficetherehasbeenrepeatedinterference.AsitwastheLiberalswhomadethelast revolution, too,andastheywelcomedaninterventionwhichtheybelieved would lead totheirbecomingthedominantpartyintheState,itis difficult forthemnowtomurmuragainstthedecreesoftheirpowerfulsuzerain,andtheOpposition knowsthiswell. SotheOppositionpaperstwittheGovernmentwithsupinelycarryingouttheordersof its"seniorpartners,"butnoonereally imaginesthattheCubanGovernmentlikesthetutelagetowhichitis subject.Threeinstances will suffice toshowhowWashingtonkeepstheyoungRepublicin leading-strings, tothebitterannoyanceofherpeople.TheCubanGovernmentwishingtopurchasegunsfortheArmytheotherday,enteredintonegotiationswithaGermanfirmofmanufacturersfortherequiredsupplyof arms.TheUnitedStatesinterposedits veto,andthegunswerenotboughtfromGermany.TheCubanGovernmentprepareditsbudgetfortheyear I<)09-IO. TheauthoritiesatWashingtonthoughtitwasanextravagantbudget,andquietlysaidthatitmustbereduced.Andreduceditaccordinglyhas been, especially inthematterof salaries.Thelastinstance:beforeGovernorMagoon lefttheisland,heappointedMr.JamesPage,anAmerican, tobechiefengineerofthesanitaryworknowbeingdoneinCienfuegos,whichcityisbeingimproved.ButtheCubanSecretaryofPublicWorksdismissed Mr.

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS71Page,oneofthereasonsbeingthatall-importantpositions inCubamustbefilledbyCubans. Mr.Page,however,didnotgo, foragaintheAmericanGovernmentremindedtheCubansthattherearesomethingswhichitisnotexpedientto do,andtheCubanstookthehint.Otherinstancesof diplomaticinterferencemaybegiven,andall ofthemhaveoccurredsince January, 190<) eversinceCubabegantogovernherself.TheseconstantremindersofAmericansuzeraintyhave calledforthbitterprotestsfromtheCubanPress.Onepaper,LaDiscussion,hasutteredthreats-"Ourpowerfulfriendswilldowellnottocarrytheirrigourto extremes,forthedesperatjonof a people, even of a small people,maygivethemmuchto do."Otherswritemorecalmly,butyetwithdeepannoyance.Still,theUnitedStateswillcontinuetointerfere,andtheCubanGovernmentwillcontinueto obey.AnotherreasonwhytheAmericanisnotlikedinCubaisbecausesomeoftheAmericanswhovisittheislanddonotshowmuchconsiderationforthefeelings ofthepeople.TheresidentAmericancomplainsbitterlyof this,andI havebeentoldthattheAmericanMinister hasexpressedthewishthat hel hadthepowerto expel allobjectionableAmericanvisitors.Forwhilemostofthetouristsareestimablepeople,sometakeadelightinelbowingtheCubansofftheirownside-walks,andinenteringthechurcheswhiletheservice isgoingon, forthe purpose, if you please, of staring,orofeventakingphotographs.TheseshowbytheirmannerthattheythinklittleoftheCubans.EvenanAmericanguide-book is thoughtlessenoughtoinformthestrangerthat"theaveragenativeguidewouldrathertellanuntruthforcreditthanto tellthetruthfor cash," astatementwhichisnotcalculatedtomaketheaverageCubanthinkhighlyofAmericanmanners.HedoesnotdistinguishbetweendifferenttypesofAmericans;hejudgesallbythosethatarerude.Heisnota"hustler"either,anddoesnotlike tobehustled. Above all,heremembersthatheis in hisowncountry,andhewantsalltheworldtorecognisethatfact.Butoverandaboveeveryotherfeeling isthefearthathauntsthemindoftheCubanthatonedaytheAmericanwillreturntoCuba,andthistimeforgood.Heknowssomethingof America'soverwhelmingstrength.Heknowsthatastruggleagainstherwouldbeshortandinglorious.TheSpaniardremainedinthecitiesandfoughtwhentheCubancamewithinreachofhim;theAmericanwouldgoandsearchfortherebel,andwould surely find him. I believetheCubantobequitecapableof risingagainsthisAmericanprotectorinanoutburstofuncontrollableanger,butinhiscalmermomentshefeelsthatevensuchademonstrationwouldnotdrivetheAmericanoutof Cuba.NoteveryCuban,however, isopposedtotheAmericans.Thereis aparty(aminorityitistrue)whichisinfavour of annexation.Thusacolouredmanwhohas livedintheUnitedStatesandCanadatoldmethatthebulk of theCubanpeopledonotreallyunderstandwhatannexationwouldmean.Theydo

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72INJAMAICAANDCUBAnotunderstand,hesaid,thatCuba,ifadmittedintotheUnionasa State,wouldelectherownGovernor,andhaveherownLegislature,andmakeherownStatelaws,andbeineverywaybetteroff, especiallyasshewouldhavefreetradewiththeotherStatesoftheUnion.AnotherCuban,oneofthebiggestmeninHavana,ratherbitterlyremarkedtomethatthecommonpeopledidnotknowwhattheywantedandthatthepoliticianswereinterestedonlyinthemselves. Iconcludethathe, aConservative,wouldmuchprefertosee a ConservativethananyotherGovernmentinCuba;butfailingthat,heholdsannexationtobepreferabletowhathenodoubtconsiderstobeLiberalmisgovernment.Andhereperhapsistherockonwhichthe Cuban shipofStatemayeventuallysplit.Itisthepolitical jealousiesandoppositionsamongsttheCubansthemselvesthataremoretobefearedthanthewishesoftheforeignersforAmericanannexation,andtheannexationistaspirationsofthetravelledCubans.TheConservativesweresobadlybeatenatthelastelectionthattheycannotdependupontheirownstrengthtowinthembackpoliticalpowerformanyayeartocome.Butthiswillnotpreventthemfromintriguing;andthelongertheLiberalsremaininpower,themorebittertheenmityoftheiropponentswil1grow.ThentheLiberalsthemselveshavemorethanonceexhibitedatendencytosplitintofactions;andthata fission will actual1yoccursomedayisbeyondal1question.Forinspiteofpartynamesandpartyshibboleths,thereallydominantforceinCubanpolitics isthepersonalelement:it isthemanthatcounts, it isindividualambitionsandnotpartyprincipleswhichcausemostofthoserevolutionsforwhichSpanish-Americahasbecomeso notorious.TheCuban,like hisLatin-AmericanbrotheronthecontinentofSouthAmerica, is anatural-bornpolitician,andhisleadersareallconstitutionmakersandamenders.Theybelievedevoutlyin politicaltheory;theythirstferhonour,distinction,andpopularity;andeverymanwantstobehisownmasterandthemasterofsomeothers.SothoughthepresentCubanGovernmenthasnotyetbeenayearinexistence,therehavebeenmanyCabinetresignations,andmorethanonerumourof a"crisis."ApartoftheLiberalsarethepersonalfollowers ofSenorZayas,theVice-PresidentoftheRepublic,andthesearedeterminedthatheshallbethenextPresident:theremainingLiberalsarethepersonalfol1owers ofGeneralGomez,and,ashehassaidthathewillnotagainbeacandidateforthePresidency,hisfriendshavealreadybeenseekingto,findsomeonewhomtheythinkwill rulethecountrybetterthanSenorZayas.Thereareotherdisruptiveforcesatwork,chieflypersonal.InJunelasttheleaderoftheNegroPartyinHavana,SenorMorura,ostentatiouslyresignedtheposition ofdirectoroftheNationalLottery,towhichhehadbeenappointedbythePresident.Hisreasonwasthatthelatterhadrefusedtoallowhimtonamehisownchiefsubordinateofficer, arefusalwhichhe

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS73seemedtoconsideranaffront.Andsothatthereshouldbenomisunderstandingof his influenceinthecountry,his followersandadmirersinHavanaorganisedademonstrationin his honour,whichwastoconsist of a procession,andpublicspeeches,andthefiring ofrockets(forsomeinscrutablereason,rocketsarefrequentlyfired off inthedaytimeinHavana). AllthiswastotakeplaceonaSundayafternoon;buttheraincomingdownintorrents,theprogrammecouldnot becarriedout.Then,justa little before this,therewas adisputebetweenPinoGuerraandtheGovernmentas towhomtheformershouldbedirectlyresponsible toinhiscapacityof Major-General oftheArmy.PinoGuerrathoughtheoughttobeundernoonebutthePresidenthimself.TheGovernmentsaidheshouldbesubordinatetotheMinister oftheInterior.Thegeneralhadtosubmit,butheisnotsatisfied.Perhapshewillagainrefertothematter.Andtheworstof it isthatall thesedisputesfindtheirwayintothePressandarediscussedbythepoliticians inthe cafCs; andin a smallcountry,with adisproportionateandratherexcitablecitypopulation, thiscannotmakefora peacefulsettlementof personalorpolitical differences.MeantimetheConservativesdeclarethat,underanyLiberalAdministrationwhatever,thecountryiscertaintogotothedogs;andexperiencehasprovedthatadefeatedCubanpartywillprefertoturntotheUnitedStatesratherthanallow itshatedrivals toenjoythesweetsof place, position,andpower. By thetimethenextgeneralelectiondrawsnear, therefore,therewillbeatleastthreepartiesinthefield,andthewatchfuleyeoftheAmericanwillbefixeduponthemall. I fear too, that, iftheelection is notmanagedbyimpartialoutsiders,fraudwill againbepractisedatthepolls;andthisis almostcertaintobefollowedbysomesortofdemonstrationonthepartof thosedefeated.ThisiswhytheAmericancanwell affordtoabidehis time.HeiswaitinguntilCubaherself shallhavegivenfullandampleproof totheworldofherincapacityforpeacefulself-government.Whatwillhappenthen?TheCubanfearstheannexationoftheisland.TheforeignelementinCubaandsomeoftheCubans(as said before)desireit.Someofthe'journalsintheUnitedStatesopenlyadvocateit. DoestheAmerican people, as a whole,wantit?Does itsGovernmentwishit?I imagine no. IthinktheAmericanGovernmentandpeoplewish tokeepCubainastateof tutelage, wish toremaintheisland'sperpetualsuzerain;I believethatthepresentsystem of controlovertheGovernmentsuitsthementirely,andthatthe forcible annexation oftheislandatthisjuncturewouldbeundertakenwithsomereluctance. After all, AmericaalreadyholdsCubainthehollow ofherhand.TheCubanshavebeencompelledto lease two naval stations totheUnitedStates;theycanenterintonotreatywitha foreignPowerthatmaygivethelatteranycontrol overthecountryormayleadtointernationalcomplications;andthereciprocitytreatybetweenCubaandAmericaguarantees

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74INJAMAICAANDCUBAto America almost allthetradeof Cuba.Byallowing Cubanproducetoenterhermarketsatadutylowerby20percent.thanthedutypaidbyothercountries,Americasecuredcheapersugarandtobaccoforherownpeople.ThusAmericabenefitedatleastasmuchas Cuba.ByarrangingthatAmericangoodsshallbeadmittedintoCubaunderapreferentialclause,AmericasecuredanimportantmarketforAmericanfoodstuffsandmanufactures.ThepreferencegrantedbyCubatoAmerica, too, isgreaterthanthatgrantedbyAmericatoCuba-forthereareseveral articles soldbyAmericatoCubaonwhichthepreferencegiven ismorethan20percent.Withsucha treaty,withtwonavalstationsinherhands,withthePlattAmendmentin force,andwitha Minister inHavanato conveytotheCubanGovernmenttheviewsandsuggestionsofWashington,thereis nogoodreasonwhytheAmericanRepublicshouldwanttoundertaketheactualgoverningofacountrythatwillnoteasily forgiveannexationunlessitcomesaboutattherequestofthepeople. Annexation, moreover, will alwaysbe fiercelyopposedbyalargenumberofthepeopleandpoliticians ofAmericaherself.Thesewantnocolonies;besides,theywillthinkofwhatEuropewill say iftheircountry,havingfoughtto liberatetheCubans,bringsthatpeopleunderherownyoke. All theseconsiderationscanneverbeabsentfromthemindsoftherulersof America,andinview ofthemtheywouldprobablypreferacontinuanceofthepresentsystemofcontroloverCubanaffairs.Butthis system is gallingtotheCubans,andtheywillendeavourtoputanendtoit;inaddition, I fearitis impossible tohopefor politicalpeaceamongsttheCubansthemselves. No wonder,then,that,tosomeCubans,"thefutureis dark."***Whatexists inCubaatthepresentmomentispracticallyanAmericanProtectorate,andundoubtedlyitwouldbegoodforthecountryif aprotectorate beopenlyestablishedandaccepted.Thiswould obviate allpretenceabouttheexistence ofCubaasa sovereignandindependentState, wouldputtherightofAmericato giveadviceonmattersofpolicyandfinancebeyondthepossibilityofdispute, would leavetheinternaladministrationofCubainthehandsofherownpeople,andwouldensurethepresidentialandotherelectionsbeingconductedwithoutfraudandwithoutviolence.TheAmerican MinisterinHavanacouldbe used, asheactuallyisnowused, asthemediumofcommunicationbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheCubanauthorities,andthebroaderaspectsofCubanfinancial policycouldbesettledbyWashington.Therewould, of course,bean"armyof occupation,"buttheAmericanscouldeasily followtheexampleofEnglandinEgypt,andutilisethenativetroopsforthemaintenanceofpeaceandorderinthecountry.ThesetroopscouldbetrainedbyAmericanofficersand,if necessary, stiffenedbyacontingentofAmericansoldiers.Cubanscouldbeappointedtoveryhighpositions in

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS75theArmy,andgoodsalariesandpermanencyofposition shouldensuretheirloyaltyandhelptocreateamongstthemaneffectiveespritdecorps.Suchaprotectoratewould still leaveCubaarepublicwithrealandlargeself-governing powers, would leave tohertheopportunitytolearnintheschool ofexperiencethelessons of selfcontrolandpracticalefficiencythatshestillhasneedof.Then,withorderassured,andconfidencerestoredinthestabilityandpeacefulprogressofthecountry,capitalwould flow intotheisland,anditsprosperitywould beanotherofthealreadyremarkableachievementsofAmericancapitalandAmericanenergy.Aprotectoratewould solvethedifficulty forbothCubansandAmericans,andtheAmericanswouldnotobjectto it.Theywouldwelcomeitinpreferencetoannexation,andeven, nodoubt,inpreferencetothepresentsystemofundefinedcontrolwhichisbutwinningforthemthehatredofmostCubans.ButwouldtheCubanscarefor aprotectorateeven?Ithinknot.Theywillnotwillinglyacceptanyformoftutelagewhatever. Yet, iftheyrefuse aprotectorateandstillareunabletogovernthemselves,theonlyalternativeisannexation.ForAmericaisdeterminedtokeepherhandupontheisland,anditis toherinterestthatthereshouldbepeaceinCuba.Thewish ofAmericatoacquirepossession ofCubaisnotathingofyesterday.Itgoesfarbackintothenineteenthcentury,tothetimewhenJeffersonandMadison gave expressiontothefeeling of allthoughtfulAmericansby sayingthattheUnitedStatescouldnotviewwithsatisfactionthefalling oftheislandofCubaunderanyEuropeangovernment"whichmightmakeafulcrumofthatpositionagainstthecommerceandsecurityoftheUnitedStates." Sometimeafterthis,JohnQuincy AdamswroteofCubaandPortoRico as"thenaturalappendagesoftheNorthAmericancontinent";andagain:"Lookingforward,"hesaid,"forhalf acenturyitisscarcelypossibleto resisttheconvictionthattheannexationofCubatoourrepublicwillbeindispensabletothecontinuanceandintegrityoftheUnionitself." Jefferson, too, advised hiscountrymen "to beinreadiness to receivethatinterestingincorporationwhensolicitedbyherself, forcertainlyheradditiontoourconfederacyis exactlywhatiswantedtoroundourpoweras anationtothepointofits utmostinterest!"Allthesepropheticsentimentswereexpressedbeforetheclose ofthefirstquarterofthenineteenthcentury.Spainwas still mistress of Cuba,buttherevolt oftheSpanish coloniesinSouthandCentralAmerica,theobvious weakness of Spain,andtheindicationsthatshewouldonedayloseherremainingpossessionsintheWesternWorld,allcausedtheattentionofAmericanstatesmentobeturnedtothequestion ofCuba'sfuture;andthatfuture,theablestofthemdeclared,couldnotultimatelybewithanyothercountryexcepttheUnitedStates. Anattempttopurchasetheislandfrom Spainwasactuallymadein r84!l byPresidentPolk.ThroughtheAmericanMinisteratMadrid,heoffered the

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76INJAMAICAANDCUBASpanishGovernment $Ioo,(X)(),(X)() forCuba:"Thecountrywouldprefertoseeitsunkintheocean,"wastheproudcharacteristicreplyof Spain. Rut herGovernmentdidnotrestcontentwiththisreply.Veryshortlyafter,itendeavouredtoinducetheUnitedStates,France,andGreatBritaintoenterintoanagreementthatnoneofthemwouldacquireCuba;buttheUnitedStatesperemptorilyrefusedtobeapartytoanysuchcompact.Thisalonewassignificant.ofAmericanhopesanddesigns;significantalsowastheOstendManifesto,drawnupbytheAmericanMinistersatParis,London,andMadrid,andsettingforththatCubaoughttobelongtoAmerica,andthatitwouldbetotheadvantageofSpaintoselltheislandtothatPower.TheMinisterswerenotsupportedbytheirGovernment,yettheycouldhardlyhaveactedastheydidhadtheynotknownthattheywerenotlikelytobeseverelyblamedforpublishingamanifestothatmighteasilyhaveledtoawarbetweenthetwocountries.OtherinstancesofthedesireofAmericatoobtainpossession oftheislandmightbegiven,eventhoughherstatesmendidinformtheSpanishGovernmentin 1874thattheydidnot"meditateordesiretheannexationofCubatotheUnitedStates,butitselevationintoanindependentrepublicoffreemeninharmonywithourselvesandwiththeotherrepublicsofAmerica."Asamatteroffactthegeographicalposition ofCubarendereditinevitablethattheUnitedStatesshouldbeanxioustocontroltheisland,andanyfurtherpretencethattheSpanish-AmericanWarwasmerelyawarofhumanitywouldbethesheeresthypocrisy.NodoubtmanyAmericansstillhonestlythinkso,buttheirstatesmendonot.Cuba,asJohnQuincyAdamswrote,is"anobjectoftranscendentimportancetothecommercialandpoliticalinterests"oftheAmericanUnion,andtherecognitionofthatsalientfactis a sufficientreasonforthedeterminationofAmericanstatesmentoguideandcontrolthedestiniesoftheislandofCuba.WiththeopeningofthePanamaCanal,thestrategicalimportanceoftheislandmustlargelyincrease.HoldingGuantanamoandBahiaHondo(bothsituatedattheeasternendof Cuba)atstronglyfortified naval bases,theUnitedStatescommandstheWindwardPassage,whichistheroutemainlyusedbyvesselsgoingfromEuropetotheIsthmusofPanama.ThustheapproachtotheCanalfromtheAtlanticside isamplyprotectedbyCuba,andalltheCaribbeanSeaismadeintoagreatAmericanlakebythisisland,bytheislandofHayti(orSantoDomingo),wheretheUnitedStatesGovernmenthadalsoa navalstation,andbyPortoRicowhichisnowanAmericancolony.FromherbasisintheProvinceofOrientetheUnitedStatescansweeptheAtlanticOceanfromFloridatoTrinidadwitha\VestIndiansquadron;while,fromthewesternpartoftheisland ofCuba,shecanprotectherowneasterncoastuptoCapeHatteras.Then,again,thepossessionofCubamakestheGulfof MexicoanAmericansea:AmericacompletelydominatesthatGulfwithCubainherhands.Thesepropositionsmaybeprovedbyanyonewhosimply

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS77takesthetroubletoglanceover amapoftheNewWorld;andifthepossession ofCubasecurestoAmericathemasteryof theCaribbeanSeaandtheGulf of Mexico, ifitmakestheprotectionofthePanamaCanal acomparativelyeasymatter,ifithelpstobringtheCentralAmericanRepublicsmorecompletelywithinthesphereoftheinfluence oftheUnitedStates,itfollows surelythattheexistence ofCubaas a peacefully-governedappendageoftheUnitedStates isanabsolutenecessity fromtheAmericanpointofview.Inthesecircumstancesthe"independence"ofCubacouldnotbeanythingbutillusory.Andgivenalltheelementsofdiscordatpresentoperatingin Cuba, eventheexistingappearanceofindependenceinthatislandmustgiveplaceto amoreexplicit assertion ofAmericancontrolbeforelong.Whatwill betheeffect of thisupontheCubanpeople?Ihavealreadysaidthatprosperitymustinevitably followdomesticstabilityandpeace;butI fearthatatfirst,afterthechangeofgovernmentwhichall foresee hascomeaboutin Cuba,therewillbeconsiderableunrest.HatredoftheAmericans will be expressed infrequentbroils,inmurders,indestructionofproperty;sometimes, perhaps, in revolts.Therewill be adeliberateattempttomaketheislandanunpleasantplaceforAmericansto livein;anditwill take some time toteachthemalcontentsthatguerillawarfarecannotsucceedinCubanow,andthatorderwill bemaintainedatanycost.Butoncethatlesson istaught,I donotsee why thereshouldbeanyfurthertrouble. After all,theinterestofthemassofthepeople isnottobefoundindisturbances,andtheywill soon realisethatfact.TheAmericansarenevergoingtoemigrateinlargenumberstoCuba:theAmericanneverwishes to live outside of hisowncountry,andcertainlyhas no liking for atropicalclimate.TheCubanneedneverfear, therefore,thatCubawillbeoverrunbyactive,energeticaliensbentupondrivinghimto the wallbyadeterminedandruthless competition.TheAmericantourist isnota settler.Andifheissometimesrude,thereisnothingtopreventhisbeingrudelytreatedinreturn.Americancapital, too,canbenothingbuta benefit to acountrythatis still so largely undeveloped,andthemoredevelopedCubabecomesthebettertheposition ofherpeople. As forthepoliticians,whowould naturally feeltheeffects of Americancontrolmorekeenlythananyotherclass, eventheywouldnotbesohardhit astheymayfear. Somepartinthegovernmentoftheircountrytheymusthave,andthereareanumberof positionswhichtheywould fill,andhavefilled evenduringtheperiodswhentheAmericanswereadministeringtheaffairs oftheisland. Iadmitthatmanyofthemwould feelgenuinelyhumiliated to seetheircountry'sgovernmentinthehandsof foreigners,buttheywould findsomescope for theirambitioninagitatingthat, ifCubais to beconnectedwiththeUnitedStates, itmustbeas a StateintheUnion.Andthattheisland willbecomea State eventually isbeyondalldoubt.Educationwillspread,population will grow,industryandwealthwill increase.

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78INJAMAICAANDCUBAConsequently,howevermuchonemaynowdwelluponthegulfwhichseparatestheLatinfromtheAnglo-Saxon,howevermuchonemaydiscussthedifference in ideals,inreligion,andintraditionsbetweenCubansandAmericans,theendmustbetheincorporationsofCubaas a State intheUnion. Religion hasnothingtodowiththematter-therearemillions of Catholics intheUnitedStatesto-day.Traditionswill not affecttheeventualsolution oftheCubanproblemeither, for ifthehordesofItaliansandPoleswhohaveforsomanyyearsbeenpouringintotheUnitedStatescanhavebecomecitizens oftheAmericanUnion,Idonot seewhytheCubans,whoaremostly a whitepeopleof Spanishdescent,andwhoseincreasebyimmigrationwillbechieflyfromwhitesources, shouldbeheldtobelessamenabletoAmericaninfluences. IadmitatoncethatthemanwhoremainsinCubawill bemuchless affectedbysuchinfluencesthantheimmigrantwholivesintheUnitedStates,andis forcedbycircumstancestoconformtothehabitsandcustomsofthatcountry,tolearnitslanguage,andtoobeyits laws.Itis plainthatinthelattercaseenvironmentcountsfor avastdealinmouldingthemanaccordingtothedominantAmericanpattern.Itis plain, also,thatthecharacterof amanbornandbroughtupin a tropical island, believingthathiscountryhasbeenwronged,cutoff largely from outside influences,andthinkinginnarrow,insular grooves, willremainunmodifiedduringalmostthewholecourseof his life.ButI donotbelievetheintelligentCubanwillbecutofffromoutside influencesorwillgrowupa simple,ignorantman.ThedayofCubanisolation is past.ThedayiscomingwhenEnglishwill vie with Spanish as thespokenlanguageofthecountrywhenitwillbetaughtineveryschool oftheisland.AndiflargenumbersofAmericansarenotlikely tocrowdintoacountryalreadysettledbypeopleofanotherraceandcivilisation,andwherethelandisalreadyparcelledoutamongsttheinhabitants,itiscertainontheotherhandthatthousandsofCubanswill visittheUnitedStates, willgotheretobeeducated,will follow its politicswithinterest,andwillthusgraduallyassimilate Americanmodesofthought.Thisiswhatis alreadyhappening.OnceitwastoParischieflythatwealthyCubanswentandsenttheirchildrentobeeducated.Nowitis toBostonandNewYork.AndasthehabitoftravellinggrowsamongsttheCubans,asitisgrowingamongstallWestIndians,itis totheUnitedStatesthattheywillturntheirfaces.Thiswillmeanthatnearlyeveryoneintheislandbelongingtotheclasseswhichcountpolitically will intimehavebecomeaffectedbytheAmericanethos,andthesewilldemandStateunionandStaterights,andtheirdemandswill surelynotbedenied."Butwhatofthenegropopulation?"someonemayask."Surelyitwill be adangertoadmitanymorenegroesintotheUnion?"Consideringthatlessthanone-thirdoftheCubanpeopleis coloured,andthatlessthanone-half ofthecolouredelementis black, Idonotseethereason fortheslightestapprehension.Besides, as Ihavepreviouslypointedout,thecolouredelementis slowlybutsteadily disappearing,owing

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THEAMERICANSANDTHECUBANS79tothenumberof whitemenemigratingtoCubaandseekingwivesamongstthepeople,andalsotothepredominanceofthemaleover femalepopulationofCuba.HereisthenumberofforeignersthatwereinCubawhentheCensus of 1907 wascompiled-theproportionofthewhitetotheblackimmigrantsmaybeseenataglance:-FromSpain China" Africa "TheUnitedStatesTheWestIndies,notincludingPortoRico"PortoRicoFrance... SouthandCentralAmericaTheUnitedKingdom Mexico...185,393 11,2177,94 86,7134,2802,9181,476 1.442 1,2521,187And80percent.ofthewhiteimmigrantswere men.Thecolourproblemof Cuba,then,willtendtogrowlessandless astimegoeson:indeed,Iamnotjustifiedinsayingthatthereis a colourprobleminCubaatall.Thereisprejudice,thereis class feeling.Theremayeven bewhatSirHarryJohnstonhastoldmeheperceivedintheisland, atendencytokeepthenegrooutof hisdueshareof politicalpower,andoutof hisdueproportionofpublicemployment.ThisprejudiceandthistendencytowardsdiscriminationonaccountofracemayincreasewiththegrowthofAmericaninfluenceinCubawhichwouldbeadanger;andyetIamnotsurethat,atfirstatanyrate,Americaninfluence wouldnotmakeagainstunduediscriminations.ForwhateverpracticesmayobtainintheSouthernStatesinthewayofpreventingtheexercise oftheNegrosuffrageatthepolls,wouldcertainlynotbeallowedtoobtaininaCubagovernedas a colony,oroverwhichaprotectoratehadbeenestablished.TheaimoftheAmericanGovernmentwouldbeto holdthebalancesevenbetweenall classesandracesinCuba, untiltheislandhadacquiredthestatus ofStatehood;andthiswouldinevitably have agreateducationaleffect.Then,itis absolutelycertainthat,whetheras a republic, aprotecteddependency,ora state,theislandwillalwaysbedividedintotwoparties,andeachpartywillbequickto seethewisdomofnotgivingits rivaltheopportunityofmakingabidfortheentirenegrovote.TheSpanish coloniesandrepublics,wemustalsoremember,havealwaysmanagedtohandletheirnegroquestionverywell;nor isPortoRicotroubledbyanyraceproblematthepresentday. AcarefulstudyoftheCubanpolitical situation, therefore,doesnotseemtowarrantthebeliefthattheracial factor willeverbea seriouslydisturbingoneinthefuture. Difficultiesmayarisenowandthen;butthese willnotbelikethedifficulties

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80INJAMAICAANDCUBAwhichhaveperplexedtheSouthernStates.NegropredominanceisoutofthequestioninCuba. And,iftreatedfairly,thenegro,whooccupiescontentedlyaninferior social positionintheisland, willnotwanttoformanaggressive,independentpartyof his own. I see Cuba, then, afutureStateintheAmericanUnion. I seeheraprosperousisland,anexampletotherestoftheWestIndies, agreatwinterresortfor Americans, a factorinthecivilisation oftheWestIndianArchipelago. Spain failedtomakeheranythinglikewhatshewill become. Shecouldnotthriveandprosperbyherself.NoneoftheEuropeannationscouldgiveherthathelpinghandthatAmericawillbegladto hold outtoher.Andafuturegenerationof Cubans, lookingbackuponthepastoftheircountry, will seethatunionwiththeUnitedStateswasinevitable,andthatonlybyunionwiththeUnitedStatescouldthedestinyofCubabefulfilled.

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KINGSTREET,KINGSTON.

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CHAPTERVKINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICAWHOdoes notknowthestory of Columbus' description oftheisland ofJamaica?Takingaparchmentin his hand, hecrumpledit,andthrowingitdownbeforetheirmajesties of Spainheexclaimedthatthatwaswhattheislandhehaddis covered was like.Thestorymaybeuntrue, yettheillustration was soappropriatethatI think Columbusmaywell have used it.Fornowhereinthisislandof4,200square miles does one ever lose sight of hillsandmountains, sometimestoweringsharplyupintothesky, sometimes risinggentlyagainstthehorizon;butalways visible, always impressing one with a feeling ofgrandeurandof illimit able freedom.Itistheworkofman'shandthatmakesanimpression upon you as youapproachthecity ofHavanafromthesea.Itisthework ofNaturethatimpresses you as youdrawneartothecity of Kingston. Attheedgeof aspitofsandlies a little town, agroupofredhousesstandingamidstcocoanut palms. Opposite to this is a low, dismantled,darkgreyfort:PortRoyalontheright,FortAugusta ontheleft,andmangrovebushesgrowingoneithersidealongtheshore.Thesesendtheirtwisted snake-like rootsdeepdownintotheslimeandsea,andtheirdense,darkgreenmetallic foliage throws adarkgreenoilyshadowuponthewateredge.Butayardortwofromthesesickly looking shores,thesurface oftheseais clearandbright, is pearl-greenandblue, withhereandtherea silverstreak;andis as still asthesurface of a mirrorifthewindis sleeping, ordancesandbreaks into a milliondiamondpoints of light ifeverso faint a puff ofwindcomes stealing over itsbroadexpanse. A magnificentsheetofwateris this land locked harbour,buthow singularlyquiet!...whatanatmosphereof silence seemstopervadeit, asthoughtheinforming genius of itwerethespirit ofsleep!A boathereandthere:tothefar east a shining white cliff,tothenortha few piers,andbehindthese amassof housesthatgleamwhiteinthesunshineandnestleamongstcountless trees. A haze seems to floatoverthecity,andlfromthedeckof your ship you seenoneoftheoutstandingfeatures of it. Afewpersonsloiteronsome ofthepiers, a fewshipsarealongside of them. This, you perceiveat7 h

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82INJAMAICAANDCUBAonce, is no busy harbour, noentrancetothewealthycapitalof aprosperousisland.Itis allexceedinglybeautiful,butall so still.Thisthoughtpossesses you,andyouperhapsgive expression toitin a halfsuppressedsigh,orgive over yourself to a placidenjoymentofthescene.Thelanguor ofthetropicsisalreadyuponyou, a sense ofquietnessandease,thedelightofthelotus-eater. You do notknowit, maybe will notperceiveitforsometime to come,mayneverperceiveitifyourstay inthisisland is short.Butthesongof the lotus-eaters is in this seaandthis skyandthose sun-lit mountains,anditwillsoundinyourearandsteal intoyourheartandblood. Yetitisnotdeadly, itluresnooneto hisdoom:atmostitwillbutlull yourenergiesto sleep if yousurrenderyourself wholly to its soft, seductive influence.Fewcando so ; life has tobelived evenhere-lifewhichmeanscompetitionandawrestlingwithnature....Butlook!weareatthepier:evenbeforewe havebeguntodreamweareawakened.AndKingston is a citywhereone fights continuallywiththespirit ofthetropics,thespirit of sleep.Ifyou have everbeenin a Spanish-American city, you will atoncerecognisethedifferencebetweentheSpaniard'smethodsofbuildingandthose oftheEnglishintropical countries.TheSpaniardcameto stay,andhebroughtwithhimthetypeof houseshewasaccustomedtoathome:theEnglishmancametostayalso,buttostayasanoutsider, not asaninhabitant.Hebroughthiscustomswithhim,buthometo him was alwaysEngland,soatfirstheset himself toerectacamp,to build houseswhichshould shieldhimfromthesunandrain,butwhichheshould be abletoleavewithoutregretwhenthetimecameforhimtoreturnhome.ThusitisthatnoBritishWestIndiancity isanythinglikeanyEnglishtownI know, whileinnearlyevery Spanish-Americancityyoumaytracearesemblance,andmorethana resemblance,tothecities of Spain,andmayseereproducedeverywhereinittheMoorisharchitecturewhichtheSpaniardsadoptedinthedayswhentheMoorswereinSpain. I have saidthattheEnglishbuiltcampsintheWestIndies.Buttheylaidoutthosecampsona settled plan,withlongstreetsrunningdowntothewater front,andotherstreetsrunningatrightangles to these.Andastimewentonthecampimproved,andbetterhouseswerebuilt,andhereandtherea family mansion waserected.Thenperhapsacatastropheoccurred,anearthquakewhichthrewdownapartofthetown, a firewhichsweptone-half ofitaway, ahurricanewhichblewthefrailerstructuresall to pieces.Andaftereachcalamitysomethingmoresubstantial tooktheplace ofwhathadbeendestroyed;butas aportionofthetownhadalwaysmanagedto survive fireorhurricaneorearthquake,thereisnowno uniformityanywhereaboutitall;andsoto.dayaneighteenth-centurytypeofWestIndianbuildingstandsnexttoatypebelongingtothelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury;while,butthreehundredyardsfartheron,theremayrisethelatestachievementinWestIndianarchitecture,a solid,squarestructureofironandconcrete,notbeautiful,butcommodiousandsafe,andmorelikethe

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICA83buildings you will seeinsomestolidEnglishtownlike Bristolthanlikeanythingelse Icanrememberjustnow.OnceKingston,thechief city oftheBritishWestIndies, was a collection of two-storey houses,thelowerpartbuiltofredbrick,theupperpartofwoodandroofedwithcedarshingles,andwithnarrowjealousieshutterspaintedadarkgreen,anda few glass windows inbetweenthese shutters. Lessthana mile tothenorthfromthesea-frontthecountrydistrict began. Ontheboundariesofthecountryandtowntheybuilt thoselargehouseswiththedeepverandahsandtheloftymahoganyarcheswhicharestill adelightto-day:builtthemsolidlyuponhighfoundationssothatthewindmightsweepthroughthem,and thtln reareda high wallaroundthemsothatthehousemightbea castleinappearance as well as in legal theory.Theyplantedgardensinfrontofthesehouses,andthegardensarethereto-day. Some ofthemhave fallen to decay,othersarestillbrightwithflowers,withcrotons, caladiums, withelderandSweet Williamandlace-plantandEnglishroses.Butthese housesbelongto adaythatisdead:I seesomeofthemnow, in ruins,deserted,withnoonewilling torebuildthem.As slowlytheyfall to pieces,theygiveplaceandwill give placetosmallerstructures, tocheaper,common-lookingbuildings;andthustheold city will disappear,asthecity ofTomCringlehaslongsincedisappeared,withitssandystreets, its hogsrootinginthegutters,anditsnakedchildrenplayingcontentedlybytheirmothers'side.Whereshall I find a symbol torepresentKingston?Itis a citygrownoldandstill young, a citythathasthrownoff its child's clothes,buthas foundnothingtofititas yet. IreadoverthesewordsandI findthesimiliesalmostmeaning less. Youmustsee Kingstontounderstandwhatitis like.Andtounderstandwhatitis like youmustalso haveknownsomeothercitywhichhasbeenfinishedand'paved;whichmaystillbegrowing,butgrowinggradually, naturally,notsuddenlyandspasmodicallyattheextremitiesbeforethemiddleportionofit iscompletedanddonewith.ThatishowKingston hasgrown.Itwascompactonce,withitsParishChurchinthecentre,andnearthechurchanopensandyspace, tothenorth-westofwhichwerethebarrackswheresoldiersandthemilitiaweresometimes lodged.Evento-day thisopenspacetransformedinto aparkwithgreatgreentreesandgrassplots,andwithpalmsanda fountain, is still calledtheParade,thoughalmosteveryonehas forgottenthattroopsweredrilledthereonce.Aroundandnearbythetownweregrasspens;andabovetheshopsinthebusinessquarterofthetown, closetotheshore,thetradingclasses lived, while inthelanesandmeanerstreetstheworkershuddledinthetenementyards.Thencameastreet-carsystem,andtheboundariesof Kingstonwidenedsuddenly. Anescapefromthecongestedquarterwaswelcomed,andpopulationbeganto movenorthwardandeastward.Anotherrevolutioncame:tenyears.agoanelectrictramwaysystemreplacedthemule-cars,andthistimethewealthier

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAsectionof Kingston'sinhabitantsmovednorthwardchiefly.Suburbssprangup,newtownshipswerelaidout...thenanearthquakecameandthelowerportionof Kingstonwasshakento dust.Itisrebuildingnow;butlower Kingston,onefeels asonewalksaboutits streets, willneverbea beautiful city unless it is pulleddownandrestoreduponsomecarefullythought-outplan.Itwillhavetwoorthreefine streets,andthe rest ofit-well,Ithinktherestofitwillremaintruetothetradition of a BritishWestIndiancity-truetotheoldideaof acampofwoodandbricktoshelteronefromwindandrain.Itwillhaveaboutitnothingsuggestive ofpermanenceandsolidity,nothingthatseemsbuilt to last for generations.TheSpaniardwenttoCubato live,andheimportedslaves tohelphimearna living.TheEnglishsettlerscametoJamaicatomakea fortune,andthey, too,importedslavesandwerecontentthattheslaves shouldgreatlyoutnumberthem.At mostbutfew ofthemcameto Jamaica,andso to-day, whileonefindsCubaawhiteislandornearlyso,onefinds Jamaica,theneigh bour of Cuba, a black islandornearlyso.Thetraveller perceives this asthevesseldropsanchoralongsideofthewharf.Aroundtheshipareacrowdof laughing,shoutingboys, cladbutinasortofclingingbreech-clout,theirblack skinsgleaminginthewater,theirwhiteteethshiningupatyou astheyholdtheirfacesupwardsandrapidlymove their headsfrom side to sidetodashthesprayfromtheirhairoroutoftheireyes. Most ofthepeoplegatheredonthewharfareblackordark;theporterswhotakeyourbaggagetotheCustomHouse(wheretheofficialsareall politeandasexpeditiousasa tropicalclimatewillallow)-these,too,areblack. You leavethewharfandsoon you find yourself in a citywhereatleastfortythousandofa population of sixtythousandareblack;andmovingalonginthestreets,onthe drivingthecars, drivingthecabs, loafing about,workingasstoremen,ascarpenters,as bricklayers, as hodmen,andhod women, asvendorsof fruit, as tailors,asbarbers,aswasherwomen,domesticser vants,candysellers;doingallthevaried tasks,performingthethousand-andonethingsthatonemakes a living byina BritishWestIndiancity,areblackwomenandmen.Andthis isoneof"theoutpostsofEmpire"wheretheflag ofGreatBritain floats over a peaceful mixed population. And, in its way, Kingston,thecapital oftheisland, is a city of almost inexhaustible interest.Comewithmeinto itsstreetsanditslanesanditssuburbsfora while.Theprincipalbusinessthoroughfareis King Street, a wide, well-pavedstreetwhichbeginsfromthewater-edgeandrunsin astraightline for nearly a mileupwardsjthencurveseccentricallytotheeastandwestandbecomesameanstreetwithmiserable,broken-downhovelsoneither. side of it.Thebusinessportionofit,alongwhichseveral lines ofelectriccarsruncontinually, stopsattheCentralPark,andateitherendof thissectionofthestreetamarblestatuestands.Largeconcretebuildingsarebeingerected;somearealready

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICA85completed,andthesearefilledwithgoodsfromEngland-withhatsand lace., andsatinsandsilks,andalltheotherarticleswithwhichmenandwomell love toadornthemselves. Colonnadesarenumerousinthis street,andonthe wide,coveredside-walksitis a pleasure to walk.ThestoresherearebetterthanthoseinHavana.Theirgoodsarebetterdisplayed.TheMetropolitanHouseislargerthananyotherretailestablishmentinanyotherWestIndianislandexceptTrinidad,andisbetterappointed.Electricfans coolthehotatmosphereofthesebuildingsandgive a little relief to theperspiringclerks. IthinkthatwhenKingStreetiscompletelyrebuiltit will bethefineststreettobefoundintheWestIndiesorinCentralAmerica.ThechiefGovernmentadministrativeofficesarebuildinginthis street.Nearthesetheyhave laid outsomegardens,awonderful
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86IN JAMAICAANDCUBAusuallywhentheexcitementisreachingits climaxthatthepolicemanappears.Hehasbeenawareofthequarrelfromthemomentitbegan,butthoughtitwisetoremainaloof;nowhemakesup hismindto interfere,andatonceputs ontheairhe hasfrequentlynoticedthejudgesassumewhenhearingacaseofgreatimportance.Paternalauthoritydistinguisheshimashestepsintothemidstofthecrowdandasksthereason oftherow.Everyspectatoratoncebeginsto give hisownparticularversion of it,witha sense ofprideatbeingparticipatOl's in sostirringadrama.Hetries to listenforamoment,thenin forms allandsundrywith severitythat"althoughIama black man, Iam110ta fool," astatementthatis taken to imply athreat,forcomparativesilenceensues;whichgiveshimanopportunitytolisten tothecomplaintsofthedisputants.Hisroleisthatofapeacemaker.Hebeginsbywantingto know"whyblackpeopleareso foolish."Henextsuggeststhattheprison isnotthepleasantestplaceinJamaica, advisesthemantopaythewoman,orthetwowomento"makeupandbefriends,"accordingtothecircumstances.Thelastthinghedoes is toarrest,butarresthecertainlywill ifpeaceisnotrestored,orif hispersonaldignity is seriously offended.Heis consciousthathe is a blackman:he tells you so.Buthedoesthatinorderto let you knowthatyoumustnotpresumetoomuchuponthatfact.Ifyou do, youmaybearrestedonthechargeof"obstructingthe police intheexecution oftheirduty,"andthemagistratesarevery severe indealingwiththis class of crime. So, in nine cases outoften,thenoise subsides, thecrowddisperses,andthenormalactivity ofthestreetoncemorecontinuesundisturbed.Littlecoveredcartslooking for alltheworld liketinyhousesuponwheelsarepushedaboutby boys,andnearlyeverycarthas a name."InGodweTrust!"isthepious exclamationutteredin bluepaintbyone;its owner, as you will discover if you followhimfor five minutes,indulgesincheerfulblasphemyatfrequentintervals,probablybywayofshowinghis faith."Hopeon,hopeever," isthemottoonanotherofthesecarts,and"TheearthistheLord'sandthefulnessthereof"istheinscriptionbornebya third.Thesearethesnowballcartswhichwill sell you a mixture ofcrushediceandsyrupfor apenny,andthosewhoownthemevidently believethattheiroccupationis a sufficient excuse for personal untidiness.Theseboys all have acommoncry,"Hokeypokey,"thewordsbeingutteredinwhat is assumedtobetheverylatest edition oftheAmericanaccent,fortheAmericanaccentismuchadmiredhythelowerclasses of theJamaicatowns. Abeggarpasses callingdowntheblessing oftheLorduponall those who will assist him.Twolittle girls go by,andyouhearonetellingtheotherthat"I lefthimto God."Itbeginstodawnuponyouthatyouareinaveryreligious city, a citythatthinkscontinuallyofProvidence,and,likethePuritansofold,interlardsits conversationwithtags of Scripture.Itdoesthelatterthing

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICA87certainly.TheinHuence oftheBiblemaybeclearlyperceivedinthetalkoftheJamaicapeasantandtheworkingclasses.ItmaybethatyouleaveKingStreetandsaunteralongHarbourStreet,oncethechiefbusinessthoroughfareofJamaica,nowlargelyamassofbareruins,a"monumenttotheworkofearthquakeandfire.Hereandtherebetweentheblackenedwallsyouseemoundsof debris covered with grassorwithacreeperbearinga yellow Hower like the buttercup.Tothedwellerinthiscitythesightnolongerawakensdeepemotions,doesnotstartleorsendthebloodcoursingquicklytotheheart.Itistohimallcommonplace,thesad significanceofithasceasedtoappealto hisimagination;yetnostrangercanlookuponthoseshatteredwalls risingoneafteranotheralongthelengthofthestreet,oruponthosegrassandflower-coveredmoundsbetweenthem,andnotrememberthathundredsofmenperishedhereonebright,sun-litdayinJanuarywhenthiscitywasmakingplansforthefutureandrejoicinginthefulnessof life....TheyarerebuildingHarbourStreetnow;littlebylittlethesignsoftheearthquake'shavoc willdisappear.Theyarebuildingassciencehastaughtus tobuildwherethereisfearofearthupheavals,sothattheremaybeagainno loss of life.Thepresentgenerationwillpassaway,andperhapsanotherandanother,beforea likecalamityrecurs.Meanwhilethesilentopenspacesspeakofthatdayof desolation,andthepeoplegoaboutandthinkofwhattheyshalldothisyearandnext.Onlythestrangerlooksuponthesewallsandmounds,andremembers.TheordinaryKingstonstreetis amixtureofbuildingsof all shapes, ages,anddescriptions:notwohousesarequitelikeoneanother,eachonehasapparentlybeenbuiltwitha lawlessdisregardof allprecedent.Onlyononepointdidtheoriginalownersofthemseemtoagree;andthatwasinthesuccessfulattempttoencroachuponthepublicthoroughfare,anattemptpersistedinforovertwocenturiesandonlycondemnedwithinthelasttwoyears.Accordingtothe charts andplansofthecityof Kingston,eachstreetisprovidedwithside-walks of acertainconvenientwidth;butwhenyoufindthefrontof ahouseorshopactuallybuiltupontheside-walk,andwhenafewyardsbeyondyoudiscoverthatsomethinglikeanembankmenthasbeeningeniouslyconstructedonthepublic'sproperty,and,alittlefartheron,thata flight ofstepsobstructsyourright-of-way,andsoonwithoutcessation,youwonderwhytheoriginaldesignersofthiscitytroubledtothinkaboutside-walksatall.Atlast,however,thelawisbeingenforced,thoughIknowofonemanwhohasrecentlymanagedtobettertheGovernmentinthismatterofpublicrights,andisconsequentlytheobjectof hisfriends'undyingadmiration.AndnowIwanttotellyousomethingaboutthelanesofKingstonandaboutitssuburbs;somethingabouttheclass ofdwellingsthereandthepeoplewholiveinthem.

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88INJAMAICAANDCUBABetweeneverytwostreetsinKingstonthererunsanarrowlane,andmostofthehousesthatopenonthestreethaveback-entrancesintheselanes.NearlyallthelanesinKingstonrunfromnorthtosouthfor a mileandover,andatregulardistances,wherethecross-streetsbisectthelaneatrightangles, a littleshopstands,andintheseshopsmostoftheimportedfood-stuffsofthelanedwellers ispurchased.Thesearethesalt provision shops, called so becausetheysell salted fishandherringsinlargequantities,andflour,andrice,andcrackers,andcondensedmilk,andanynumberofotherarticles ofcommonconsumption. Almosteveryoneof theseshopsiskeptbyaChinaman.Hestandsbehindhiscounter,cladbutinamerinoandapairoftrousers, alert, businesslike,makinghimselfunderstoodinpigeonEnglish,andperfectlyawarethatheandhis colleagues havecapturedtheretailtradeof KingstonandJamaica.Hehasdonesobymasterlyandjudicious knavery. IenterhisshopandI see afewgirlsbuyinganumberof littlethings;"agill of this,"and"agill ofthat"-agillbeingthreefarthings-andthewholeamountbeingspentwithmuchvociferationandargument,timebeingof no value tothepurchasers."Agill of keroseneoil!"TheChinamanmeasurestheamountcalledfor;then, inemptyingitintothebottle,hemanagestoshakethemeasureeverso slightly,andbackrunssome oftheoil intothetinfromwhichithasbeentaken.Thepurchasersuspects villany, exclaims,"Isee you,Mushay!"Butheprotestshis innocence,andthereisnotmuchfurtherargument,forthegirl, boy,orwoman.asthecasemaybe, invariblybegshimforsomething,andobtainingit,departswell pleased.FortheChinamannever refuses to givesomethingtoeverypurchaser.Thatisoneofthesecretsofhis success.Herobsyouroilandhegives you a biscuit,andyou go awaythinkingyou havegotsomethingfornothing.Heworks fourteenhoursaday;hesleeps in a littleapartmentattachedto hisshop;heisnevertired,andheanswerstoanynameyoumaychoosetogive him."Mushay"isthefavourite.Itis acorruptionof Monsieur. Allforeignersarecalled Mushay,excepttheHindooimmigrants,whoareknownas Baboo.AndinMushay'sshopanidlerortwo will alwaysbefound,leaning 011 theheaped-upbags ofricenearthedoor,orpercheduponanemptybiscuit barrel,ordoingtheirbest,apparently,topreventthecounterfrom fallingdown.ButtheChinaman'sshopisnotthegossip houseofthis sectionofthelane;tofindthatyoumustgoelsewhere.Nottothetailor's shop.Thatisdevotedtomakingclothesandmusic.Thetwoorthreejourneymenwhositforhoursbeforetheirtreadlemachines;refreshtheirsoulsbychantinghymnsorpsalms inferventtones,orbywhistling;butthejewellersnearby,oreventheshoemakers,havemoretimeforargument;andso,atalmostanyhouroftheday, youmayheara spirited conversation which, in nine cases

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TOWNOFMANDEVILLE,JAMAICA.

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAICA89outof ten, is of a religiouscharacter.Inthelittleshopsome twelvefeetsquare,threeorfourmenmaybegathered.Leaningagainstthedoorposts,therebeingnoroominside,maybetwoothergentlemen,loafers both,theothersbeingworkers.Itis acharacteristicoftheloaferthatheis agoodconversationist : living largelyuponthecharityof his friends,hehasbeenabletodevotehisminduninterruptedlytothestudyandcontempiationofmenandthings.Heentertainshis friendsbycallinginatopportunemoments(break.fast-time is his favourite hour),andbyaskingthemiftheyhaveheardoftheRev. So-and-So's sermon. A casual question,asitwere,butofthehighestimportanceaseventuallyis seen.ForitinvolvesanargumentonTransubstantiation,ortheTrinity,ortheMillennium,oronsomeotherlikesubjectofinexhaustibleinterestto alltheJamaicaworkingclasses. A theological controversialist iswhattheJamaicatradesman,artisan,orlaboureris, firstandlast,andallthetime. 'Youmaypictureto yourselfthislittleshopinthelane, with itstwoorthreelittle work-tables, itsbenchesonwhichthemasterandhispartnersorhisapprenticessit, its few toolshangingagainstthewall,andthebusymenattendingtotheirwork. You wouldthinkthatthesewouldbetalkingaboutsomeeventofeverydaylife.Butno, thequestionwiththemiswhethertheVirginMarywasimmaculateornot,andprobablybeingProtestants, totheextentofhatingallRomanCatholicdoctrinemostunreasonably,theyinvariablydecideagainsttheImmaculate Conception,andthenperhapsfall totalkingaboutwomenintermswhichcannotpossiblybetranscribedinthesepages. A talkuponreligion isanintellectual exercise. A discussiononwomenis asortoflightrelief fromstrenuousthinking.Notinfrequentlyagood.looking'girlpassingdownthelane ishailedwith"Hi,look this way,melove!"and,if shedoescondescendtodoso, allgravermattersconnectedwithheavenandoureternalwelfareareputaside forthetime,anda Rabelaisan passage ofarmstakesplacebetweenthedamselandhermanyadmirers.Othershopsareinthislane;vegetableshopswhereyamis sold,andplantains,andpotatoesandcabbageandbeansandbananas.Nearlyallthepurchasesaremadeinsmall quantities. Ahalfpennyora gill istheamountusuallyspentupononearticle;butofyamyoucanhardlybuylessthanaquattie's(threehalf-pennies)worth;soyamis aluxurywiththepoorerclasses.Andwhatasightis a vegetableshop!Theremayormaynotbeacounter;theremaybetwoorthreeshelvesagainstthewalls;butwhatevermaybethefittingsofthistinyplace,youwill findmostofthevegetablesheapedupupontheground;theyamsandbananasandpotatoeslyingonthehardearthorthebrickpavement,thebeansandtomatoesandthesofterthingsinlargeflatbasketsmadeoftheplaitedstripsofthestemsofthebambooplant. A middleagedwoman, usually enormous, squatsamongsttheseheapsandthesebaskets, ashortknife inherhand,dirtuponherperson, aformidablelookupon

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9INJAMAICAANDCUBAherface:andalmostwithoutmovingshesellshergoodstothosewhowishto buy,"Threegreenbananasfor afarthing,andnothingmore.""Notevenapepperwithit!""No,thisisnotaChinaman'sshop;"andsoonandso forth inthevernacular, allthelivelong day. You willobservethatinadditiontothegatesandfencesandshopsinthelanethereareanynumberof little houses,eachonewithastepleadingoutintothelaneandmanyofthesestepsencroachinguponthenarrowside walk.Theseare"fronthouses,"housesoftwoorthreerooms,builthighahovetheground,of woodpaintedwhiteandgreen,butfacingthelaneandopeninguponit.Respectablemembersofthelowermiddle-class liveinthesehouses:smallshopkeepers,artisans,anddecentwomenwhomayhavetoiledandsaved foryearsto build ahomeoftheirown.Thosewholiveinthesefronthousesnotinfrequentlyownaharmonium,uponwhichhymnsareplayed(forthenumberofpersonswhocanplayfairly welluponmusicalinstrumentsinJamaicaissimplyastonishing). A small"centretable," a side-tableonwhichalargekerosinelampmaybeplaced,twoAmericanrocking-chairs,threeorfoursmallerchairs,someframedcolouredprintsfromtheGraphicortheIllustrated Londoll Newswhichhanguponthewall:Ithinkthatis a fairinventoryofthefurnitureintheroomwhichopensonthelane. Youdinein this room,youreceiveyourfriendshere;intheeveningswhenyouareathomeyou sitatthewindowandthinkif youarenotmindedtoenterintoconversation.Thebedroomisfurnishedwithaneatwoodenwashstand,aclothespress, atablewitha looking-glass,andamodernironbed,andwhatmorecomfortcouldyou possiblydesire?Yourpoorerneighbourslive inthesameyardwithyou. Arangeofwoodenroomsrunsfromone end oftheyardtotheother,eachroomdividedfromthenextbyathinpartitionofboard.Theseroomsarebuiltlowtotheground;eightofthemmaybeintherow,fromtwotofivepersonsmayliveinoneroom;andeachyardis a little society in itself,withitsowninterests,itsgossiping, its quarrels, its intrigues, its enviesandhatreds,itsfriendshipsandits loves. Kingstonhastwokindsofsuburhs:thoseinwhichthepoorerclassesandtheartisansandthesmallermiddle-class live,andthoseinwhichpersonsoftheuppermiddle-class live.Butitis also likeHavanainthis:veryoftenyou will find ameanstructurenextto a fine mansion,orveryneartoit ;andChineseshopsandrumshopsarescatteredeverywhere,forthereareno toprescribethekindof housethatmustbebuiltinacertainlocality.1BuildinginKingstonhasproceededontheprincipleofeverymanafterhisownorderandaccordingto his taste, sothatyounowhaveacityofmanyquaintcontradictionsandanomalies,whichmakesitallthemoreinteresting.'Butoutsideofthecityproper,inthesuburbsthathavesprung'uparoundit,onehappensuponevidencesof a wishonthepartofthepeopleto follow

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAleA91some uniformplaninbuilding. I seesuchevidenceseveninthesuburbswheretheartisanslive:inthelittletownshipswheremostofthebuildingsareneatlittle cottages, withgardensattachedtothem.Unless you visitoneof these places,orgointosomeofthesmall houses inthecity itself, youcanneverknowoftheprogresswhichthecitydwellerof Africandescenthasmadeincivilisationandintheartof living. Youcanneverknowhowthelower middle-class lives. Some ofthelanesandthemeanersuburbsareforthepoorestclass ofthecity:thelabourers,theservantswhohavepouredinto Kingstonfromthecountrydistrictsinsearchof work.Theirwagesaresmall,theirfuture!neverbrightens.Theycomeintothecitywhenyoung,andthefascination of city life seizes holduponthem, sothatevenwhenpinchedbypovertytheyareloathto leave it. Kingston hasbeentheobjectoftheirthoughts,thegoal oftheirhopes foryears:tothemitis agreatmetropolis, acrowdedcityfull ofstrangedelights.Andsotheyfilltheranksofthepoorlypaidworkersandoffer uptheirlives totheirdelusion.Butabovethemistheclass, blackanddark-huedalso,whomIhavespokenofaboveandwhohavewonmorefrom lifethanthepoorestclasseshavedone;whohave builttheirownlittle homes,whohavemadeforthemselvesagoodreputationasworkmen,manyofwhosenamesareontheVotersRoll oftheparish,andwhoform alargepartofthechurch-goingcontingentofthecity.Itisthisclassthatyou will findinasuburblikeFranklinTownorCampbellTown,cleanlittleplacesthatslumberquietlyoutofreachoftheelectric cars.Andthereistheothertypeofsuburbalso,thesuburbofthemiddleclasses,cottagesoffromfivetotenrooms,mostofthemwithgardensandverandahs,andinstalled withelectriclightandboastingofanatmosphereofcomfort.Itis inthesethatthe bt:tter-off classes of Kingston live. Some ofthesesuburbs,situateduponora littleabovetheborder-lineof Kingston,arereally beautiful. I haveoneinmindas Iwrite:thecarpassesthroughit,andlookingsouthwardsyou seebeforeyouthebluewatersof Kingstonharbourandthenarrowstripoflandthatsweepswestwardlike abowandendsinthetownofPortRoyal.Behindyou riserangeafterrangeofsmoke-bluemountainswhichformtheimpressivebackgroundofthecity,andtoyourright, as you lookdowntowardsthesea,arethehouses I speak of here.Largeandairy, mostly ofonestorey, built chiefly ofwoodandpaintedwhiteandgreen,theyeachofthemstandinthemidstoflargegardensorsmooth lawns.Theysuggestcomfort-notcomfortof a heavy,meatykind,butcomfortsoftenedbyelegance:comfortinwhichbeautyplayssomepart.Theyarelightstructures,andsoaresuitedforacountryofblueskiesandfierysun;theyarelightlyfurnishedtoo,furnishedwithbambootablesandwickerchairs,andwithcentrecarpetsandlightlace curtains,andironbedsandimitation-oakbedroomfurniture.Theold solidmahoganybedsandchairsandtablesmade

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IN JAMAICAANDCUBAofJamaicawoodbyJamaicaworkmen-thosearerareto-day. Iamwritingononeofthosetables,butthechairIsitonis ofblacksteambentwoodandstraw,andwasmadeinAustria;andthisAustrianfurnitureandcheapfurniturefromAmericawillbefoundinmanyaJamaicahometo-day.Eventheoldmahoganysofasaredisappearing,and"couches"areallthefashioninstead.Thesearefrailanddonotlast,yetfashionhasthelastwordtosay inJamaicaaselsewhere,andcouches,ofcourse,arefashionablenow.Nodrawing-roominKingstonisquitecompletewithoutits piano.Walkingin aKingstonsuburbafternightfallonehearstheseinstrumentsbeingplayednponhereandthere,formostoftheJamaicagirlsofthebetterclasseshavebeentaughtto play.Butexceptthetinklingofthepiano,thereishardlyanysoundtobeheardinoneofthesesuburbs;andthereisnopublicpromenadeinKingston,noplacelikethePradoinHavanawhereyoungandold,richandpoor, may assembletodrinkindraughtsofthesweeteveningbreezeandtolistentothemusicoftheband.Oh,no!in arespectableKingstonneighbourhoodlife isatadeadlevel ofdulness.Youpassthroughitwithme;youseethehousesclosed inthedayandopenedatnight,andatnightyouseethelightsshiningthroughthem,butonlythefamilyisindoorsasa rule.Thereisverylittle visitingdoneamongstthisclass in Kingston. Ihavesoughtforthereasons,andIthinkIhavefoundsomeofthem.Ithinktheclimatehassomethingtodowiththelackofmovementamongstthepeople;theclimatewhichbeatstheenergyoutof one,whichmakeslanguordelightfulandexertiona bore.Buttheclimateisnottheonlyreason.Havanaistropicaltoo,andsoarethecitiesoftheFrenchWestIndies,andyetwhatadifferencebetweenthoseandthecityofKingston!No, it isnotclimate,itis classwhichlargelyaccountsforthequiet,uneventfullifeofthebetter-offpeopleof Kingston.Theyareallestimableandkindly. AllJamaicansarekindly. But,yousee, it is likethis:Ifyouhavetwentyhouses inonestreetina"respectableneighbourhood,"itisquitepossiblethatyoumayhavetwentyfamiliesrepresentingtwentydifferentclassesinthatstreet.Thethingmaysoundincredible,butitistrue.Theclassdifferencemaybebaseduponseveralgrounds.Differencesinstyleandmanner,diffel'encesinwealth,differencesin position.Theheadsofsomefamiliesreceiveayear,othersmaybelimitedto asalaryof.Butmoney,tobejust,doesnotreallyconstituteaformidablesocialfactor:positiondoessofarmore.ItistheEnglishidea. Ashopkeeperearninga year,forexample,wouldnotbethesocialequalofanaccountantreceivingbuthalfthatsalary.Everythingcounts,everythingis afactorin thisproblemofrespectablesocietywhichnoonecansolve.Nooneattemptstosolve it.Respectabilityin aBritishWestIndiancommunitymeanstheacceptanceofrulinglconditions,ideas,andnotionswhichhavecomeoverfromEngland;andifyoutakethebetterclasses of aWestIndiancityandbringthemupuponBritishsocialcustoms,traditions,andideas,whatcanyouexpectbutminuteclassdistinctions?Ithinkitwouldbedifferentiftherewereapublicpromenade;Ithink

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAleA93thatoutdoortropicallife is acorrectiveof ideasthatflourishnaturallyinthosepeaceful,orderlysuburbsofthelargeEnglishcities,wherethehouses inone street areall somuchalikeandwhereeverystreethasitsownclass of housesanditsownclass of people.Andsomedayitmaybedifferent, but,meantime,asleepyquietnessbroodsoverandpervadesa Kingstonsuburbwherethebetterclasses live.Inthelowerpartofthecity,theprincipalbusinessportion,silencereignsafterdarknesshas fallenandthestoresareclosed.Thecarsgobyatregularintervals,thepolicemenmove slowlyupontheirbeat,thegaslampsflickerandgleam,lightinguptheemptythoroughfares.Nowandthena solitary figure moves mysteriously along, so mysteriously,andwithsoobviousanattemptatconcealment,.thatyouguessatonce.it is adetective.Hedoesnotwanttobeknown,andsogreatis his anxietythathestraightwaybetrayshimself.Heisonthewatchforburglars,butwearenot;soweleavethisdesertedquarterofthetownandgonorthwards.Andherewe seesomesigns oflife:seegroupsofpeoplestandingatthecornersofthestreets,andpublic-housescheerfullyblazingwithlights,andbandsofmenandwomenholdingreligiousmeeting,andknotsofpersonspassingtoandfro.Thisistheoutdoorlife of Kingstonaftertheday'sworkisdone.Kingstonhasnotheatre.Ithadonebeforetheearthquake,andthat,of course,wasdestroyed.Sincethentherehavebeensomeseriousargumentsonthelegitimacyofbuildinganothertheatreoutofthepublicfunds,the real hindrancebeing,apparently,thattherearenopublicfunds.But,inthemeantime,argumentisentertaining,andso youmaybesurethatyou willnotwalkaboutthestreetsof Kingstononanynightwithouthearingthetheatreproblemdiscussed. Ihearditdiscussedonenightinabar-room.Thechiefspeakerwas amanofaboutfiftywhohadreachedastageofsobrietyfromwhichhegazedoutupontheworldfromastrictlymoralpointof view.Emptyinghisfourthglass ofrumandwater,hegravelylaiddownthepropositionthatdramaticperformancesweredestructiveof morals,andthenaskedhishearersiftheywouldbewilling tospendpublicmoneyonbuildingachurch?Headmittedthathedidnotgotochurchhimself,butsaidhebelievedinsettingagoodexample.Thenhecalledforanotherglass ofrumandwater,andI left, feelingthathemustbeagreatforceforgoodinthecommunity.Thesebarsareprovidedwithveryfewseats,sometimeswithnoneatall.Theyarenot cafes, for cajCs areunknowninJamaica.Whyshouldtheyaboundinothercountriessoneartothis island,andyetnotbefoundhere?Well,thereareno cajCs inEngland,andJamaicaisanEnglishisland.Insuchlittlemattersyouperceivetheforce ofcustomandtradition:fourthousandmilesawayfromthe"mothercountry,"this littlecolonystilltriestofollowtheexamplewhichitbelievesthemothercountryhasset.Andsoithasbars, whosedoorsare

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94INJAMAICAANDCUBAkeptclosedandwhichareprovidedwithbutafewseats,insteadofbright,open cafes withtheirnumerouslittle tablesandtheiratmosphereof convivial cheer fulness.Thereishardlyanypartof Kingston where,ifyou listen intently, you willnothearthesoundofsingingatnight.Followingthedirectionofthesound, you will sooncomeupononeofthereligiousmeetingsIhavementioned,agreatgatheringofperhapsfivehundredpeople;andyoumaybesurethatascoreormoreofthesemeetingsaregoingonatthesametimealloverthecity.Picturethisgatheringtoyourself.Twowoodenpolesareplacednearoneanotherontheground,andonthetopofeachof these isfastenedalargetinlampfilledwithkerosene oilandhavingthreegreatwicks, which,whenlighted,give off agreatblaze oflightandahugecurlingvolume ofthickblack smoke.Standingbytheselampsmaybesome fiveorsixwomendressedallinwhite,andwithhighhead-dresses of whitelawnupontheirheads.Theselook liketurbans,andaretwistedintofantasticshapes:white isthesacredcolour ofWestAfrica,andthoughitis acenturysincetheslavetradeceased,wefind whitethesacredcolour oftheWestIndianrevivalists.Onewomanistheleaderoftherest. Sheopensthemeetingbyrecitinga verse of a well-knownhymnin a shrill, loud voice,movingslowly afewpacestoandfro assheuttersthewords.Herwalk,herlook,hergesturesareall selfconscious;vanityis expressed inhereverymovement;clearly she isdeterminedtomakeof herselfsoundingbrassandatinklingcymbalto-night.Shepausesafterrecitingtheverse;thencommencestosingit,andhersistersinwhitetakeupthetune.Shrill, shrillandear-piercing,thehymnisintendedas a call totheneighbourhoodtocomeoutandbesaved;andtheneighbourhooddoescomeforth,nottobe saved,buttoenjoyitselfbysinging.Graduallythecrowdthickens, a fairsprinklingofirreverentboyshangingupontheoutskirtsofitandpassingthetimebystickingpinsintoeachother'slegs.Butthesisterspaynoheedtoanyinterruption;theyproceedwiththeirexposition of spiritualtruthsin amannertheyhavelearntfromtheSalvation Army."Jesusiscoming!"exclaimstheirleader;andshe shakes a littlewhipsheholdsinherrighthandvehementlytowardstheskies."Jesusiscoming!"repeatsherfollowers inferventtones,andamongstthecrowda fewoldwomenre-echothewords. Oh!mybrothersandsisters," she continues,"areyoupreparedtomeetHimontheJudgmentDay;areyoureadyfortheBridegroom,youwhoarestandingontheblazingbrinkofhell?Thedevil iswaitingforyou!Oh,prepare,prepare,ereitbetoolate-toolate, too late, toolate!"Asshespeakshervoice fallsintoanimpassionedchantandsheswaysherbodytoandfro.Thesing-songrhetoricpoursforthinasurprisingvolume. You wouldnothavebelievedhercapableofspeakinglike this. She isencouraged

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KINGSTON,THEGATEWAYOFJAMAleA95bythecriesthatcomefromthe audience,andcontinuestoemphasisethewords"toolate," till,movedasitwouldseembyacommonimpulse,thecrowdburstsinto singing,"TooLate,TooLate, shallbetheCry."Andsothemeetinggoes on,andthepassers-byproceedupontheirway,payingbutlittle heed. Andthebrightflaringlampslightup themotleycrowdandtheshiningfaces ofthewhite-clothedwomenwhoarepreachingChristianevangelisticdoctrinewithprimitive fervour,thefervourthatcausedthepriestsofBaaltognashthemselves with knivesinanecstasy of spiritual possession.Butyoumustnotimaginethatthecongregationsareatall seriously influencedbythesemeetings.TheyattendtheminmuchthesamespiritasI do,andtheylistenwithgreatgood-humour, forthereisnomoregood-humouredcrowdthantheJamaicacity crowd. Ihaveattendedsimilaropen-airmeetingsin London,andthepreachersatthosemeetingsdidnottalkonebitmoresensiblythantheseKingstonstreet-cornerpreachers.IrememberonemanIheardinHydeParkwhokepthis eyes tightly closed allthetime he talked,andmostly stooduponthetipsof his toes.HepreacheduponPredestination,andhispointwasthatweareallpredestinedtobesavedorlost beforeourbirth,butthatwecouldpreventoursoulsbeinglost if wetriedhardenough.Thelogicofhisargumentwasbewildering,andIdonotthinkyou would findanyJamaicastreetpreachermakingthesamekindofblunder.ThetruthisthattheJamaicastreetpreacherusually possesses a keensenseofwhatis forcefulanddirectinreligious oratory. Youmaythinksheis talking nonsense ifyourefuse to listen to her.Butlisten,andyou will findthatshewillquoteyouScriptureforeverythingshesays. Iwantyoutounderstand,too,thatthedistinguishingcharacteristicoftheworkingclasses of Kingston istheirgoodhumour.Becausetheyaregood-humouredmanya superficialobserverhassaidthattheyarethoughtlessandthriftlessandcareless ofthemorrow.ButI wishtoenteraprotestagainstsuchasweepingcondemnation.Howcanpeoplebethriftyiftheyhave littleornothingtosave?IshallshowlateronthatthepeasantryofJamaicaaredecidedlynotthriftless;butthetownfolkarenotinthesameposition asthepeasantry;theyarewage-earners,andtheirpayisnevermorethanenoughforthemto live upon.Theirconditionmayimprovelateron;evennowthereistalkofprovidingbetterhomesfortheworkersbypubliceffort,andmanyanearnestpublicmanisthinkingofwhatmaybedoneinthisconnection. I should also liketoseethewages oftheKingstonworkingclasses increase, for, believe me, as arulethoseclassesworkhardandwell. I haveseenEnglishmen,Americans,andFrenchmenatworkintheirrespectivecountries. IhaveseentheKingstonartisanandlabourerrebuildingthecityof Kingston.AndI say I haveneverseenEnglishmen,Americans,orFrenchmenworkharder-youmaythinkIexaggerateif I tell

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAyou I haveneverseenthemworkashard.Justwatchthelabourertoilingearlyandlatebuildingtheconcretestructuresthatarerising all overthelowerpartof Kingston. Seehimemptying"hugebucketsofcementintowoodenframes,orflingingbricksupanddown.Watchthewomenbreakingbricksfor hoursatatimeintheblazing sun,andchattingcontentedlyastheydoso.Themensingandwhistle astheywork,andfive o'clockcomesandpasses,andstilltheyworkon. Ihaveheardthemsinginginthedarknessastheystrovetofinish somebitof work,andallthetimetheircheerfulnessandgood-humourhaveappealedtomeaswonderful.AndI will sayonethingmoreabouttheseworkers.Theyalwaysremembertheiroldparents,andtheirmothersespecially,wherevertheymaygo.Theywillnotwillingly leavethemto want. Now Idonot callthatthoughtlessness:I callita fine exhibition ofgenuinehumanfeeling.AndIknowofnothingfinerthantheenduringlove oftheoldpeopleandtheirchildren,a lovethatdisplays itselfincheerful,untiringservice.OnlythosewhoknowtheJamaicalower classesintimatelycanknowhowstrongistheaffectionthatbindsmotherandsontogether.I think, too,thatthepoorestclassesareamongstthehappiestpeopleinKingston, allthecircumstancesconsidered.Theyhave ahardtimeofit..buttheyenduretheirhardshipsbravelyandwithpatience.Theyarewonderfullykindtooneanother.Notoneofthemwouldletanotherstarve ifheorshecouldpreventit.Itisthiskindliness of disposition,thewish toshareinoneanother'sjoysandsorrows,thedelightin pleasureswhichallcanenjoy:all thisitisthathelpstomaketheirhappiness. I lovetheKingston workers,whethermenorwomen.Fortheylaughintheface of misfortune,andendurewithuncomplainingresignationanever lasting struggle with adverse fortune.

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ROARIG RIVER, JAMAICA.

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CHAPTERVITHEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAICAONEhearsandreadscontinuallythattheFrenchandSpanishhavestampedtheirnationalcharacteristicsuponthealien peoplesamongwhomtheyhavesettled,andhaveestablishedindistantandtropicalcountriesthecustomsandhabitsthatflourish"athome."Theimplication isthattheEnglishhavenotsucceededindoinglikewise;andyou wouldimaginefrom thisthatthetropical possessions ofBritainareasmuchunlikethemothercountryastheypossibly could be. Now,theyareunlikeinmanyrespects.Thatis inevitable. But, as I havehintedindealingwiththesuburbanlife of thebetterclasses of Kingston,thepoints of similaritybetweenJamaicaandEnglandarestronglymarkedin sofaras social customs are concerned:inahundredandonedifferentways you will findtheinfluenceofEnglandhere,andtheinfluence ofEnglishinstitutions.Americanmannersandideasarenowenteringinto conflictwiththatinfluence,anditishardto saywhethertheAmericanortheEnglishexamplewilleventuallyprevail.Americaliesverynearto Jamaica,andthousandsofAmericansvisittheisland annually.TheJamaicanewspapersaregotupaftertheAmericanstyle;thehotelsaresteadily followingtheAmericanplan;someoftheJamaicagirlsstepoutbriskly inthestreetsastheyhaveseenAmericangirlsdo;andinPortAntonio I havenoticedthattheworkingclasses haveadoptedthebrief,directstyle ofspeakingbeloved by Americans.ThusasortofcompetitionismaintainedinJamaicabetweentheEnglishandtheAmericanmanner;but, as yet,whatisfundamentalinthecivilisation oftheJamaicanisindubitablyofEnglishorigin. HissportsandpastimesareofEnglishorigin. His Sunday, unquestionably, is of English origin.TheBritishSabbathis saidtobeaninvention oftheEnglishPuritans,whowentbackto the OldTestamentfortheirideas as towhataSundayoughtto be,andhowitshould be spent.Therulesandprinciplestheylaiddownthenhavenotbeenseriollsly modified since,andinJamaicayou will findthemhonouredandrespected;forSundayinthisisland iskeptas quietlyandalmost as sadly asitisinanypartoftheUnitedKingdom.Intheircontestwithalatitudinarianspirit,theChurches8 W

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98INJAMAICAANDCUBAhavewonupto now.Theirvictoryishardlymorethansixtyyearsold.Evenintheearlypartofthenineteenthcentury,Sundaywasadaygivenovertomarketing,foronSundaytheslavescameintothetownsto sellthesurplusoftheproducetheywereallowedtocultivatefortheirownsustenance.A littlepatchoflandwasgiventoeachable-bodiedman,andheandhis familygrewtheirfooduponit,andsoldtothetownpeoplewhattheydidnotrequire:itwasinthiswaythatmanyofthemobtainedthemoneytoredeemeithertheirchildrenorthemselvesoutofbondagebeforetheemancipationtookplace.Thetown markets werebutopen,unroofedspacesinornearthecentreofthetowns,andinthesethenoisy,chatteringcrowdswouldsit for hours,keepingtheSabbathDayunholy,butgainingagoodlyharvestbydoingso. Asfewpersonswenttochurchinthosedays,thisSabbathdesecrationdidnotsit heavilyonanybody'sconscience:onlyafewdissentingministerswerescandalisedbyit.Butthetriumphofthesecamewhenslaverywasabolishedin1838,andwhen,intheirspecialcapacityastheprotectorsofthefreedmen,theycouldlaydownrules fortheguidanceofthelatter.SundaytradingwasdecreedillegalbytheLegislature,andmostsinfulbytheclergy.Sundaywastobeadayof restandofprayer,theministersfurtherinsisted.Nothingloath,thepeopleagreedthatitshouldbeadayofrest:theyagreedthatworkshouldbesuspendedonthefirstdayoftheweek,andthatnooneshouldthinkofpleasureorenjoymentonthatday,evenifhedidnotprayorattendanyplaceof worship.AndthustheBritishSabbathwasestablishedinJamaica,andremainsestablishedtothisday.Sundaydawnssilently inthetownsandthecity;silentlyinthelittlevillagesnestlingbetweenmountainpeaksordreaminginbeautifulvalleys.Saturdaynightisthebusiestnightoftheweek. Allthesmallershopsareopenandlightedup;alltheservantsortheworkersaremovingaboutmakingtheirpurchasesandpreparingforthemorrow.Themarketshumwith noise,andatthestallsthebattleofthebarterersproceeds.JustoppositetheCentralParkonitswesternsideisthebusiestmarketofthecityof Kingston,andthere,onaSaturdaynight,youcanhardlymoveaboutsogreatisthecrowd.Thestreetsarounditarethronged,theside-walksarethronged;thegaslampslightuptheanimatedscenebutfaintly,andso,wheregreatspacesofshadowfall,youfeelratherthanseeyourwayabout.Shoutsassailyourear:"Quattieforthis!""Pennyfeethis!""Gran'mammawanttogohome!..Theseandsimilarcriescomeasanappealtoyoutobuythethingsthesellershavetosell. You willnoticethat"grandmammawantstogohome."You will findthatthatisonegoodreasongivenwhyyououghttobuywhatthevendorhasforsale;butasgrandmammamaybeabright-lookinglittlegirloffourteen,andyou yourselfmaybeofanyage,youwonderwhysheshouldappealtoyouwithsoblandanassumptionofoldage.Shecouldnottellyouherself:shemerelyknowsthatthecry, gran'mammawanttogohome!"makesagoodbusinessmottoandisusedbyeveryone.Thetruereasonisthis:theWest

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAleA99Indianpeasantrespectsoldage,andapleainthenameofoldagewillscarcelypassunheeded.Youbuyfromtheolderfolkwiththepurposeofsparingthemthetroubleofremainingoutlate,andsothelittlegirlsalso callthemselves"grand,mamma."Andtheyalladdressyouas "melove"and"mesweet"withthemostcharmingfrankness.Andsothehubbubgoeson,thecriescontinue,thecrowdedshopsdoagoodtradeuntilmidnightcomes.Midnight,andSaturdayisended.Sundayhasbegun.Atoneo'clock on aSundaymorningIhavestoodinthestreetsthatbutanhourbeforere-echoedwithstrange,loud,entertainingnoises.Howswiftlythecrowddisappears,andsilencefallsuponthescene!Thelittlebowlsandbasketsarequicklypacked,thetiredbutgood-naturedbuyersandsellersquicklydepart.Thelawis severeonSundaytrading,sothereis noattempttoremainsellinginthestreetsorintheshopsafterthepolicemenhavegiventhesignalthatbusinessmustcease.Grandmammagoeshome,and,whateverbeherage,shesurelydeservestherestthatSundaybringsher.OnSundaymorningtheusuallyquietstreetsofKingstonandtheothertownsarestillmorequiet:it isasthoughtheveryairweredrowsyandeverythingslept.AndeverythingdoessleeplongeronSundaymorningthanonanyothermorningin aWestIndiantown.IntheAnglicanandRomanCatholicchm'chesa fewpersonsaretakingearlycommunion;buttheservicesherebeginateleveno'clock,sonoonethinksaboutearly rising to-day.Weareallleisurely:weeataheartierbreakfastthanonanyotherofthesixdaysoftheweek;for ifwedoacceptthePuritanideaofSundayasadayof rest,andpossibly ofprayer,wecertainlyrefusetomakeitadayof fasting.OnthispointwecompromisewiththeRomanCatholicChurchandregardSundayas adaywhenweoughttoeatthebestwecanafford;soSundayis a feastdayinJamaica.Thehumblestfamilyhassomelittledelicacyonthatday,and-markthis-thehumblerclasses love to offer totheirfriendsand whatevergoodthingstheymaybeenjoying.Partoftheirpleasureisderivedfromtheexercise of thisgenerousimpulse. I think,indeed,thatiftheaverageJamaicapeasantwerecompelledtobemeanhewouldbesupremelymiserable.Thebetterclassescannot"offer"astheworkingclasses do,butthey,too,havethesamecharacteristicofgenerosity-thewishto givemustsurelybegeneratedbytheclimate,souniversalis it.Itmaynotbeverymuchthatanyonehastooffer you,butyouwillnotenteraworking-classoralowermiddle-classhabitationonSundaywithoutbeingofferedsomething.Thismaysignifysomecarelessnessastothriftintheopinionofsomepersons.Butitmakesfor socialhappinessamongstthepoorerclasses,andsocialhappinesshasahumanisingeffectuponthem.Atsometimeafterteno'clockthechurchbellswarnthefaithful oftheapproachingservice,andfromallpartsofthetownorof .the citydotheycome.Andlo!Ishowyoua miracle.Formanyofthesenicely-dressedmenandwomenarethesamethatyousawlastnightindingyworkinggarmentsinthe

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rooINJAMAICAANDCUBAshopsandinthestreets.Whatachange!White,youwill notice, istheprincipalwearofthewomen:whitelawnsandmuslinswornwithsashesofpinkorredribbon.Sometimesthedressesareofsomepinkorblueflowered stuff,butthematerialisalmostinvariablylight;onlytheelderlywomenwear he:J.vy darkclothes,as befitstheirage.Andtheirhead-dresses?Hats.Once,agenerationago,thewomenworegay-colouredturbans,astheystilldointheFrenchWestIndianislands;andsuchhead-dressesyouwill find incommonuseamongstthepeopleofthecountrydistrictsduringweekdays.Butthepeopleofthetownshavegiventhemup,andKingstonhassettheexample.SomeofthefashionsworninJamaicawillseemtoyou, ifyouareanewcomer,a littleold:theyarenotsuchasyouhaveleftbehind.Whatwasthefashiona fewmonthsago,orevenlastyear, inLondonandParis,maybethefashioninKingstonto-day,exceptamongthewealthierpeoplewhomayjusthavereturnedfromatriptothemothercountry.Youunderstandthereason?Itisnotentirelyfinancial.True,wecannotaffordtochangeourdressessooftenastheydointhecentresoffashionablesociety,especiallythoseof uswhoarenotwealthy.Adresscostssomethingtobuyandsomethingtomake.Wemay.havebeensavingforweeksandmonthstobuythisone,andweshallwearituntilitgetsoutoffashionhere.Butthereisanotherreasonwby,toastranger,wemayseemoutofthefashion.LondonandParisarefarfromus.Ittakessometimebeforewhatisthefashiontherecomesoutto us as apatterntofollow.Distancemakesallthedifferenceintheworld;but, solongasweareinthefashion here,whatdoesthedifferencematter?Soyousee usthisSunday,gaywithbrightribbons,lookingcoolinourlightfrocksandbodices:you see usbythehundredsinthestreets,inthecars,andyouseeatoncethatthisis acountrywherethepeopledogotoservice.Infact, wearefondofgoingtoservice. AJamaicachurch-goingcrowdis of all classesandcomplexions:white,blackandbrown,andof alltheintermediatehues.Thereisabsolutelynoattemptatseparatechurchesfordifferentcolours:suchathingwould, I think,bringabouta rebellion.Thereisnodivision ofthecongregationaccordingtocolour,andtherecanneverbeany.IhavebeenratherstartledonceortwiceuponenteringaJamaicachurchtoobservethedarkermembersofthecongregationeithersittingall totheback,ortoonesideofthebuilding. Ihavemadeinquiries:"Thosepewsarerentedatso much," I was told,"andthoseatsomuch;yousee." Isaw.Thedivisionwasbaseduponsolid financialgrounds:itwascash,notcolour,thatmadethedifferenceIobserved.Norwasthisameresupposition, for inthisHisMajesty'sislandofJamaica,whereeveryoneisabsolutelyequalbeforethelaw,andknowsit,andwherethepopulationis chieflycoloured,nochurchorotherplaceof apublicorasemi-publicnaturewouldthinkseriouslyaboutcolourdiscriminations.Herealso, asinCuba,youfindnounpleasantfeelingexistingbetweenthewhiteandthecolouredpopulation.

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAleAIOILookatwhatSciencesaysabouttheflood.specialcopiesoftheBibletoschool-childrenBecausecourtesyhassupersededforce,youwill findyourblackstoremanpoliteandcourteous,andreadytogiveyouhisseatinthecarif youareawoman.Andyouwill findhimasreadytoaccommodateyouinchurch.Only, inchurch,youmaynotrecognisehimasthemanyou saw labouringinthestoreyesterday.Forheisnowclothedin apairofgreytrousersandawaistcoatofthesamematerial,andperhapshewearsablackorablue-blackjacketandapairofcarefullypolishedbrownboots,anda soft felt hat,orhard"derby."Therearehundredslikehimintheseveralchm'chesofthecityonSunday,andhundredsofa better-off class.Theymaynotbe"members."Theymaynotevenbe .. adherents."Buttheydolike toattendthechurches,andso,alongwiththeirwomenfolk, youseethemtroopingintothenumerousplacesofworshipwhicharetobefoundin Kingstonandtheothertownsofthecolony. AJamaicachurchservice,whetherAnglicanorNonconformist,isthesamesortofserviceyouwillhearinthechurchesinEnglandoranyotherEnglishcolony.Inthecountrydistricts,however,itmaylast,withvariations,almostawholeday.lancewenttoacountrychurchatteno'clockinthemorning,andneverleftuntilaboutfourintheevening.ItwasaWesleyanChurch,andnosoonerwasonepartoftheproceedingsoverthananotherwasbegun;therewerescripturallecturesbytheelders,andadmonitionsbytheoldwomen,andthenthewholeceremonyresolveditselfintoSunday-schoolclasses.Thereason was thatthechurchstoodatsomedistancefrol11thesurroundingvillages,andsoSundaywasmadethemostofbytheteachersandthepreachers.Iwasmuchimpressedbythesimplicityandtheeconomyoftheplan.ButIhavenotattendedaJamaicavillagechurchsince.Butifthenumberofpersonsthatgoestochurchis large,thenumberthatdocsnotgoismuchlarger.Onereasonforthisisinteresting.Itwasgiventomebyanacquaintanceof mine, ajourneymanbarber,whoregardstheworld,theflesh,andthedevilwithcheerfulfriendliness."TheolderIgrow,"he said,"themoreI findmyselfdriftingawayfromtheChurches.""Why?"Iaskedhim."Theirteachingsarefunny.ThenIhearthattheyaregivinginEngland."Heshookhisheadasifnotquitesatisfiedwiththis lastthing.Thenherepeated:"Theirteachingsarefunny."Myfriendis amanwhoreadsthenewspapersandwhohaslearnt,thoughatsecond-hand,somethingabouttheHigherCriticismandtheviews oftheAgnostics.Thishastroubledhismindalittle;notenough,ofcourse,tomakehimunhappy,butquiteenoughtocausehimtodriftawayfromtheChurcheswithanintellectualexcuse. Ithinkhewouldhavedonesowithouttheexcuse.YetIhaveheardothersexpressthesamevaguediscontentwiththeteachings

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102IN JAMAICAANDCUBAoftheChurches;soIgatherthatinJamaica,asin somanyothercountries,a rationalistictendencyismakingsomeprogress.AfterserviceonSundayinJamaica-what?Moreservice. Most oftheChurchesholdservicesintheeveningsaswell as inthemornings,andasthereis noSundayeveningpromenade,andnotheatricalperformances,theseservicesarewellattended.Buttherearealreadysomesigns ofchange.ThePuritanideastillholds;butonaSundayafternoonyouwill seethecarsfilled withbrightlydressedpeoplegoingfor aridetothebotanicalgardensatHope,six milesawayfromKingston,ortotheRockfortGardensbeyondtheeasternboundaryofthecity,andbythesea.Bothplacesarebeautiful.AtHopeyouhavethemountainstothenorthandtothecast,great,impressivepilestoweringgrandlytothesky,andatthefoot ofthemarethegardenswiththeirnumerousvarietiesoftropicalplants,theirwonderfulorchidsandlilies,andtheirsmoothgreenlawns. AttheRockfortGardensyouhavethemountainsandlhesea.Themountainsformthebackground,thesea is in front,blueandsparklingasalways;anda littlefarthertotheeastistheoldfortwhichtheEnglishconquerorsbuilttodefendtheeasternapproachesof Kingston.AndtothisplaceandtheHopeGardenscomebandsofworkingclassgirlsandyoungmenonaSundayafternoon.Butmostofthepeopleremainathome.IttakessomecouragetogotothepleasuregardensonSunday,fortheexcursionis ofthenatureofenjoyment,andenjoymentisnotconsideredproperonSunday.TheutmostthattheaveragememberofthemiddleclassesallowsherselftodoonaSundayafternoonis togofor aridein abuggyorontheelectriccar.Isay herself. fortheSundayrulesaremaintainedbythewomenofJamaica,andthemenacquiesceperforce.ItistheBritishSabbathalloveragain.NeverthelessmanymembersoftheartisanclassareputtingtheSundayafternoontosocialuses;forthentheyvisitorarevisitedbytheirfriends. SometimeswhenpassingthroughasuburblikeAllmanTown,tothenortheastof Kingston,wherelargenumbersofthemoreprosperousworkingpeoplelivewitha fairdegreeofcomfort,Ihaveheardthesoundof aharmonium,andsinging;andlookinginthroughtheopenwindowIhaveseenagroupofmenandwomenenjoyingthemselveswithhymns,andIknowthatbiscuitsorcakeandaeratedwaterswillbehandedroundtomaketheeveningpassmorecheerfully.Thisprogressintheamenitiesof lifeamongstthehumblerstrataofsocietyisnotevensuspectedbyalargenumberofeducatedpersonsinJamaica.Thesemainlyseethepoorestclassesandtheirpoverty;theydonotknow abovetheservantsandthecommonlabourersaremorethanoneclass ofpersonswho,onasmallerscale,tryto livemuchinthesamemannerasthebeUer-offpeople.Manyofthesearemypersonalacquaintances,andit is apleasureto talkwiththem,soshrewdaretheirobservationsuponlife,sotruetheirpenetration

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAleA 10j totherealityunderlyingtheappearanceof somanythingstheysee.Theyarecriticsof life.Theshrewdnessandhumouroftheworkingclasses ofJamaicaareshownto us inoneortwochaptersof abookbya localauthor,"TomRedcam,"Inhis"OneBrownGirl"thiswriterhasgivenussomeconversationsbyrepresentativetypesofthepoorerclassesonchurch,society,andkindredquestions,andthoseconversationsarethebestoftheirkindtobefoundinanybookonWestIndianlife.Inthatbook, ifonelikes,onemayreadtheKingstonworker'sownthoughtsandopinionsonlifeasheseesitdaybyday,andonewilllearnthattheservantandthelabourer'aresocialthinkersandobservers.Theirteachershavelaiddownrulesfortheirguidance,andintheiryouththeyhavelearntthoserules.Theyare,word-perfectinthem.Apparently,theyacceptthemwithoutquestion.Actually,theydonot."Whatisgoodforyouisnotnecessarilygoodforme"isoftentheoutspokencommenttheymakeuponallthefinepreceptslaiddownfortheirguidance.Theirphilosophyin thisregardissummedupintheproverb,"Rockstoneatriverbottomneverfeelssunhot." \Vhat isthisbutanotherway of saying,withBeckySharp,thatitwereeasytobevirtuousonfivethousandpoundsayear?Yourwasherwomanorcooksits inthesamechurchwithyouandhearsthesameadmonitions,butsheknowsherpositionandsheknowsyours;andsilently,almostunconsciously,she raakes thecomparisonanddrawsthedeductionthatwhatmaybeeasyforyou isimpossibleforher.Andshediscussestheproblemwithherfriendswithastonishinglogic.Theviewthewealthierclassestakeof socialquestions,however,isbeingtakenbymembersofthetradesmenandartisanclasswhomFortunehastreatedwellandwhosesocial life is insomewaya reflexion ofthelife of .thebetterclasses. So IpassthroughthesuburbsonSundayafternoons,andIhearplayingandsinging,andIknowthattheinmatesofthehousesoneitherhandaremakingthemostof lifeinatropicalcolonywheretheBritishSabbathisanestablishedinstitution.Cricketandtennisplayedundera flaming skymeanstrenuousexercise,yettheyare"sport,"andsoarepopularinJamaica.Horse-racing,gardenparties,dancing:thosearepopularpastimestoo;ancl Ithinkthatthemostpopularofthemis clancing,withracingaclosesecond.ItisataJamaicameetthatyouseetheJamaicawomenattheirbest.TheGrandStandiscrowdedandeverywomanwearsanewfrock(thebestshecanafford),andconsciouslytriestolookherhandsomest:themeetis aparadeof fashionandof frocks, of bodies, of eyes, ofhats-ofeverythingthatawomanhasandthinksabout;it is ashowofwomen:thebestthatJamaicacanputforth. Ithinkaracecourseis aplacewhereyou seemuchthatistypicallyJamaican

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104INJAMAICAANDCUBALetmedescribeameetasIhave seen itontheKingstonCourse,whenthousandsofpeoplewerepresent,fromtheGovernortothe tmant fromschool.TheGrandStandwas tothewest,andthiswas filled to overflowing withwomenandmen. Walking amongstthemyouperceivedtwothings:first,thattheislandofJamaicaisoneof thosespotsoftheglobewhereallornearlyallthedifferentracesoftheBritishEmpirearerepresented;next,thatclassandcolouraremeaninglesstermsatagreatpublicfnnctionsuchasthis.BlackmenandwomenofcomfortablepositionsatsidebysidewithtouristsfromEngland:Hindooselbowedofficers of HisMajesty'sArmy;ChinesefromHongKong,dressedinEuropeancostume,satsilentlylookingdownuponthecoursebesideenthusiasticJamaicagirlswhosedeepbrunettecomplexionandrapidgesturesbetokenedthemixtureofwhiteandblack blood intheirveins.Thepriceofadmissionwasthesameforeveryone;fourshillings. Soclerksandshopmen,well-to-do artisans,prosperousmerchants,professionalmen(clergymenexcepted),Governmentofficials,planters,andothers,allhadcomewiththeirwives,daughters.andsweethearts,andallwereintheStand;fornottobeintheStandwasanopenandvisibleconfessionofpoverty;itwas, intruth,towriteyourselfdownaplebeianandbecountedamongstthepeopleofthecourse.TheStandwascrowded,thepaddockbelowit wascrowded.Thesunshonefiercely,lightingupananimatedscene.Whatcoloursthedresseswere!pinksandblues,white,silver-grey,maroon,purple-Icannotrunthroughthecatalogue.Andthemen?Well,atarace-meetinginJamaicaastrikingcostumeformenisconsideredto be"theproperthing,"sowewearflannelsandredneckties, aod rakish hats,andalltheotherparaphernaliaof"sportsmen,"andweall discussthe merits ofthehorseswithanassumptionofdeepknowledgeandakeenunderstandingofequinecharacteristics.Friendsnodcheerfullytooneanother,andevenacquaintancesspeakwithbutamoderateshowofrestraint,forracingissupposedtorelax classdistinctionsduringthetimethatit lasts.Thereis a buzzandamurmurofconversation.Verysmallboysgoaboutmakingverylargebets:andeveryoneishotandperspiring,andpretendstobedesperatelyhappy.Or,perhaps, does notpretend.Perhapseverybodyishappy,happyin arespectablesortof a way.Downbelowontheopensward,however,wherethegreengrassandtheyellow flowersareunderneathone'sfeet,andtheblueskyandthesunareabove-there,whereallrestraintistllrowntothefourwindsofheaven,isoneofthemerriestandnoisiestcrowdsintheworld.Thecourseis studded withnumerousbooths,andeverywhereyouturnyoureyesyouwill see atinycolumnofsmokecurlinguptowardsthesky.Fireplacesof afewloosebricks have beenbuilt allabout,andonthesehundredsof potsareboilingandscoresoffrying-panshissingandspluttering.Benchesarenear,and boxes filled withplatesandknivesandspoons;andsittingonthesebenchesorsquattedonthegreenswardarelaughinggirls,blackandbrown;whileperhapsstretchedoutatfulllengthupontheground

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAleA105aretheiradmirers-stalwartyoungmenwhohavecometoenjoythemselvesattheraces,andwhotake aspecialdelightindescribingthemselvesas "bad nlen." A"badman"inJamaicameansonewhowillstopshortatnothingintheway of ruffianism. As amatterof factthemostoftheseyoungmenareentirelyharmless.Butattheracesyou are supposedtobereadytoproceedtoanyextremes;consequentlyeverymanandboyuponthecourseisarmedwithahugestickwhichheflourishesatintervalsbyway ofestablishinghisclaimtobeconsideredbad.Thegirls,theirvoicesraisedto ascreamatmomentsofexcitement,talk of theracesandbetinthreepenny-piecesupontheirfavourite horses.Meanwhiletheyeat;for inthepotsandpansallaboutareviandsbelovedoftheJamaicanworkingclasses:rice boiled withredpeasandflavouredwithcocoanutoil,andfriedsaltedpork;boiledsaltedfishseasonedwithlardorcottonseedoil,andservedwithyamandcocoaandlargeflourdumplings;stewedbeef,withriceandyam.Aportionofanyofthesedishesyoumayhavefor3d.or6d.accordingtothequalityofthefoodandthestatusofthetemporaryrestaurant.Thecourseisstuddedwithvendorsof all sorts.The"pindarboy'"withhisbasketofparchednuts,theice-creamsellerpushingabouthis littlecart,womenwithtubs illied with bottles of"cooldrink,'"womenwithtraysoficedspongecakes(knownas racecakes")bigcarts illied withcocoanutsatapennyeachallKingston'spopulationofitinerantvendorsishereto-day,andtheyoungmen and thewomenbuyfromthem,andthelittleboysfollowtheirmovementswith wistful,longingeyes.Littlestructuresrisehereandthereuponthecourse.Theyarebat-sandtheyarealways illied. TemperateastheJamaicanisbyhabitandnature,manyamanfeelsthathewillnotdojusticetohimselfandtohisfriendstodayunlesshebecomesmildlyintoxicatedandoffers to ilght youontheslightestsuspicionofdisagreementonyourpartwithanyopinionhemaycareto express.Bettingproceedsgaily;andnowandthena wildscatteringofthecrowdproclaimsthatacombatistakingplace.Thisisknownas a"sticklicking,'" for it usuallybeginswithoneirategentlemanof villainousaspectleapingtwofeetintotheair,callingupontheAlmightytostrikehimdead ilrst andblindafterwards,thencomingdownwith hisstickon-hisopponent'shead?Thatwas hisintention.Buttheothermanhas a stickalso,andhedeftlyfencesofftheblow;afterwhichstickencountersstickin a seriesofrapidflourishes,themenandwomenfriendsofeachofthecombatantsgrowfrenziedwithexcitement,thewomen shriek "Murder!"andimplorethemento"HoldJohnny! '""Tek 'wayRichard! '" while.thementowhomtheappealismade,showtheirdesiretoshineaspeacemakersbyadvisingeachoftherespectivefightersto"lickhimto--! '" Thatbeingtheirownintention,it looksasthoughmurderwereimminent;butthesuddenappearanceof apolicemanonthesceneputsthewholeparty

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106INJAMAICAANDCUBAtoflight. Ihaveknownoneortwoastutegamblersescapepayingabet by risingfiercelyintheirwrathandthreateningto"cripple"allandsundry ill theirimmediateneighbourhood.Thisthreat,accompaniedby some lightning-likemovementswitha stick, has asalutaryeffectupontimorouspersons.TheordinaryJamaica"stick-licker," Ihavealsoobserved,usuallyhassomething the matterwithoneeye.Perhapsthat is theresultofhisoftexpressedw.ishtobe'immediatelystruckblind.Meanwhilethebuglesummonsthehorsestothepost,andtheracesarerun,andthecrowdintheStandcheersandapplaudswithenthusiasm.Andinthecircularcoursethevariegatedthousandsroarthemselveshoarsewith a noisethatbeggarsalldescription.Thenthesungoesdownanddarknesscomesswiftly on,andtheStandemptiesandtheladiesandgentlemengohome.Butinthecourseitself athousandlightsflare out,andcookingproceeds,anddrinking,andanall-nightpicnicunderthe stars begins.Manyofuswillcampoutto-night,laughingandsingingandenjoyingourselves.Theracewill lastthreedays.AndChristmasisnear:Christmaswhichbeginswiththeraces.Iwalkaboutamongstthebooths.Theodourof foodpervadestheair,thehissingsoundofporkfryingisheardeverywhere."Mesweetyounggentleman,buyaracecakefromyouowndarling," says onegirltome."Melove,don'tyouwantsomccooldrink?"asksanother.Ireply,laughing,andtheylaughinreturn; and so allnightthcbanteringandlaughtergooninthelightofthemoonandthestars.Jamaicahasonlyonecity,andbuttwoorthreetownsofanyimportance,andintheseI findto-daya restlessness, adesireforamusement,forexcitement;animpatiencewithconditionswhichmakegardenpartiesorganisedbythe almosttheonlyform ofoutdoorentertainmentavailabletothemiddle-classpopulation.This restlessnessI1nds expressionin asteadyemigrationofthebetter-classyouths,andeventheyoungwomen,tothecitiesoftheUnitedStates.Manyoftheseareforcedtogoawayinsearchof work, forJamaicaisnowproducingapopulationthatshecannotfindemploymentfor.Butoneoftheimpellingcausesofemigration is alsothedesirefor a fuller, livelier life, awishtomoveamongstanimatedcrowds,10seethethousandblazinglightsandheartheroarofthemoderncity-in a word,"tolive."ThenumberofJamaicansofthemiddleaudupperclasseswhohavcvisitedEnglandandAmericaisastonishing.Theislandisnolongercutofffromtheworldasit was inthedayswhentravellingwasexpensiveandwhenit tookmanyweeks,andevenmonths,togo toEngland.Andthosewhogoandreturntelltheirfriendsofthecitiestheyhaveseen,ofthelifetheyhaveglimpsed;andso,yearbyyear,alargernumberofyoungmenandmaidensarethinkingofBostonand New York-ofAmerica,thelandofopportunity-and are bendingalltheirenergiestooneeffort-emigration.

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAICA107"Itissodull,"theysay;andeventheworkingpeoplearebeginningtosaythatnow.YettheyatanyrateareaffectedbynoneoftherestraintswhichmakeWestIndianmiddle-classlifeanundisturbedstagnationfromyouthtoextremeold age.Thecallofthecityisfcltbythepeasanttoilinginthefaroffrecessesofthemountains,andhetellsyouthatthewishof his life is"togoforeign," togo"over-sea."Whereto,hehardlyknowsanddoesnotcare; over-sea"representstohimanundiscoveredworldofstrangedelights,andsomedayhewillprobablyfindhimselfin Colon, ofwhichtownIshallhavesomethingtosaylateron.Meanwhileheenjoyshimselfasbesthecan,andshe-forthewomenalso feelthiscravingformovementandexcitementshe, too,triestomakethemostoflife;andboth linel theirchiefpleasureindancing.Dancing,whichisthejoyofallJamaicans.Thereareallsortsofdances.Inthetouristseason,whichinJamaicalastsfromJanuarytoApril,thebighotelsgiveballstowhichhundredsoffashionablefolkareinvited. Attheseballsonemeetsarepresentativecrowel ofpeoplebelongingtotheupperclasses ofJamaicasociety,andthegatheringis, IthinkoneoftheprettiestthingsthatJamaicahastoshow.Theball-roomisbare,butnearitwillbeshrubsandpalmsandothergrowingthings,andoutsideonelooksupongreengardensoronthephosphorescentsea.Outofthevelvetblacknessoftheskythestarspourdowntheirrays.Everywherearegroupsofrichlydressedwomen;womenwithdelicatepink-andwhitecomplexions,womenwithskinsofgoldenhueandwithlargeflashingblackeyes.Thenightis cool,thelanguorofthedayhasdisappeared.Everyoneis alive,andasthebandburstsintosoundtheselitheforms,andthestouterforms' ofthemen,glideoverthepolishedfloorwitheaseandgrace.Thedoorsoftheroomstandopen;lightsareeverywhere,andyouhearthesoundoflaughter.Thisis abitofthetropicstransformedintofairyland!Andasyougoaboutthecityorthetownyouwill find hereandthereahousefromwhichthesoundofmusiccomes,andinwhichmenandwomenare,dancing.Andif yougointoasuburboralanewherethepoorerclasseslive,youwill also finddancinggoingon,thoughherethepolishedfloorhasgivenplacetothehardearth,andfor roofonehasthesky.There is somethingpatheticabouttheprideoftheWestIndianpeasantTheefforttokeepupappearances,whichissupposedtobeunknowntohim,is in realitymaintainedbyhim,andthateffort finds expressionin his wordsandin his acts.Hewillnotmarrypoorly, ifhemarriesatall.Heseeshowthoseabovehimcarryitoffatawedding;howtheircarriagesrollthroughthestreets,howthebridesmaidsaredressedandtheguests,andwhatafeastthereis.Andhe,onhispart,willnothavehisweddingdifferent:he, too,musthavecarriagesandweddingtoasts,andalltherestof it. So, too,hewillnotdiehappyifhethinksthathisfuneralwillbepoorlyattended,thatthehearsewillbeshabby,andthatthemournerswillhavetowalkbehinditinsteadof

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108INJAMAICAANDCUBAdrivingincarriages.Agoodweddingandagoodfuneral-beholdthetwogreatsocialambitionsof hislife!Somewritershavelaughedatthis,haveputitdowntomerechildishness;why, Ihaveneverbeenabletofind out.Tomarrywell,tobeburiedwell, is a wishthatisalmostuniversal,andit issharedtothefullbytheJamaicapeasant.Buthedoesnotstophere;hewantstodootherthingswell.Ifhegives adance,hewishesittobe a gooddance;andasyourcookandcoachmancannotafford tomake a gooddanceexceptatlongintervalsandonthesubscriptionplan,theycallthedancestheydohavebyanamewhichsuggestsacompromisewithpride.Theycallthem"practicedances."Thetheoryisthatthesedancesarefor Butthosewhoattendthemareforthemostpartexperts.Yetnoonewould speilk ofthemasdancespureandsimple, forthatwouldbesomereflectiononone'ssocial life. Adancemustbegivenin ahouse;dancersmustbeproperlydressed;theremustberefreshments. A" practicedance"maybegivenin ayard,takesplaceeveryweek,andyoumaygotoit inyourworkingclothes. Youarcformallyinvited, ofcourse."Ladies3d.,Gentlemen6d."isanintimationthatyoucannotenjoytheprivilegeofattendingthedancewithoutpaying.Sometimesthelegendrunsthus:"Gentlemen6d.,Ladiesfree."Inanycase,someonehasto pay.The"masterofceremonies"isveryexplicitandemphaticonthatpoint.Thedancersmaynumberasmanyasfortyorfifty. Three orfourstormlanternshungonnailsagainstthefenceandagainstthesideofthelowtenementstructureslightupthescenefaintly,andforscatsthereareboxesandemptybarrelsabouttheyard,while a fewofthetenantsmaybringforthchairsfortheirownpersonalconvenience.Thechiefmusicalinstrumentis aconcertina,andthenextis usually amouth-organ;sometimesaguitarisadded,andonspecial occasionsthere may beaviolin;buttheviolinisrare.Thebandisarbitraryandinsistsuponhavingitsownway;itonlyplayswhatit likes,notwhatthedancerslike,andthelattermustneeds be content.Isit awaltz?Theconcertinaleadsonwith a series ofrapidshrieks,andin a minutesometwentycouplesarewheeling l"Ound envelopedin acloudofdust.Shall itbequadrilles?Apreliminaryflourish oftrumpets(please reild concertinaandmouth-organ)warnsthedancersto"formheadsandsides."Andyou willunderstandthatallthe rules areobeyed:atthebeginningofthedanceyoubowtoyourpartnerhereasyoudointheball-room ofthe Titchl-ield Hotel,andshecurtseysinthemannerapproved.AndcontinuallyIhearthecommand,"Through!""Change!" "Chasse toyourpartner!"andinthedimlylighteddarknessIperceivetheflyingformsofmenandwomen,andIheartheil'laughter,and,attheend,theirshoutsofmerrimentwhichshowhowthoroughlytheyhaveenjoyedthemselves.Andarethereno native"dances?Yes:adancewhichcameoverfromAfricaandwhichistobefound,notinJamaicaonly,butinalltheWestIndianIslands,ontheContinentofSouthAmerica,andeveninPortugalandSpain.Itis aphallicdance,adanceinwhichafrankappealismadeto

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAICA109thepassions.Orrather,adanceinwhichsuchanappealmaybemade,forit alldependsuponhowyoudanceit.Itconsistsofslowmovementsofthebody,andthepointofperfectionisreachedwhen,asin Hayti,thedancerneverallowstheupperpartofherbodytomoveasshewrithesandshufflesoverthegronnd.Youdancewithyourpartneralone.Ifyouarerefined,yourmotionsmaybea triflesuggestive-hardlyeventhat.Ifyouarenotrefined,theymaybecoarsely, brutally,blatantlyvulgar.Knownasthemento,thebambou/a,the chim, you will findthisdancewherevertheAfricanwastakenas a slave,andyoumaysee itdancedinmanyaWestIndiandrawingroomwithouttheslightestsuspicionthatwhatyouarehearing,orevendancing,is asublimatedWestAfricanphallicdance.As Iamwritingthesewords, Ihearapianoin ahousenearbyplayingaSpanishsong,"LaPaloma"-"TheDove."TheoriginoftheairofthatsongistobesoughtinWestAfrica.InJamaicathedanceIspeakofhereisknowninallitsmanyvarietiesasthe"shayshay"(acorruptionoftheFrenchchasse)ormento,andeverynowandthenanewdancemakesitsappearance,noonecanpreciselytell how.ThismentaformsanimportantmusicalitemintherepertoryoftheJamaicapeasant,andisinvariablyaccompaniedbywords.Everyoneisverylikeitspredecessor,whilethesongissimplicityitself.Andwhenthesongisattheheightof itspopularityitissungandwhistledallovertheisland, whiletheairisplayedatevery"practicedance."Oncethese mC/ltos weredancedfromonehourtoanotherbytheJamaicapeasant.Manyapeasantgirl refusestodancetheminthesedays. Andtheyarebynomeansthestapleofanyrespectabledance-partygivenbytheworkingclasses now.Theyarepopular,but,evenso,atyouropen-air"practicedance"youwillhavetwo-stepsandwaltzesandlancersinplenty.Thelasci viousdancesofWestAfricahavetakensecondplace.Iregrettosaythatsometimesthese"practicedances"donotendpeacefully.Ineverycrowdtherearequarrelsomepersons,andwheretwoorthreesucharegatheredtogetherthereiscertaintobearow.Iwitnessedaveryentertainingfightbetweenfourbelligerentmenatoneofthesedancesonenight.As usual, sothatnofeatureof aJamaicafrayshouldbelacking,threeorfourofthewomenshouted"Murder!"andthenthreatenedtoassistincommittingwhatIhadthoughttheywereanxioustoprevent.Whilsttheexcitementwasatitsfiercest,the"masterofceremonies,"whowasalsothe"agent"oftheyard,rushedinwiththeintentionofpromotingpeaceandharmony,and,asanexpeditiouswayofachievinghisend,helaidabouthimwithahugestickheheldinhishand.Orderbeingrestored,headdressedthecrowdwithgreatdignity."Seehere;youfancythisis anagar yard,' no?Well,I willhasyoutoJNegroyard:a place where negroes alone live.

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110INJAMAICAANDCUBAknowthatIamagen'eman,andInotgoin'toallowanynagarnoisehere.You isdamforward!Youcomeintoamanplaceandyouraise you' voiceandwanttobringpolicemaninuponme!Infact,Iamnothavin'anymoredancehere."Beingagentleman,hewouldnotlistentoanyargument.Andforquitetwoweekshekepthisword.Thenherelented,for,afterall,thesubscriptionsofthedancersweresure.Onpublic holidays therearegreatdancesheldatwell-knownplacesinthecityandthevillagesandtowns.Flaringplacardsinformyouthat"AGrandUniqueStaroftheWestPicnicwilltakeplaceatWildmanPennonThursday,King'sBirthday:Mr.Johnny'sBandinattendance.Admission:MalesIS.,Females6d."You go,andyoufindhundredsofpersons-[sawquitetwothousandononeoccasion-dancingontheswardandintheshadeofthetrees.Tobewell-dressedatapicnicofthissorta girl will save formonths.Andshewilldancealldayuntilsheisperfectlyexhaustedandwetthroughandthroughwithperspiration.Thenhomeshewill go,totalkabouttheeventsofthedaywithherrelativesandfriends;torelatequarrels,tell ofcompliments,andtodeclarehow"Ienjoymeself."Thiswishtoenjoyoneself, sostrongintheJamaicaworkingclasses, finds expressioninascoreofdifferentways.Attendingfuneralsisoneofthem.Itisanactualpleasuretobeabletogotothehouseofmourningtocondolewiththerelativesofthedeparted,andafterwardsto sitwaitinguntilthefuneralshall move,theintervalbeingemployedinaquietbutanimateddiscussiononanysubjectthatmayhappentobeofpresentinterest.It is apleasuretosit in acabbetlerstill, acarriage-andthusfollowthehearsetothecemetery.Forthentheenjoymentof a ride,duringwhichyouareconspicuouslyexposedtothepublicview, isseasonedandpickedupwiththeknowledgeandfeelingthatbyattending this funeralyouareperforminganeminentlysocialandrespectableact.Funeralsareaformof socialdiversionwhich,however,inthenatureof things,arecomparativelyrare.Onecannotalwaysbedying.Andchristeningsdonotusuallyadmitof alargegatheringoffriendsandacquaintances.Yetifanyonedoesenjoyachristeningit istheJamaicapeasantmother,andshewillalmostpreferherbabytogounchristenedthanletitgotochurchwithouttheconventionallacehoodandembroideredcloak. Sothelittleoneisclothedwiththepropergarments,andbedeckedwithpinkribbonslacingupits sleeves,andhasatouchofpowderoneithercheek,andwearsbrand-newwoollenpink.and.whitebabyboots.Theoutfitcostssomething,andis,thecircumstancesconsidered,inthenatureofextravagance.Butthen,thinkofthepleasurethechristeninggives!Thinkoftheprideofthemother!Think,too,oftheself-denialwhichmayhavebeenpracticedinorderthatmaternalfondnessshouldhaveadequatesatisfaction.Thebabymaywantforthingsafterwards,butatleast ithashadagoodchristening.Itislauncheduponlifewithadueobservanceof alltherecognisedformsandceremonies.

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THEAMUSEMENTSOFJAMAICAIIIWhatisthefutureofthesechildren?Theywillgrowupsomewhat precari ously,takingtheirchanceswithpoornourishmentandinfantilediseases. At fiveyearsofagetheywillbecomeuseful,fortheycanthen carry messages for theirmothers,andevenlookafterthebaby.A littlelaterontheymaygototheelementaryschool,andfromseventoabout fourteen yearsofagetheywillbattlewithreading,writing,andarithmetic,attendingschool,ontheaveragethreedaysoutoffive;andthen,theirschoolingaccomplished,theywill drift intosuchoccupationsasthereareinaWestIndiancommunity.Theboysbecomelabourersorare"putouttolearntrade."Theybecomegoodtradesmenornot,accordingtotheirindividualaptitude.The girls become"schoolgirls";thatistosay,theygoto work withsomewomanorotherwhoisabletofeedthem,andwhoclothesthemscantily,payingthemnowages,butmakingupforthatbyconstantlyremindingthemofhergreatkindnessandcare.Under her tuitiontheylearntobecomeuseful,andafterwardstheyjointheranksofthedomesticservants,thewasherwoman,thecake-sellers,thusfollowing inthefootstepsoftheirmothers.But here Ispeakparticularlyofthechildrenborninthecityorthetowns.Forthepeopleofthecountrydistrictsasomewhatdifferentfateisreserved.Butall ofthem,whetherofthecountryorthetown, are childrenofsongandlaughter,andcontent for themostpartinthesimpleenjoymentoftheday.Itwillneverbedifferent, for thoughthereispovertyinJamaica,thereisnocold,nopiteousunceasingstrugglewiththeawfulwinter.Thesunshinesalways,and,initsrays,thepeasantpeoplearehappy;andthatis well ;forthetropicsseemmadeforjoyandfordelight.Someonehassaidthatthereis asadnessintheWestIndianhills,anechoofpainheardfaintlyamidstthevastsilence ofthemountains.Itistrue;I, too,havefeltthatsadness,haveheardthatecho;yetlightandlaughterandsongfind ahomeintheseislands also,sofull ofsunshine are they, soluxuriantlygreenandwondrousbeautiful.And,forthemajorityofthepeopleinJamaica,life is wellworthliving, solongasoneiswarmandonecansing.Andthefutureseemsalwaysfull ofpromise-apromiseofbetterthings.

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CHAPTER VIIPEOPLEANDPOLITICSWITH Cuba,therepublicsof HaitiandSantoDomingo,andwithColombiaandCentralAmericasoneartoher,Jamaicamaybethoughttobreathanatmosphereof politics.Everynowandthennewscomestoherof a revolutionthathasbrokenoutnearby,andtimeandagainshehas seen someHaitianorSpanishAmericanPresidentseekingrefugeinhercapital,andperhapsmakingithispermanenthome.Jamaica is insomesorta revolutionists'headquarters.Manyanuprisingintheneighbouring"freeandindependent"countrieshasbeenplannedin Kingston,andmanya filibusteringenterprisehassecretlystartedinJamaicawaters.Here,therefore,onemightthink, isanisland full ofpicturesquepoliticians,thetypeof politicianthattropicalcountriesaresupposedtoproduce.One'smindgoes vaguelybacktothedaysofthepirates,andtomemoriesofGeorgeWilliamGordonandPaulBogle,whowerehangedforseditionandtreasonandotherhighpoliticalcrimesin 1865. One,perhaps,hasreadthatthewhiteinhabitantsofJamaicaliveinconstantfear;thattheyfeeltheyarealwaysontheedgeof avolcano:Ihavereadsomethinglikethatmyself. So younaturallyconcludethatthisisland must beaplacewherepoliticsaremostinteresting.Thespiceofdangersuppliedbythepolitical volcano gives apleasantthrilltotheromanticsoul. ..Thenegrowearsa mask," saidonenewcomertomenotlongago."Youcanneverknowwhatheisthinkingabout:'said hiscompanion,whohasevidentlybeenreadingof"theunfathomabledepthsofthenativemind."Suchbeliefsmakelifeworthliving,nodoubt.Itis apitytodisturbthem.ButIrememberthatoncetherewastalk of agravepolitical crisis in Jamaica.TheGovernorhaddonesomethingwhichmostpersonsthoughtheoughtnottohavedone,andtherewasmuchdiscussionuponit.Thenewspaperswerevehementintheirprotests;therewerethreatsof athousandpublicmeetings.ThensomebodyaskedaleadingJamaicapolitician(retired)whathethoughtofthecrisis,andthatgentlemanwrotetothenewspaperstosaythathebelievedthat..thecrisis existed chiefly inthecolumnsofthenewspapers."Thatremark112

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ROADTOBOGWALK.

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICS113fell like coldwateronnewspapersandpoliticians alike,andsothecrisis passed laway with a sentence.Yetonehearstheword"crisis"veryoftenin Jamaica.Englishmensettlingintheisland useitasfrequentlyasanyoneelse."Acrisis intheaffairs oftheisland," "a crisis inourpolitical history,""acrisis inourdevelopment"theyfollowoneanotherso fastthattobewithouta crisis of some sort would, I imagine,besomethingstrangeinJamaica.Butthegreatmass ofthepeople,thetoiling peasants,theworkmen,thewomen-theyareunmovedbyalltheserumours.Theyneverhearthem.Thecrises oftheirlivesareallconnectedwith foodandclothingandthepaymentof taxes,andthedoings ofthelegislatorsinKingstonconcernthemlittle.TheyknowsomethingabouttheGovernment.Theyknowthatthetax-gathererandthepoliceareits agents.Thesetheydislike,butnevertheless obey.Theyhavelearntthewisdom of obedience.WhatistheJamaicapeasant's realattitudetowardstheGovernmentandthelaw?Heregardsthemassomethingoutside ofandapartfrom himself.Theyaresomethingimposeduponhimwhichheisobligedtorespect,butwhichhe doesnotconsiderhimself identified with,andwhichheis sometimes inclinedtothinkof as oppressive.Thelawsare"backralaws," lawsmadebywhitemen;andthoughheknowsthatwhiteas well asblackmenare supposedtoobeythem,heisneverquite sure thatthewhitemanwillnotbespecially favoured in some way.Hedoubtstheabsolute impartiality ofthelaw.Heis quite satisfiedthatthepoliceman will readilyarresthim, while leaving hismastertogofree,thoughtheiroffences maybethesame. ConsequentlyheisnostalwartadmirerofthelawsordefenderoftheGovernment;heacceptsthemashe doestheotherinevitables of life,buthis freedom-loving, undisciplinednaturechafes against themonotonyof lawandorderandthepaymentofdirecttaxes. Althoughpeacefulbynature,hewould liketosee less ofthepoliceman;althoughliberal,hehas astrongobjectiontothepayingof taxes.Yetlethimleave his nativelandandgotoanothercountry,andyouwill findhimtakingadeepinterestin allthatconcernsJamaica:you will findhimpraisingits Government,defendingits institutions, extolling its laws,anddecryingeverythingthatisnotJamaicanandBritishthathesees every where. Many aJamaicanlabourerhas been finedinCosta RicancourtsformakinginsultingcomparisonsbetweenthejudgesofJamaicaandthejudgesof Costa Rica. Many aJamaicanlabourerinPanamahasbeencursedbyhis American boss becausehehaswithgreatdignitypointedout tothelatterthatheis"aBritish subject."TherecanbenodoubtthattheJamaicapeasantconsiders himselfsuperiorto allthepeopleintheotherislandsandinCentralAmerica.Heregardshimself astheproductofanaltogetherhighercivilisation. So Itakeitthatthoughhis habitualattitudetowardsthelawsandinstitutions of hiscountryisthatof a suspiciousneutralwhenheisathome,thereisdeepwithin hisminda consciousnessthatthoselawsandinstitutions9

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114INJAMAICAANDCUBAaregoodonthewholeforthecountry,thoughhedoesthinkthattheyshouldview hisparticularcasewithleniencyandfavour.Thepeasantdoesnotreallywanttomeddlewithpolitics.Ifheis adirecttaxpayertotheextentof ten shillings a year,heisentitledto a vote,butheisnotexaltedbyits possession. At ageneralelectionhemaygotothepoll if sufficientlyattractedbythepersonalityofthecandidatewhoisappealingtohimfor hissupport,andfor a fewdayshemayevenallow himself to bepersuadedinto believingthatthemanheelects willbeabletoaccomplishgreatthings. But,inhis way,hehas ashrewdappreciationof facts.Hemayknownothingof constitutionsandpolicies,buthehasheardoftheKing,andheknowsthatthelocalGovernmentrepresentstheKing.AndtheKing is strong,theGovernmentisstrong,andwhattheywantdonemustbedone.Heneverforgetsthatfact.HerecognisesthattheGovernmentofJamaicaisbasedupon force,andhedoesnottroublehismindwiththeories ofrepresentationandtheeffect ofpublicopinionuponGovernments.Heleavesthatsortofthingtothebetter-educatedclasses. Chiefly,hewantstobeletalonetolive hisownlife;hewantsdecentwages,andlighttaxes,andleisure.Thisisnotthetypeofmanwhowearsa mask,orwho,inthemass, con stitutes a volcano.Tobecomedangeroushemusthave arealgrievance.Hewillhaveagrievanceif youarerobbinghim,orifhethinksyou are.Buteventhenhisangerisnotpolitical,andhasnottheslightestconnectionwith politics.Thehistoryoftheriotsthathavetakenplacein Jamaica showsonly too clearlythatpoliticshadlittletodo withthem,thoughdislike ofthepolicemayhavesometimesled to disagreeable consequences. AbovethepeasantsandthepeasantproprietorsofJamaicaaretheclassesthatdoshowsomeinterestinpolitics:thesearetheartisans,theshopkeepers,theplanters,theprofessional men.Butatbesttheirinterestis mild.Thereareexceptions, of course. Iknowoneman, awhiteman,whotoldmeonedaythathe wouldprefertobelivinginRussiathaninJamaica.Hisreason was "a generaldiscontentwithpolitical conditions."Hecouldthinkofno specificgrievanceatthemoment,butwasquitesatisfiedthatRussiawasa politicalparadisecomparedwithJamaica.Thereareotherpersons,educated,intelligent, earnest,whowishtoseetheislandanditspeopleprogressingtowardsselfgovernment.Buttheyrememberthepast,theyrememberthattheJamaicanis not a politician,andtheyverymuchdoubtifhewill everbecomeso. PoliticalenthusiasminJamaicablazes forth suddenly,thenquietlydiesaway. "I don'tbusinesswithpolitics," isanexpressionthathasbecomeclassicamongstthecitypeopleofslighteducationbutofmuchcommon-sense.Thephrasemeansmuch:itmeans,amongstotherthings,thatpoliticsarenotprofitable."Politicsdon'tpay," isanotherexpressionusedbythemercantileclasses."Whatcantheydo forme?"said acabmanonedaywhenIaskedhimifheweregoingto voteatthecomingCity Council elections.Headded,

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICS115"Whatcantheydoatall?"Thisisthepracticalwayof lookingatpolitics,andtheaverageJamaicanconcludesthatifnothingistobegotoutofthem,it reallydoesnotmatterwhetherhiselectedrepresentativeshavemoreorlesspowerintheLegislative Council.Onthewhole,solongastheGovernoris impartial,heis satisfiedthattheGovernmentshouldbetheparamountpowerintheland.ItiswhenhethinksthattheGovernorinclines to favoursomespecialclassthathebecomesbitterlydistrustful ofhimandall his works.Ineverysmallcommunity,asineverylargeone,thereis agooddealof class jealousy,andso aGovernorofJamaicahastobeparticularlycarefulastowhathesaysanddoes, for hiscriticsaretobefoundineveryclass.Englishmenwhohavecometotheislandforbuta fewyears;planters,merchants,artisans,shopkeepers:theyalluniteto criticisetheGovernor,butfordifferentthingsandfromdifferentpointsofview.Hencetheyaredividedinaim,andsoareneverreally formidable.TheEnglishmanwhoisbutasojournerinJamaicatakes, as a rule,noactivepartinpolitical affairs,thoughhemayidentifyhimselfwithpublicmovementsofa non-political nature.Ifregisteredas avoterhemaygotothepollsatsomespecialelection,buthe willnotgreatlytroubletoregisterhisname.Comingfromacountrywherepolitical issuesandpartiesareclearlydefined,hefinds nointerestinthequestionsthataWestIndiancommunityhastoconsider.Hethinksthemof noimportance;hebelievesthatiftheGovernorwill onlygovernwithstrengthandfirmness,everyimportantmattermaywellbeleft tohimtodecide.ManyothersbesidestheEnglishresidentsthinksotoo;but,ofcourse,everybodybelievesthattheGovernorshoulddowhathehimselfimagineshewoulddowereheintheGovernor'splace.TheresultisthatastherearenorcallygreatquestionsbeforetheJamaicapublic, asthereareno political parties, asthereisnopolitical unity,and as eachsection ofthepeoplelookstotheGovernmenttoprotectitagainstinjusticeandtoactwithimpartiality,itistheGovernmentthatis alwaysonits trial. AllGovernmentsare,forthematterofthat;buttheJamaicaGovernmentnevergoesoutof office;ithasamajorityofoneintheLegislative Council,andthoughnineoutofthefourteenmemberselectedbypopularsuffragecanveto aGovernmentfinancial proposal,theGovernorcanover-rulethatveto,inhisturn,bydeclaringhis proposal amatterofparamountimportancetothewelfareoftheisland.Thus,withfifteen officialandnominatedsupportersintheHouse,andwiththepowertocarrythrougha financialmeasurebyfiat, aGovernorofJamaicaisina positionofconsiderableauthority,anditwouldbesomethingextraordinaryif asystemwhichgives himsuchpowerwerenotasourceofirritationtomanywhofeelthataGovernormaydomuchharm,andmayshowmuchfavouritism, if he likes.Butevenamongstthesethereareveryfewwhoseriouslysuggestdrasticchanges.Theirdiscontentdoesnot

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116INJAMAICAANDCUBAgosofarastheproposition ofradicalremedies.Itstopsshortatstrongandsometimeseffective criticism.Thisdiscontentwiththeworkingofthesystemofgovernmentobtainingisnotanewsymptomofthepolitical lifeofJamaica."'Twaseverthus."Itwill alwaysbeso. Icannotimagineasystemofgovernmentthatcould givegeneralsatisfactioninthisisland.Thepresentoneisknownasasemi-representativesystem.ItsupersededgovernmentbyaGovernorinvestedwithautocraticpowersandassistedbya LegislativeCouncilnominatedbyhimself.Thatformofgovernmentwasbitterlydenouncedwhileit lasted,andtheofficialswhowereappointedunderitwerestigmatisedbyimpassionedoratorsas"barnaclesfromabroad."Butnobodycallsanofficial abarnaclefromabroadnowadays;formostoftheofficersoftheCrownarenatives,anditwouldnotevenbegoodtastetodescribethemas"barnaclesathome."AndastheelectedmembersoftheLegislative CouncilcananddoexercisesomecheckuponthefinancialschemesoftheGovernment,itis not easyfortheoratortoattacktheGovernment'sextravagancewithoutalsoattackingthepeople's representatives. AstotheoldformofgovernmentwhichJamaicapossessed,andwhichthepoliticians themselvessurrenderedin1865afterapeasantuprisinginoneoftheparishes,thatcertainlydidnotworksatisfactorily. Ahandfulofelectorsreturnedforty-sevenmemberstoaHouseof Assembly,andthemembersof thisHousequarrelledamongstthemselvesandwiththeGovernorandhis Council.Therewashardlyeveranypeace.Andononeortwo occasionstheHousehadtoberemindedbytheauthoritiesinEnglandthatitwastheEnglishGovernmentthathadthelastwordto say intheadministrationofJamaicanaffairs.AnthonyTrollopewasintheisland a fewyearsbeforetheabolition ofthisHouseof Assembly,andhegivessuchanamusingdescriptionof adebateheonceheardtherethatIcannotrefrainfromtranscribingapartofit:"I wasthrowingawaymycigarasIenteredtheprecinctsofthehouse.'Oh,youcansmoke:saidmyfriendtome;'onlywhenyoustandatthedoorway,don'tletthespeaker'seyecatchthelight;butitwon'tmuchmatter:So Iwalkedonandstoodatthesideofthedoor,smokingmycigarindeed,butconsciousthatIwasdesecratingtheplace. "I saw fiveorsix colouredgentlemeninthehouse,andtwonegroessittinginthehouseasmembers.Asfarasthetwolattermenwereconcerned,I couldnotbutbegladtoseetheminthefairenjoymentoftheobjectsof a fairambition.Hadtheynotbyefforts oftheirownmadethemselvesgreatlysuperiortoothersoftheirrace,theywouldnothavebeenthere."Thesubjectunderdebatewasarailwaybill.Therailwaysystemisnotveryextendedintheisland;butthereis a railway,andthetalkwas of prolongingit.Indeedthehouse, I believe,hadonsomeprevious occasion

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICS117decidedthatitshouldbeprolonged,andthepresentfightwasastosomeparticulardetail.WhatthatdetailwasIdidnotlearn,forthebusinessbeingperformedwas acontinualseries ofmotionsforadjournmentcarriedonbya victoriousminorityof three."Itwasclearthattheconqueredmajority-of,saythirty-wasveryangry.Forsomereasonthesethirtywereexceedinglyanxioustohavesomespecialpointcarried,andputoutofthewaythatnight,butthethreewereinexorable.Twoofthethreespoke continually,andendedeveryspeechwithamotionforadjournment."Andthentherewasadisagreementamongthethirty.Somedeclaredall this to be'bosh,'proposedtoleavethehousewithoutanyadjournment,play whist,andletthethreevictorsenjoytheirbarrentriumph.Others,madeofsternerstuff,wouldnotthusgive way.Oneafteranothertheymadeimpetuouslittlespeeches,thentwoata time,andatlast three.Theythumpedthetable,andcalledeachotherprettynames,walkedaboutfuriously,anddevotedthethreevictors totheinfernalgods."Andthenoneoftheblackgentlemenaroseandmadea calm,deliberatelittle oration.Thewordshespokewereaboutthewisestwhichwerespokenthatnight,andyettheywerenotverywise.Heoffered tothehouse a fewplatitudesonthegeneralbenefit of railways,whichwouldhaveappliedtoanyrailwayunderthesun,sayingthateggsandfowls would betakentomarket;andthenhesatdown.Onhis behalf Imustdeclarethattherewerenootherwordsofsuchwisdomspokenthatnight.Butthisrelief lasted onlyforthreeminutes."Aftera whiletwomemberscomingtothedoordeclaredthatitwasbecomingunbearable,andcarriedmeawaytoplaywhist.'Myplaceis close by,' said one,'andiftherowbecomeshotwe shallhearit.Itisdreadfultostayherewithsuchanobject,andwiththecertaintyof missing one'sobjectafterall.' As IwasinclinedtoagreewithhimIwentawayandplayedwhist."Butsoon astormof voicesreachedourearsroundthecard-table.'Theyarehardatitnow,'saidonehonourablemember.'That'sSo-and-Sobythescreech.'TheyellmighthavebeenheardatKingston,andnodoubtwas. '" Byheavenstheyareatit,' saidanother.'Ha,ha,ha!Anicehouse ofassemblyisn'tit?' '" Willtheypitchintooneanother?'I asked,thinkingofscenes ofwhichIhadreadofinanothercountry,andthinkingalso, Imustconfess,thatanabsolutebodilyscrimmageonthefloor ofthehousemightbeworthseeing. "'Theydon'toftendothat,' saidmyfriend.'Theytrustchieflytotheirvoices;butthere'snoknowing:"Thetemptationwastoomuchfor me, so Ithrewdownmycardsand

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118INJAMAICAANDCUBArushedbacktotheAssembly.WhenIarrivedthelouderportionofthenoisewasbeingmadebyonegentlemanwhowaswalkingroundandroundthechamber,swearingina loud voicethathewouldresigntheverymomentthespeakerwasseatedinthechair,foratthattimethehousewasincommittee.Thelouderportionofthenoise, I say,fortwootherhonourablememberswerespeaking,andtherestwerediscussingthematterin small parties. 'Shameful,abominable,scandalous,rascally!'shoutedtheangrygentlemanoverandover again, as hepacedroundandroundthechamber.'I'llnotsitinsuchahouse;nomanshouldsitinsucha house.ByG--!I'llresignas soonasI seethespeakerinthatchair. Sir,comeandhave adrinkofrumandwater.'"InhisangrywanderingshisstepshadbroughthimtothedooratwhichI wasstanding,andtheselastwordswereaddressedtome.'Comeandhave adrinkofrumandwater;andheseizedmewith ahospitableviolencebythearm.Ididnotdaretodenysoangrya legislator,andIdranktherumandwater.ThenIreturnedtomycards."TheremaybesomeexaggerationinTrollope'sdescription,butnotmuch.Itisinterestingto observe, too,thatinthesedayseveryonetalksaboutthesuperiorworthandability oftheold legislatorsofJamaica,thepresentlotofmennotbeingconsideredtobelongtothesamehighcategoryatall.Butinthesedayslegislatorsdonotthumpthetable,orcalloneanothernames,ordragyou offtohaveaglassofrumandwater.ItistruethatononeoccasionImetanelectedmembercomingratherhastilyfromthecommittee-roomof his colleagues,and,onmyaskinghimwhatwasthematter,hetoldme,"Mydearsir,theyareraisingh--inthere.Theyarelike aparcelofoldwomen.Theydon'tknowwhattheywant:'ButthecommitteeroomisnottheCouncilchamber,andIdon'trememberhavingwitnessedanyscenesinthelatter.IntheearlydaysofJamaica'shistoryasa British colonytheisland'sParliamentmetinPortRoyal.Thechroniclertells usitwassittingwhenthegreatearthquakeoccurredandthegroundopenedandswallowedupallthedebatingmembers.AfterwardstheHouseof AssemblysatinSpanishTown,aplacethirteenmilesfromKingston,anditwastherethatTrollopelistenedtoitsdebates.Itmetina special yellow-paintedbuildingwhichisinexistence to-day,standingoppositetothemansionwheretheGovernorsofJamaicaoncelived.Then(over fortyyearsago)theGovernor'sresidenceandofficesweremovedfromSpanishTown,andtheLegislative Council hassincefoundahomeina fineoldbuildinginKingston whichwasoncetheresidenceoftheofficercommandingthetroopsinJamaica.TheCouncilmeetsina spacious hallonthefirst floor,theGovernmentforcessittingoppositetotheelectedmembers,andtheGovernor,whois

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICSPresidentoftheCouncil,sittingona raisedplatformtothenorth. Alongtableisplacedbetween"thetwosides oftheHouse,"astheelectedandnominatedmembersarecalled,andbehindarailingsomechairsareplacedforspectators, usuallygentlemenwhoarenotimmediatelyemployedinanyremunerativeoccupation.Eachmemberhasthetitle of Honourable,andnoone can addressanotherbyhisname:hemustspeakofhimasthememberforsuchandsucha parish, or,ifthegentlemanheisspeakingofbeaGovernmentnominee,thoughnotanofficial,hemustmentionhimas"thehonourablenominatedmember,Dr. (or Mr.) So-and-so."Itis all very formalandcourteous,butthecountryas a wholedoesnotappeartotaketheCouncil very seriously. And,todothemjustice,mostoftheelectedmembersarenotatall puffedupwithanyextravagantbelief astotheirownpowerandconsequence.Theydeliverspeeches-nottodeliverspeechesisconsidereda fataldefectinJamaicalegislation.TheycriticisetheGovernment'sproposals,fortheyrecognisethattheirfunction is tobelargely a critical one. Sometimestheyvoteina solid body, withtheintentionofformingapowerfulOpposition,sometimestheysplitintotwoparties, whichnaturallypleasestheGovernment.Theycanintroducenoproposalsfor thespendingofmoney,andtherearecertainappropriationswhichtheycannottouch.Theymakeupforthatbylongspeeches,forwhenonecannotact,onetalks.Onthewhole,theyserve a usefulpurpose;buttheirpoweris strictly limited,andtheknowledgethatpublicopinionmaynowbeontheirsideandnowwiththeGovernorhasoftena paralysing effectuponthem.Thereis scarcelyoneofthemwhoisnotaffected bythegeneralfeelingthatthereareno politics in Jamaica,thatthereisnodeeppoliticalinterest.Theysay so themselves.Yettheystick totheirposts,manyofthemdoingso, Iampersonallyconvinced,througha sense ofpublicduty.Therearetimes, however,whena wave ofpublicfeelingsweepsovertheisland:thatiswhenthegeneralelections take place.Thenwesingthepraisesofourrespectivecandidates,andtalkoftheirtalentsintermsthatwouldmakeSolonandSocratesblush.Itisthenthatthepoliticianbytemperamentis seenathisbest;andinKingstonheisseenathisverybest, usuallyintheCentralPark,ornearit.TheParkis agreatpolitical institutioninits way.Ordinarilyitisusedas ameeting-placeforthosewhowish aquietdiscussionontheology,butthereareoccasionswhentheology palesbeforepolitics,andthenthetalkisbrightandfresh, ifnotexactly illuminating. You see usseateduponabenchunderagreatgreentree,andlookingidlyata fountainplayingsomewhereinthecentreofthegardens.Nothavinganythingparticulartodointhewayof work,we-therearefiveorsix of usgatheredtogether-discussthepublishedmanifestoes ofthecandidateswithpointandcircumstance.Itistruewemayhavenovotes,butthatisnotof

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120INJAMAICAANDCUBAanyparticularconsequencefromourpointofview;for,afterall, weattendallthepublicmeetingsandgivegreatencouragementtothespeakersbyourpresence.Whatwearechiefly anxious toknowis,whetherthemanis sincere."Isheforthepeople?"Thatisthequestion.Forif wesuspectedhewaslikelytobeonthesideoftheGovernment,weclearlycouldhavenothingtodowithhim:hemustbeforthepeople-thatisourmainstipulation.Wedecidethathewillbe:thenextquestioniswhatwillhedo?Theobviousansweristhathewilldolittle, since,inthecircumstances,thereis so littletobedone.Butthatanswerwouldbediscouraging, sowewillnoteven faceitamongstourselves.Wesimplyconcludethathe will"dogood,"andasthethingscomingintothecategoryofthegoodarealmostendless, wearesatisfiedwiththis decision.Thenwestrengthenourselveswiththereflectionthat"thevoice ofthepeopleisthevoiceofGod";wesay, Letjusticebedonethoughtheheavensfall"; wedeclarethat"Greatistruthanditwill prevail,"andweareimmenselypleasedwithourownwisdom. As forthereal voter,hedoesnottroublehimselfwithmuchdiscussion,buthegoes tothepoll if yousendforhim.Heveryrarelybecomesexcited,forhedoesnotseethereisanythingtobeexcitedabout.Hemayenjoyanelection,butmildly. As forfighting-well,thatisnothis metier. IntheFrenchWestIndianIslandspeopleareshotduringthe elections .. Inthenear-bySpanish-American republics,anelection isoftenprecededbya revolution.InJamaica,duringtheelections,theremaynotbea singlearrestfordisorderlyconduct.Partisanfeelingdoesnotrunhigh,andthoughthecrowdmaycheerwhenthecandidatessayunkindthingsaboutoneanother,andthoughthecrowdmayrefuse tohearaspeakertowhomitisopposed,ithardlyeverproceedsto violence.Ithas akeensenseoftheridiculous. Give amananame,anametobelaughedat,andyou willalmostkill hischanceswithaJamaicagathering.Butifthereisonethingthecrowdadmiresitis pluck.Showa boldspiritandyou willwinitsrespect.Themask theory,thepolitical volcano theory, isutterlyabsurd.TheaverageJamaicanmaybethinkingof athousandthings,butpolitics willnotbefirstamongstthem.Heisnotthinkingof"rising,"forheknowsthatthatwouldbemadness;besides, he isnotsooppressedwith a senseofgrievancesas to wish to rise.Ifyoutoldhimhehasburdensheavy tobeborne,hewouldstraightwaybelieve you.Ifyoutoldhimheshouldmakeagreateffort tothrowoff thoseburdenshewouldapplaudyourstirringwordsto the skies,cheeryou totheecho,thenquitepeacefullygohome,withagreatadmirationofyoureloquence,butwithnottheslightestintentionofdoinganythingthatmightbringhimwithintheclutchesofthelaw.***Outsideof Kingstonthereisnevermuchtalkaboutpolitics,thoughnowandthentheothertwoimportanttownsoftheisland,PortAntonioandMontego

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BANAAPLANTATION.

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICS121Bay,wakeupsuddenlytoatemporaryenthusiasmaboutpublicmenandthings. Unlike Cuba,Jamaicaisnotacountryof cities. Kingston hasabout60,000inhabitants,MontegoBaymayhaveabout5,000andPortAntonio2,000less. Because of its sizeandpopulation, SpanishTownmightperhapsclaim tobethesecondurbancentreoftheisland, forithas some5,000people;butitisnotaseaporttown,itisnolongerthecapital oftheisland;andif I have called Camaguaythecitythatis sleeping, ImightalmostcallSpanishTownthecitythatis dead. BuiltuponthewesternbankoftheRio Cobre, called St.JagodelaVegabytheSpaniardswhofirst colonisedtheisland, still called sobya few old inhabitants,theold capital dozes inthebrighttropical sun shine fromoneyear'sendtoanother,dreamingof itsformergreatnessanddwellingonthedaysthataregone.Inits way it is interesting, this oldplacewith its small iron-railedparkstilllightedwithkerosene oillamps;withits four massiveblocksof almost unused, yellow-colouredpublicbuildingsstandingtothenorthandsouthandeastandwest of thispark;with itscathedralclose by,anditsnarrowstreets,andlowwoodenhouses,anditsbrickwalls which lean asthoughtheywereaboutto fall, so oldandsoweakarethey. Aninterestingplace,andasilent:grassgrowninthestreetswherethehuge yellow buildingsstand;openspacesfilledwithrankweedsandgrassandtheremainsof foundationsshowwherehousesoncestood;goatswanderaboutandshopsareopenhereandthere.EveninJamaicait is known asthecity ofthedead, so little of lifeandmovementisthereinit, so far removed fromtheactivitiesandanxieties of life itspeopleseemtobe.Thisimpression is notaltogetheratrueone,andtheinhabitantsofthetownresentit;yetIthinkitmightintruthbecalled acityof forwhatisitnowbutaghostof itsformerself,andlivingonitsmemoriesandtraditions?I walkaboutits squareandrememberthatheretheGovernoroncelived,andsome ofthechief officials. IrememberthatheretheHouse of Assembly met,thatherethegreatcelebrationthatmarkedtheemancipationoftheslaves took place.InthechurchyardoftheCathedrallietheremainsofmenconnectedwiththehistory oftheisland;inthechurchitselfaretabletsandmonumentserectedtothosewholivedanddiedinthiscountryinthedayswhenJamaicawas ofmoreimportancethansheis now,andwhenshewasthoughttobealandof gold. All, allseemstobein astateof decay,andthisformercapital ofJamaicais to-daybutthechieftownof aparishlargelygivenover tobananaproduction;atownstillproudof itself,butconsciousthatitisnotrememberedmuchbytherestoftheisland,andsometimesresentingthat.ThisSpanishTown,toobigbyfarforthenumberofpersonsthatinhabitit, isnextin sizetoKingston;butPortAntonio really rankssecondtothecapitalinpointofcommercialimportance,andMontegoBaycomesnext. And inthesetowns,asI have said,thereissometimessomethingof a political stir,butatlong intervals only,andnever foranygreatlengthof time.Itis Kings-

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122INJAMAICAANDCUBAtonthatleadsin politics,asinotherdepartmentsofpublicactivityinthetownsoutside of Kingstononefinds oneselfinsemi-ruralsurroundings,incountrytownswherethetalk is chiefly oftheweatherandthecrops;ofthepriceof bananas, ofwhowasinchurchlast Sunday, ofthenewestfamilythathascometotheparish,andoftheGovernment-yes,ofthelatestactsoftheGovernment,andwhethertheGovernorwillretainhis popularity,andwhetherthelabourerswilleverlearntoworkastheiremployerswouldhavethemwork. One city, afewtownswhose totalpopulationdoesnotamounttohalfthepopulationofthecity:you seeatoncefromthisthatJamaicaisnotanislandwheretherecanbemuchpolitical life. Politics thrivemoreincitiesthanamonggreenhillsandvalleysandunderthevastopenspacesofthesky.Andwhatisthefuture ofthisislandwheretheBritishpeaceobtainsandwhereblackandwhiteandbrownlive sidebysideinharmonytogether;whatisthefutureof its people,andtowhatsection of thosepeoplewillthecountrybelongl inthefuture?I have saidthatCubawillbeintir,lealmostentirelyawhiteman'scountry;thatgraduallybutsurely black willchangetodarkbrown,anddarkbrowntoorangeandtoivory. IprophesyforCubaanelimination ofthedarkerstrains;shewill beanalmostwhite islandintheCaribbeanSea.ButJamaica?Theresidentin Kingstonorinanyoftheothertownslooksabouthimandsees allshadesof complexions,amongwhichblackpredominatesnodoubt,butnotsogreatly as to hidethefactthataconsiderableintermixtureofraceshastakenplaceintheisland,andthatthepeoplespecifically called"coloured,"thepeopleofmixed blood,arealargeandimportantfactor,intheisland'spopulation.Theyareeverywhere:theyaremerchants,professionalmen,highGovernmentofficials;theyareshopkeepers,carpenters,clerks;theyareplanterstoo,theyownland;theyprobablynumberonehundredandfiftythousandinacountryofnearlyninehundredthousandsouls.Theyareofcomparativelyrecentorigin.Onegoesbacktwohundredyearsormore, totheyear1673,whentheinhabitantsoftheislandwerefirst classified.Onefindsthewhitesputdownat7,768,thenegroesat9,504.Thenumbersarealmostequal,andperhaps,eventhen,countedamongsttheblacks,therewasasprinklingofpeopleof mixed blood.Thenumberof thesemusthavebeeninsignificant,butsteadilyitgrew,andsteadilyalsogrewthenumbersoftheblack popu lation.In1834 anumberingofthepeoplegavetheslavesas3II,070,thefreeblacksat5,000,thecolouredat40,000,thewhitesat15,000.Wefind to-daythattheblackshavelittlemorethandoubledtheirnumberssince1834,thatthecolouredpeoplehavemorethantrebledtheirs,thatthewhitesarewhattheywerein1834, ifnotindeedfewer.Theconclusionleapstoone'smind-thesepeopleof mixed blood,itistothemthatthefutureofthecountrybelongs.Theirnumberswillgrow,theywillincreaseamongstthem-

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PEOPLEANDPOLITICS123selves,theywillincreasebythematingofwhiteandblack,bythematingof blackandcoloured;theywillformanewrace,theywill--ButI stoodonedayononeofthegreatmainroadsoftheislandandwatchedthestreamofhumanbeingspass. Menrodebyonhorsesorseateduponcarts,womentrudgedhardilyalongdrivingbeforethemtheirsturdylittledonkeys,andchattingpleasantlyandbrightlyastheypassed.Littlegirlsandboys followedtheirmothers,and,inthehutsandcultivationsnearby,menandwomenandchildrenmovedabout.Amongstthemnotasinglecolouredface,nota single white. Afewmilesfartheron, I knew, it wouldbesomewhatdifferent;butthere,intheveryheartofthecountry,wheretravellersarefewandthemonotonyoflife is sorarelydisturbedbyanyunusualevent-thereIsawthepure-bloodeddescendantsofthemenandwomenwhowerebroughtoverfromMricasomegenerationsago,andwhoareinthemajorityto-day.AndasIwatchedthemitcameintomymindthatitwastothemandnottoanypeopleofmixedbloodthatthefutureoftheislandbelonged.Itwasthese,thelabourers,thepeasantproprietors,andnotthemenoflighterhue,thatwouldeventuallyform, as evennowtheyform,thelargemajorityofJamaica'spopulation. Once, a littleoverahundredyearsago,thewhiteinhabitantsweretwiceasmanyastheyareto-day.Theyhavedwindled:economiccrises,thefreeingoftheslave,therise ofthecolouredman-allthis hashadits effectuponthem,andmaycontinueto have its effect.ThewhitemanwillneverdisappearfromJamaica-fromnopartoftheworldcanhebeentirelyabsent.Buthecanonlyremaininatropicalcountryinthecapacityof agoverningclassoranemployingclass,andascompetitionsets in, hisnumbers,fewatmost,becomefewerstill.Hefinds allthesubordinateandmanyofthesuperiorpositions filledby"natives";toalargeextenthisworkisdone.ButinJamaicathecolouredmanwill also findthathe, too, hasbecomeformanypurposesunnecessary;heis findingto-daythatacountrywithoutmanufactures,acountrywithbutonecity,withover ahundredthousandpeasantproperties,andwithlargeplantationsrequiringforthemostpartlargegangsof unskilled labourers,haslittle use forcrowdsofmenwhocannotlabourwiththeirhands.ThatistheeconomicproblemwhichthecolouredmaninJamaicahastoface.Hesees it,andsowhathasalreadytakenplaceamongstthewhitepopulation istakingplaceamongstthecolouredalso. Quietly,withoutcomplaint,acceptingtheinevitable,theyareemigratingtootherlands.Canada,America:tothosecountriestheygoinever-increasingnumbers.Butitisnotbyemigrationalonethattheformerrateofincreaseamongstthemixedblood population ofJamaicawillbelowered.Inalmosteverycivilisedcountryintheworldto-daythebirth-rateis falling,anditis fallingamongstthebetter-educatedclasses,amongsttheclassesaccustomedtocomfortorcravingforluxury.Thebetter

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124INJAMAICAANDCUBAclasses,theurbanclasses, of Jamaicacannotfail tobeaffectedbytheprevailing custom.Andsowhatwith emigration,andwithsmaller families, theirnumberwillnotincrease asithashithertodone.Inanothertwentyyears the blackinhabitantsof Jamaica will havetriumphantlydemonstratedthatmiscegenation hasalreadydoneits utmost intheproductionof a colouredelementin the Jamaica population.ButIamnotgreatlyconcernedwiththefuture now.Thepresentrelations existingbetweenthedifferent classes ofthepeople oftheislandareofmoreimmediate interest. Are theycordial?More cordial, perhaps,thananywhereelse where blackandwhiteandbrownlive sidebyside;yet, of course, youdonot forgetthatin this little islandtherearemanycoloursandclasses:youcannotforget it.ThesocialhierarchyinJamaica hasmanygrades;so many, indeed,thattwohundredfamiliesmayconstitutequitefifty classesor sets."Thismakes socialinterestsomethingof aproblemattimes:as I havehintedin a formerchapter,itlargely accounts for the dulnessthatoneobservesamongthemiddle-classes of Kingston. Stillthereis no rigid colour linebetweenwhiteandcoloured,betweencolouredandblack. Personal associationbetweenthedifferentelementsofthepopulation is not confined to publicorsemi-public functions only.Oncetheywere;to-daytherelations existingbetweencolouredandwhitedependlargelyonposition, wealth, edu cation,refinement:itdoes not exclusivelyoreven chieflydependupon colour. And if wegorightdowntothepoorestelementsofthepeople, we findbrownandblackinthesame class, in the sameposition;andall thispreventsanyacuteclass distinctions based upon colour,thoughdistinctions basedoncolour undoubtedly exist. Graduallytheacerbityof feelingthatonceexistedbetweenwhiteandcolouredandcolouredandblack hassofteneddown.Prejudiceandjealousy remain,butthesearenotbitterhate.Thewhitemanhasnot"givenupthestruggle"in Jamaica somuchasadaptedhimselftotheprevailingconditions.Theblackmanknowsthathispathupwardshas been a difficult one,buthe seesmenof hisownracewinningtocomfortandrespect,andthispreventshimfromgrowingdangerously bitter. To-day,inJamaica,heelects whiteandcolouredmentorepresenthimintheLegislative Council. Andthatto some extent does showthatviolent racial antipathies donotexist in Jamaica.

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JAMAICANPEASANTSIN THEfiELD.

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CHAPTERVIIIONTHEROADTHE dustyroadstretchesaway tothenorth,goingtowardsthehillsand,climbingupamongstthem.Tothesouth itmergesintoastreetthatslopesgentlytill it reachestheseashore;andthisstreetisthelongestinKingston,andisperhapsthemost typicalandcharacteristic of allthecity's streets.Inityou will find everytypeofstructuretobefoundinKingston:awharfattheendofit;newwarehousesoneitherhand;temporarystructuresofcorrugatedironandwood;aruinedsynagogue, old housesthatwereoncetheresidences of wealthy people,butnow fallen into decayandtransformedintotenements;little"fronthouses";shops;theprincipalmarketofKingston;lodging houses;thenvillas,andthenthegreatroadthatsweepsupward,formingoneofthearteries oftheislandandoneofthemeans whichbringeverypartofthecountryinto closeandconstantcommunication withthecity. Iamwalkingonthisroadto-night, haveindeedjustcrossedthebridgewherethestreetendsandtheroad begins.Thedustis thickbeneathmy feet, a fine whitepowder;andtheroadwouldbedark,inspite ofthelightfromtheelectriclampshungonthetrolley wires oftheelectric cars,butthatthestars areoutandthata half-moon is glowing above.Thedayhasbeenhot,butit is coolenoughnow;a light windcomesdownfromthemountains,andthis makes walking pleasant.Itis still early, only nine o'clock Ithink;butalreadysome ofthelightsinthestraggling, low, dilapidated housesarebeingputout, for one retires early in Jamaica.Thelargershopshereandthereareclosing, forthelaw commandsthattheyshouldatthishour;butin tiny littleshopswherefruitorbreadis soldthesellers still bravely holdoutinthehopeof doing some trade, sincethethingsthattheysell willnotkeep for long.Tinytinlampsburnin these tiny places,wherenotmorethanonepersonata timecanmove easily about. A little square has beencutinthatpartoftheshop which facesthestreet,andthebit ofboardsawnout hasbeenhungon hinges, sothatwhenpulleddownwardsinside until it is perfectly horizontal,125

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126IN JAMAICAANDCUBAitformsthecounteroftheshop,andwhenpushedupwardsuntilitisperpendicular,itforms ashutter.Imakethisexplanation becausethiskind ofshopisverycommoninJamaica;itis, sotospeak,aninvention ofthepeople,whohavebeenpracticallydrivenoutoftheretailtradebytheChineseimmigrants,butwhoareapparentlydeterminedthattheyshallholdtheirowninthematterofbreadshops.Theseshopsarekeptbywomenchiefly,andIshouldthinkthatwithfive shillings you couldbuythecontentsofalmostanyoneofthem.Afewloaves ofdust-coveredbread,afewripebananas;threeorfourhardcocoanuts, aplatehalf-full of fried sprats, four pints ofporterandthreeof kola (valueIS. l)d.), a few pieces ofcane:withtheseyouhave a well-stockedcounter,andifthereareshopswithalargerstock,therearealsoothersthatcouldbeboughtoutentirelyforIS.6d.Theirownerssitcontentedlyinthem,waitingfor acustomerthatneverseemstocome.Theycouldearnfourorfive shillings aweekasdomesticservants,butthiswouldmeanasurrenderingoffreedom,andthereis noJamaicapeasantlivingwhodoesnotpreferfreedomwitha littletoservitudewithmuch.Thispreferenceit iswhichlargely explainstheservantproblemof Kingston.Tobeone'sown mistress, to feelfree;to risewhenonelikes,dowhatonelikes, live asonelikes-thiswish pullsattheheartofeverypeasantwoman,andtherearesomewhomanageto gt-atifyitinawaythatappearstomeremarkable.But Idonotstoptothinkuponthismatternow, forconstantlyIhearthesoundof singing,andpeepingintotheyardsas I pass I seegroupsofchildrensittinginaringandplayinginthelightofthemoon.Theyarechiefly girls,theiragesrangingfromeighttosixteen.Bareheaded,barefooted, laughing, singing,happy(fortheyarehappy),theyareplayingagamethatconsists ofstrikingonestonewithanotherandinchantingthisverse:-"GodownEmanuelRoadGalandboy-TogobrokerockstoneGalandboy-BrokethemonebyoneGalandboy-BrokethemtwobytwoGalandboy-SeehowthestonedemrollGalandboy-SeehowthestonedemscatterGaland boyandsoonforanhourormore,andthenanothersongandanotherchorusuntilbedtimecomes.Oneitherside ofthelongyardrunsarangeof low rooms,andinfrontof

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ONTHEROAD127eachroomthereis a boxorsmall table,andtheremaybea little shelf nailedundertheshutterwindowthatservestokeeptheair out oftheroomatnightwhentightlyfastened.Eachroommayhavetwooftheseshutters, whicharebutrectangularpieces ofboardcutout ofthesides oftheroom.Theremayalsobetwonarrowjealousie windows,andifeventhesewereleft open,theroommightbekeptfairly well ventilated.Butinthevirtues of freshairtheJamaicapeasantdoesnotbelieve.Heisnotlogical.Hewill expose himself allnightto allthefour winds of heaven,hewill sleep intheopenair.Butonceindoors, a mortal fear of"catchingcold"possesses him, sohesleeps in a stiflingatmosphere.Thereisyetanotherreason fortheclosing of everyapertureintheroom. Ghosts exist,andthelower classes ofJamaicaknowonly too wellthatghostsaremalignant,exceptwhentheyhappentobenearrelatives.Andeventhespirit of anearrelativepeepingin upon youatdeadofnightmayhaveunpleasanteffects. Youhopetomeetthedeardepartedonesinheaven,butmeantimethevery briefest of interviews wouldbemostundesirable.Sothoughyouarewellawarethataghostisnothinderedbybarriersofwoodandstone,andwouldjustas quickly usethekeyhole asanywhereelse as aconvenientmeansofentrance,you neverthelessthinkitbesttotakenochances,andsobareverywhere.Butonthe shelf, oronthetablejustbeneaththeshutterandclosetothedooryouplacea fewthingswhichyou know willrequireairanddew:littleplantsin boxesorinoldcondensed-milkcans, sothata tinygardenbloomsbeneathyourwindow:agardenofbuta fewgeraniumsorpinks,withasprayor two of laceplant-afaint,pathetictouchof colourglowinginthemidstofdrabandsqualidsurroundings.Small, hot, built low totheground,sosituatedthatwhatgoes on in oneroommaybeheardinanother, theseroomsinthelanesandsuburbsandneighbourhoodof Kingston shelterthousandsuponthousandsof people. You willunderstand:theyarenotlivedin;theyaresleptinatnights. Allormost of one's livingiSIdoneintheyard;thewomengossip there, cook there,ofteneatthere.Theyfixtheirtubsbytheside oftheirroomsorbythewater-pipe,andtheretheywashfor hours, singing allthewhileatthetopoftheirvoices.Theybeattheclotheswithflat,paddle-shapedpiecesof wood,theyrubthemvigorously,andallthetimetheysingorquarrel, for washing isnotdisturbedbya row.Butnotthesepeopleintheyards,northehousestheylive in,noryetthelittleshopsalongtheroadandthesellers in them,interestmesomuchasthepeople Iseepassingdownwardsin twosandthrees, in stilllargergroups,andsometimes singty.Therearehundredsof these upontheroadto-night,andall ofthemarewalkingwith swift,springingstepsandeasy gait,andtalking astheywalk. Nearly all ofthemcarrylargebasketsontheirheads,andthese basketsarepiledhighwithyams, potatoes,cassava;with oranges, bananas, with plantainsandotherfruitandvegetables. Some oftheseburdensmayweigh quite forty

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128INJAMAICAANDCUBApounds,yettheyarebalancedontheheadandcarriedasthoughtheyweighednothing-awonderfulfeatwhenonecomestothinkofit. Allthesepeoplearewomen,andamongstthemtheremaybegirlsoffifteenyearsofage;andthese, too,carrylittlebasketsontheirheads,andsometimesholdacaneinoneoftheirhands.Manyofthewomenareleadingdonkeysandmules,eachbearingapairofpannierswhicharefilledwiththesamethingswhichthebasketsarepackedwith,andwhicharegrowninthenumerouslittlepeasantcultivationsfarawayinthemountains.Fromalldistancesthesepeoplearecoming;fromplacesten,fifteen,twentymilesaway. Youmightthinktheywouldbeexhaustedbynow,buttheystepoutas brisklyaswhentheystarted,andtheirlaughterringsso merrilythatsurely they cannotbefatigued.Nowandthenonesees aboyamongstthem,butthesightis rare.Theboysandmenhavebeenlefttotakecareofthehouseandthe"field0,whilethewomenofthefamilytrudgedowntomarketto selltheproduceandbuysupplies forSundayandtherestoftheweek.Thestreamofhumanbeingsseemsendless,andindeeditwillcontinueall night,andfarintothemorningofSaturday.Allnightandatdifferenthoursthesecountryfolk willstartfromtheirhomes,someofthemsettingoutjustatthebreakof day. Stony Hill,Manning'sHill,GoldenHill,LawrenceTavern,GordonTown;fromthesevillagesandfromotherstheycome;andifyou stoodto-nightoneitheroftheroadstotheeastandwestof Kingston youwouldseelargecoveredcartsmovingslowlytowardsthecity,andotherpeasantssuchasthese.Butbyfarthegreaternumbercomesbythisnorthernroad,whichI thinktobethebusiestinall Jamaica. Allthesepeasantsandtheirchildrenarebarefooted.Theirheadsaretiedwithgreathead-kerchiefsofmanycolours;forthemostpart,theirbodicesareof somewhitematerial,andtheirskirtsaremadeofprintedcalico,cheapstuffsoldintheshopsatfromthreepencetosixpencea yard,andofglaringgreensandreds,andflaringpatterns.Theupperpartoftheirskirts, petticoats,andothergarmentsaredrawnupinto asortofbundleroundtheirwaists, sothattheirlegsmaymove freely astheystridealong;thusthereis a great, circularbulgejustabovetheirhips, fortheJamaicapeasantwomanwearsanyamountofunderclothing.Thisis amatterofpridewithher.Just astheworkingwomanof Kingston loves to haveanyquantityofcrockeryandglassware, forwhichshemayhavebutlittle use, sothewomanfromthecountrydistrictswillspendmuchmoneyonunderclothingwhichwillbetrimmedwithanyamountof embroidery, finishedwithbroadcrochet,washed'toperfectwhiteness,andironedwithcare.Fondasshe is ofshowydressesmadeaccordingto a fashionwhichsometimescausesthepeopleofthecity to stare,sheis yetfonderofthegarmentsthatcanonlybeseenwhenshe liftsherskirts asshecrossestheroadthatrunsthroughhervillage,orasshepassesintochurch.Butthisrichunderclothingof hers,andthemultitudeof it,arenotchiefly forshow: it is amatter

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THREEJAMAICASCENES.

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ONTHEROAD129of self-respectwithherthatsheshould have thesethings-shewouldnotfeel asshethinksawomanshouldifshewerewithoutthem. So,clothedwithmanygarments,shemarchesdownto Kingston,andbehindhermeekly walksherdonkeyorhermule,onwhich(muchtoherdispleasure)shehastopaytaxes,butwhichshecouldnotconvenientlygetonwithout.InthelightofthemoonIseeherlarge, rollingblackeyesgleamingwith good humour,herwhiteteethshining asshelaughs.ButInoticeapeculiarity:sheandanynumberofhersistershavelostsomeoftheirteeth. You wouldalmostthinktheteethhadbeenextractedon purpose,yetthatisnotso. Oftenthegapinthemouthmarstheappearanceof thesewomenwhentheylaugh,andIprophesythatthetimewillcomewhen,goodfortunepermitting,theywilldowhatthecity folkdo-resorttothedentistfor false teeth.Teno'clockandeleven passes,andstillatintervalslargegroupsofthesepeasantspassdownwards.Allothersign of lifehasdisappeared;theelectriccarshave ceasedtorun,thepeople livingoneithersideoftheroadhavelongretiredtorest. Athoughtstrikesme;I will join thisgroupof four women,twogirlsandaman-yes,thereis actually amanwiththeothers-andmakethejourneyto Kingstonwiththem.I salutethegroupwith"Goodevening," fornottodoso is tobeaccusedofbadmanners,andthatisanaccusation ofthegravestintheeyes of apeasantof Jamaica. Iamcheerilygreetedwith"Goodevening"inl'eturn,andsoon I ascertainthattheyhavebeentalkingabouttheoriginof earthquakes. Aneart'quakeis afunnyting," sagaciouslyremarksoneofthewomen."Dereyou are,stan'ing'pondegroun'an'all of asuddendegroun'begintojump.Whatcauseit?" Godtotell!"piously ejaculates one ofhercompanions,whoisquitepreparedtoleavetheelucidation oftheproblemtothehigherpowers.Butthis doesnotsatisfy us.So,"Don'tyouthinkdateart'quakeis ajudgmentondeland?"askstheman.Asthis question isaddressedtomeIamobligedtohazardanopinion. I suggestthatanearthquakeissomethingnatural:"Liketherain," Iadd,bywayof illustration. But, massa,deraindon'tkillnobody!Deraincomequiet.Butwhenyouseemountainshakeyoumustknowitis somet'ingfunnygoin' on."Thusthefirst woman.Thenathoughtstrikesher:"Iwonderif it isdedebil doin'it?Himis abadman,youknow.""Well,"saystheman,"Ihearsomebodysaydeoderdaythatdeworl' havefourcorner-stone,andwhenone of dose corner-stone slip,everyt'ingshakeup.""Lord!Idon'tknowwhatmandemwon'ttrytotell we'boutnext," saysthefirst speaker, who seemsbentuponrejectingall rationalistic explanations of earthquakes."Don'tyou see,"shecontinues,"datifBigMassa Goddidn'twantdecorner-stone to slip,itcouldn'tslip?'Thereisnotasparrowfalleth totheground,butourHeavenlyFatherknowethandapproveththereof'"(asshequotesthewordsshepronouncesher"th's"perfectly)."Datshowdateart'-IO

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13INJAMAICAANDCUBAquakeissentbydeLord.Idon'tcarewhatanybodysay, Iamholdin'ontodat.' "Beast!beast!Alice!"Theshriekcomesfrombehind,andwescattertorightandleft.Thecryof"beast"isintendedtowarnusthatamuleis closeuponourheels, Alicebeingthenamewhichthenobleanimalbears.Aliceseemstohavegota littleoutofhand,orherownerhasbeena little careless, for,accordingtoalltherulesoftheroad,Aliceoughttohavebeenbehindandnotbeforethepersonwhoholdsherrope.Thiswepointoutto Alice'sownerwith lUuch emphasis, for we,nothavingeitherdonkeyormule,areannoyedthaanyonepossessingtheevidencesofsuperiorwealthshouldendeavourtotakewhatwecall"agreatliberty"withus.Theearthquake,of course, isforgotten.Initsplaceacampaignbeginsatoncebetweenourselvesandthepartyamongstwhichistheownerofthemule:therearenodirectreferences,butindirectallusions ofanuncomplimentarynaturearefrequent-thisisknownas"throwingwords."Suchaformofquarrellingisinhighrepute,forthoughit is abitcowardlyit is usuallysafe;forinstance,youlaughloudlyandmakesneeringremarksaboutthemoon,and,asnonamesarecalled,nohodycaneasilytakeoffence.So"throwingwords,"weswiftlyeatuptheroad,passintothestreet,andin a fewminuteswearebeforethelargeirongatesofthetworangesofwoodenbuildingswhichtheMunicipalCouncilhasprovidedas anightshelterforthesecountryfolk.Weseemanypersonsinside,butwedonotenter.True,thechargeperpersonisbutapennyfor anight;yetapennyisnotanamountwhichanyof uscanafford tospendwithoutthinking;thuswemakeupourmindstosleepupononeoftheopenpiazzas ofthecity,andsocontinueonourway.Undertheprojectingeaves ofthenumerouslittle shops,underthecorrugatedironcoveringwhichinthedaytimeserves tokeeptherays ofthesunfromtheside-walksandpiazzas of Kingston,huddleduptogetheronthehardconcretepavementandsleepingsoundlyarescoresofwomenandgirls.Nearthemaretheirbaskets,andsometimestheirheadsrestuponthese.Oneitherside ofthestreettheylie,tired,travel-stained,snatchinga fewhour'srestbeforetheday'sworkinthemarketbegins,andthelong,upwardjourneyhome.Thissleepinguponpiazzas isprohibitedbylaw,andthepolicemayorderthesepeopleawayiftheylike.Buttheydon't,forintheWestIndiesonedoesnottroubleone'sheadaboutcast-ironregulations,butsimplydecidestotakelife easily.Howcouldoneliveotherwise?AndhereI leavemyfriendsforthepresent,andsaunterbacktothenightshelterto seewhatmaybegoingonthere.* *

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ONTHEROADDaylightwasyetfar off;thestarsstillhunglow111thesky. Stillitwasmorning,andatthistimeofthemorningeverythingis indistinctly seen,everyobjectlooks aghostlyshadow.WhenIarrivedatthenightshelterI foundthegatesclosed,andthewhole placeburiedinprofoundsilence. Ilingeredintheneighbourhood,andaftersome five minutes, Iwasstartledbythesoundofatremendousrapping.Thenoisebrokeloudly onthemorningstillness,yetitwasallmadebyalodgerinthenightshelterwhowantedtogetout. Asthemaninchargewas evidently asleep,thelodgerhadtocontinueknockingfor some time, aproceedingnotatall to his taste.Loudlyheairedhis viewsonGovernmentinstitutionsingeneral,andthenightshelterinparticular."Butwahdemmeanfe'dowidamandoh?"heenquired,presumablyofthebuildings, fortherewas nohumanbeingtoanswerhim."It'sdewusindemplace ya,"O hecontinued,"demtekyou'moneyan' don'wanttoattendtoyou praper/y." Rap, rap,rap."Awhoinya?"Rap,rap,rap."Butyoucan'thear?"Rap, rap,rap."GoodLord!"Rap,rap,rap.Andsothealternateexpostulationandrappingwentonforsometime, tillatlast,apparentlyweariedout,ourfriendcrossed overandwentuptothedoorofthehouseinwhichdwellsthejanitress.Thegentlemanrappedbutonceandthenrose a shrill female voicewhichintonesofangerdemandedthereason oftheunwarrantableintrusion."Awanttogoout, Missis,"saidourfriend, abitnonplussed."Well,whathave Igottodowiththat?"demandedthelady."Whydon'tyougotothejanitor?Itseemsthatyouareforward.Youhavenorespectforyourbetters." Heavens!"saidI to myself,"he'scaughtitnow."Thepoorfellow evidentlythoughtso too, for hemadeincontinentlyforthegate.Inthemeantimethejanitor,whosesenseofhearinghadbeenimpervioustotheloudrapping,hadbeenawakenedbythelady'sfierce volubility. Like amodernknighterrantherushedto her rescue.He,rightlyguessingthatourfriendtherapperwasthereasonofherlouddistress,demandedthecauseofthegentleman'simpertinence.Thiswastoomuchforourfriend'spatience.Hewas nocoward.Thereforehe letthemknowthat"dewhole lot ofdemwasnotenbutaparcelofdamnfool";andhestraightwaydemandedto beletout. I havefrequentlyremarkedthata boldattitudeismoreefficacious withcertainpersonsthana soft answer.Itwas sointhiscase.Thegatewasimmediatelyopened,andoutwenttherapper.Thenpeacel'eigned again. I soongottiredofwaitingalone.Therewasno signthatthepeopleintheshelterwouldshortlybestirring.Presentlyanideaoccurredtome:I wouldtakea walkdowntothemarket;maybetherewassomethingtobeseenthere. So I strolleddown,andwhenI stoodbeforethemarketI was fairlydelighted. To. 2 Here.

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAWasI in Kingston,orinsomeout-of-the-waypartofthecountry?Thescenebeforeme-wasitrealoronlyanillusion? At firstitseemedtometobeun real, for here,intheveryheartofthemetropolis,fromoneside ofthesquaretotheother-inthemiddleofthestreet-bythewalls oftheCourtHouseeverywhereinfact-werecrowdsof people,somesleeping, somealreadymakingtheirpreparationsfortheday's work. Yes,somewereevendressing.Thegentlehubbubof voicescharmedme.Therewasnounnecessarynoise;everybodyseemedgentlydepressedin spirits.Manycartsweredrawnuponeachsideofthestreet,hugethingspulledbystrongmules,andpiledhighwith bananas,orcanes,orotherproduce.Themuleshadbeenunharnessed,andoneortwomenhadevenspreadsomegrassonthegroundbeforethem;butanunsympatheticpolicemanchancedtocomeupafewminutesafter,andthere uponhecaused"everyblade"of ittobegatheredup.Whywereallthesepeoplehere?Evidentlyinordertosecurea good positioninthemarketwhenitshonld beopened.Agoodstandmeansagreatdealtotheseller,andthesestout-limbeddamesknewthat.Theyhadleftthecomfortsofthenightsheltertotheirlessrobustsisters;theyhadcometo Kingston for a purpose,andfulfilthatpurposetheywould. Ihadnowbeenoutfor several hours.Thestarshaddimmed,thendisappeared;theskyhadchangedfromblack togrey,andthegreywasnowdissolvingintobrightness. Iturnedto lookattheskyandthesun,butjustthena louddeclaration,"A'notgwinetoletgo!"felluponmyear,andsendingsunandskytothewinds, Ihastenedtothespotwhencecametheemphaticannouncement.Hereagroupofwomenwerestandingroundsomefive-galloncansof"wet"sugar.Onewomanhadseized hold of two ofthecans,anditwasshewhohadexpressedtheunalterabledeterminationthatI haverecordedabove.Whatwasthecauseofit?Well,itseemsthatacountrywomansuppliedweeklythreeorfour customers with sugar,whichtheyretailed.Thatweek, however,shewasnotable tocomedownto Kingston herself, soshehadsentthesugarbya friend. Unfortunately,theamountofsugarsentwaslessthanusual,andthebearerhadbeendirectedtosupplyonlythreepersonsandtoinformthefourththatshewouldgetherlotnextweek,andthat"Shemus'n'tvex;shemustwaitlittle."Butthedisappointeddamewonldnotbecomfortedwithmerewords.Shewasdependingonthesugar,andwould notbeputoff.Henceherdeclaration."And,"shesaid,"afterall,conscienceis God fren. An' Inotgwineto gieupdissugar."Bywhatparticularmethodofreasoningshemanagedtoarriveattheconclusionthat,becauseconscienceisGod'sfriendshewasentitledtokeepthesugar, Idonotknow.ButthisIdoknow,shekeptthesugar,intimatingthat"Constabwill hav' totekmea'prison.Itwasnowbroaddaylight.Themuleswererapidlyreharnessedtothe11. 2 To.

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ONTHEROAD133carts. Over ahundredwomenhadattiredthemselvesincleanoutergarments,andveryniceindeedtheylooked.Buttherewassomeperturbationexpressedonthefaces ofthem;toperformone'smorningtoilet completely, you know, onerequireswater,and,alas!nowaterwastobehadthatmorning!Thefountains intheCentralParkweredry,orrather,thewaterhadbeen locked offthenightbefore. Presently, however,"watercame,"andwithitcamepeace, joy,andtherest ofthebeatitudes.Thegatesofthemarketweresoonthrownopenandthescramblefor places began. Shrill laughter, pushing,howling-oh,whata noise wasthere!Endeavouringtoobtainagoodpointof observation inthemarket, I waswedgedinbetweentworatherlarge.lookingcountrywomen."Pooryoung massa," saidoneof them,"demwill killhimin ya." But,afterthefashion of oldRandolphMurrayinthepoem, I gave noanswerbutonlygroanedaloud.Why,I nearly waskilled!I waskeptfromfalling simply because,beingso closelysurroundedbypeople, I couldnotfall;yetatonetimeI was lifted offmyfeet. Youmustunderstand,of course,thatnearly allthepersonswhohadsleptatthenight shelterhadnowbegun to arrive.Thinkofit:therewas I inthemidstofaboutonethousandpeople, struggling, fighting forbreathIAt lastIIhadobtainedstandingroomnearone oftheiron pillarswhichsupporttheroof ofthemarkethouse. Clingingtothis I was able to seeprettyclearly allthatpassed.Everyfiveminutestheswiftelectriccarsflashed past,thesteady"ding,ding"ofthegongwarningpeople out oftheway.Thesea ofhumanfacesconstantlymoving,thehubbubthatswelledintoalouderroareverymoment,themeekdonkeysprecededbytheirownerswhochargedthroughthecrowdwithawarcryof"Beast!beast!"all thisformedone novelpanorama.Itwas fineindeed!Butanybodythattookanynotice ofmeatallseemedtoregardmeasanintruder-astrangerin astrangeland. Nowandthenayoungwoman,strongandhumorous, would ask me,"Wantanyt'ingtobuy,sah7" Some of them,indeed,passed a scornfulremarkor twoonmybeingthere,forpersonalremarksaremadebythese"horn-handeddaughtersoftheplough"withouttheslightest reserve.Yettheymeannoharm;rathertheopposite. Givethema soft answer,and,behold,theirwrathisturnedaway.Attempttobandywordswith them,andthechancesareyou willgettheworstof it. Youdon'tknowthemarket7 Well,itis a large, roofed building ofironandconcrete,withlongrangesof stallswhicharehiredoutbytheweekormonthtothehigglers.Thecountrypeople have, of course,topay a fee to sell inthemarket. Ithinktheypaysixpence for a donkeyloadandthreepencefor aheadloadof provisions.Andnowthemajorityofthesellers have settleddowntotheday's work.Othersellers willbecomingsoon,butit's difficulttodivinewheretheywill sit.

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134INJAMAICAANDCUBAEveryinchofroomisalreadytakenup;somepersonssquatonthebareground,othershavebroughtasmallbenchwiththem.Sooncrowdsofcustomers,eagerforgoodbargains,begintoswarmin,andItakemyplaceamongstthemovingstream.Atallblackwomaninfrontof me,carryingalargebasketonherarm(whichbasket,fornoapparentI-eason,shewillinsistupondrivingeverynowandthenintovariouspartsofmybody),thislady,I say,stopsinfrontof acountrywomanwhodisplaysgoodsof allkindsfor sale.MechanicallyIstopalso.Thenensuesthefollowingcolloquy-Ladywithbasket:"Iwonderifanyt'ingwutwhilefebuyya?" Coulltrywoman:"Hi!yes,mesweetee,youmummahaveplentynice tings."Lady 'U'ith basket:"Cho!Adoanseenoringdatalike:howyouselldemorange?" COulltrywomall: "Dozenan'twofe quattie,' melove."Ladywith basket:"Wah!Sosodozenan'two?Acouldn'ttekdozenan'twoatall.Youwill 'avetogivemedozenan'four." COlt1ltrywoman: "Ech,ech!Noah,melove, Icouldn'tdodatatall.Lookwehmecomefram!An'deorangedemsosweettoo!"Ladywith basket:"Well,totelldetrute,Ican'ttekdozenan'two.Orangeistoocheapnow."Whereuponthecountrywomanswearsbyallhergodsthatorangesaredear;theotherswearswithbecomingvehemencethattheyarecheap."Cho!youtoodamntief,"saysthesellerwiththebasket.Immediatelythesellerdesireshertobetakeherselftoacertainregionrenownedfor itswarmth.Thentheybothlaughimmodel-atelyand-appealto me.Ladywith basket: Youngmassa,don'tyoutinkdemorangesdear? "Coulltrywomall: "Cho,mesweetmassa,don'tyoutinkdemorangesyawutquattie?"Hereis adilemma!Woetomeif Ishoulddecideeitherway! vVhat shallIdo?Idetermineupontakingupapositionofmasterlyneutrality,andforthwithenquirethepriceoforangesonmyownaccount.Andthenthestormclears;forseeingthechancesofobtaininganothercustomer,thecountrywomaninstantlygives inandconsentstolet usbothhavesixteenorangesfora"quattie."Allaroundweregroupsofpersonshiggling.MoreliesweretoldduringthefirstmarkethourthatSaturdaythanyoucanthinkof.Andsomeofthemweremasterpieces.I fellinlovewiththeeaseandperfectcandourwithwhichbothbuyersandsellersmadethemostastoundingassertions.Theyknewthatnobodybelievedthem,andtheydidnotexpecttobebelieved,theytoldthesepleasanttales"allforfun."Whatawealthofthingstherewasforsale!Goldenoranges,bananas, Here. 2 Threehalf-pence.

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ONTHEROAD135fatcustardapples,thincanes, sober-looking melons,purplegrapes, yams, potatoes,pease-oh!everything. Sidebyside withthemanwho soldribbonsstoodthegentlemanwhowill let you haveanextraordinaryhunkof evil smelling cheese for"quattie."Onegentlemansellshamat3d.perpound, whilenearbyis ayouthofstentorianlungswho retails prayer-booksandBibles.Thatmodestcoolie girl will let you have a finebunchof radishes for 3d.,andthatmanwho looks like a philosophervendsornamentsforyourdressingtable. Outsidethemarketeverythingis confused. Cartsgodrivingthroughgroupsof peoplethatseemtostandinimminentdangerofbeingrunover,butnosuchcatastropheoccurs.Thedriversmerelythunderoutsomescornfulremarkstothecrowd,thecrowdmerely retortswithsomepersonalallusion.Theshopsare all gailydressedup, for Christmas isnear;festoons of colouredpaperstretchfrom onepartofthemtotheother,busyshopmenarehurryingtoandfrogettingthingsreadyforthebusiness oftheday. And when,threeorfourhours later, I go"downtown,"toKingStreetwheremostofthehaberdasheryand"fancy"stores are, I findmanyofthesecountryfolk walking alongtheside-walksandadmiringthewealth ofprettythingsexposedinthehugeglass windowstoattractthepassers-by. Ienteroneofthesestores:it isthronged.Both"town"and"countrypeople"areeitherbuyingdresses forNewYearSundayorribbonsandlaces totrimtheirChristmasfrocks.Andyoumaybesurethattheyarelaying out a good deal oftheirsavingsonthissortof finery. Ihaveknownwomenfromthecountrywhohavespentfromtentofifteenshillings-alargeamounttothem-onahatfor a special occasion,suchas a harvest festivalorachurchanniversary. Iapproachone ofthecustomers-threewomen,oneelderly,theothertwoyoung,arebuyinga"NewYear dress."Theyarebeingattendedtobyaladyserveron whose face isanexpression of infinite weariness. She hasalreadyshownthemfully half a dozen different kinds ofmaterials;buttheyarepleasedwithnone,"demwantto seesomet'ingelse."Thepoorgirlwhowaitsonthemturnstoreachanotherpiece ofpinkstuff."Here,"shesays,"issomethingyou willlike;it washes well. Nowyounglady"(turningtooneofthegrinning: damsels)"justlookatthis!Isn'titbeautiful?I have adressofitmyself"(youmustacceptthis cum grano)."Whenit ismadeupit will look beautifulonyou,andyourbeauwilladmireyoumorethanever."Theyounglady,highlypleasedwiththis allusiontoherbeau,condescendstocasthereye overthecloth, withtheremark,"Itdon'ttoo prutty.""Oh!"saystheserver,"Iamsurprisedatyou."Thentheshop walker, who hasoverheardthecustomer'sremark,joins in with,"Oh!mydear,itis asprettyas yourself,andyouarenice looking, you know.""Mydear's"face iswreathedinsmiles;eventheoldwomanis pleasedathearingherdaughterpraisedby"dehan'somebackra."

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INJAMAICAANDCUBATheshopwalkersees hischanceandpressesthegirl tobuyatonce.Andnowthehigglingoverthepricebegins."Howmuchaya'dfo'dis?"asksoneofthewomen."Ninepence,mydear,"returnstheseller;"it'sdirtcheap;itusedtobea shilling ayard.""Howmuchyou say,ma'am?Ninepenceava'd?dattoodear!"Theattendantfallsintoadeepcogitationandscansthebuyers' faceswithgreatcare. "I think," sheresumesatlast,"thatIrememberyourface:don'tyou alwaysbuyfromme?"Instantlythebuyersadmitthatithasbeentheirconstantpracticetopatronisethatstore:thattheyhave always, so to speak, itasoneoftheirprincipalaimsinlifetobuynowhereclse.Butthisisall apleasantfiction.Theclerkhasreallychargedthema littlemoreperyardthantherealpriceofthestuffsheis selling.Shewasobligedtodoso, forsheknewtoadeadcertaintythattheywouldendeavourtoabate price. But, of course, shemustfindsomeadequatereason for"tekingoff somet'ing,"andthisreasonis foundinwhatImaycall"theoldcustomerdodge." Sothepriceofthematerialiseventuallybroughtdownto 7td. peryardandthecountrywomendepartwell pleased.Andnowbeginsthejourneyhomeward,thejourneytothevillageinthehills.Thestreamthistime flowsnorthward,butnowthegirlsandwomenwhohave"beasts"ridecomfortablyonthese,perchedhighabovethepanniers,eachlooselyholdingthesingleguidingrope,nowtransformedintoa bridle,inherrighthand.Theprocessionbeginsataboutmiddayandwillcontinuetill late.Thosewomenwhohave nobeastscrowdintothecarsthatwillcarrythemsomefiveorsix milesoutofthecity;then,arrivedattheterminus,theywill setoutonfootupontheirhomewardmarch.Higherandhigherthelandrises astheygo;humanhabitationsarepassedbutrarely;aboveisthegreatarchof skyandthestars,aroundareforestsandmountains;belowarethesteepprecipicesdownintowhichonepeersoccasionally asonemoves swiftlyupalongtheroad.Thehalf-moon glows serenely. A faint,ghostlysheenpervadeseverything,radiatesfromeverything. Solemn, majestic,grand,themountainpeaksappear,oneaftertheother,bathedandsteepedindeepsilenceanddimlight. A village is passed, a collection ofthatchedhutsbuilthereandthereneartheroad,withits singleshopandperhapsitslittle missionchurch.Thevillage isasleep;only adogortworousingthemselvestobarklazilyatthepeasantsastheypass.Thesethemselvesaresilent now, for since lastnighttheyhavehadbutlittle rest,andalldaylongthefierce yellowsunof thetropicshasbeenbeatingdownuponthem.Butatlast a faintlightaheadwarnsthemthathomeis nigh,andsoon ahaltis called.ItisSundaymorning,andsinceFridaynighttheyhavebeenaltogethersomeforty miles upontheroad....Butthisis home.

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COFFEE PULPING,JAMAICA.NATIVE BOY PICKINGOCOA-NUTS.

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CHAPTERIXTHROUGHABEAUTIFULLANDWHOwasitthatfirst calledCuba"ThePearloftheAntilles"?Historydoesnottell;butweknowthatthewordJamaicaisofIndianoriginandmeans"thelandofwoodandwater,"justasHaytimeansrockyormountainous.EachoftheGreatAntilles has physicalcharacteristicsof itsown;eachdiffersfromalltheothersinitstopography,thoughall ofthemaretheuplifts of awonderfulmountainrangethatrunsfromeasttowestforhundredsof milesbeneaththesurfaceofthesea.Thinkofit!theseislandsarebutthepeaks;thetopmostportions of asubmergedmountainchain.Andonce,stretchingfromCentralAmericaover alargeportionoftheCaribbeanSeaandintotheGulf of Mexico,coveringtheareawheretheseislandsnowstand,wasa vast island, an islandthathasdisappeared.Onestandsontheseashoreto-day,and,gazingfarouttowherethewhitehorsesleapandtumbleintheirpasturesoflimpidblue,one'sthoughtsgobacktothose far-off,prehistoricdayswhenoutyonder,wheretheseanowis,wasperhapsarollingplain,orperhapsamightymountain.Howdidthelandlookthen?Wasitdrearandvastandwild,orsmilingandbeautiful?Itishardtothinkthatintheseregionstheappearanceofthecountrycouldhavebeenatanytimeotherwisethanrichandluxuriant,otherwisethanwondrouslygreenandgloriouslypurplewhenthesunshonebrightuponthehills.Andyetitwasprobablyfardifferentfromwhatourimaginationswould fainpictureit.Itmusthavebeendifferent,thatislandthelargerpartofwhich ha;s foreversunkbeneaththewaves.Andgeologiststellus alsothatthehighmountainsofJamaicaarecomposedofthedetritusofsomeolderland,andthatJamaicaitselfwasprobablyonceconnectedwithCentralAmerica. Soitmaybethatpartof a lostcontinentstill livesinthehighlandsofJamaica,andthatthepeasantwalksuponlayersofearththatoncebelongedtoanotherandanolderworld.Jamaicadiffersfromhernearneighbours,CubaandHayti,andisbyfarthemost beautiful ofthethree. Iwanttodescribeherbeauty, Iwanttogive yousomeidea,somenotion ofthislandof forestsandstreamswhich137

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAwasoncesomuchlargerthanitis,andwhich has sointerestinga history.Buthowshall I begin,and,whenI havebegun,whatshall Isay?Doyouknowthatnoonehas everdescribedJamaica?DoyouknowthatnoonehaseverdoneforherwhatKingsleydidforTrinidad?Is itthatherbeautydefiesdescriptionexceptbyamasterhand?Ifso,mytask isdone:I knowthatwhatI shall say will leave Jamaica's beauties stillunportrayed.And,indeed,toportraythose beauties,notthewriter'spenalone,buttheartist'sbrushas well iswanted.Thosegoldensunsetswhenthewesternskypalpitateswiththequiveringheart-leapsofthesinkingsun,whengreatmasses ofcrimsoncloudsrollintoweird,gigantesqueshapesagainstthatflamingbackground,whentheheavensaboveareadelicateblue,tintedhereandtherewithfaintstreaksof pink,andwhen,intheeast,thesilverstarsarealreadypeepingforth-surelythosearepicturesfO!'Turner'sbrush,arescenes for Ruskin's pen. I wishthatbothhadseenJamaica.Butsome day,perhaps,therewillcomea write!'whowill telltheworldofthesemountainsandhills, ofthechanging,tossing, sun-suffused sea,theyellowwarmsunlight,thewonderofthenights,thegloryofthebreakingdawn. Meanwhileweuninspiredonesmusttoilandlabourwithwords,laggingimmeasurabledistancesbehindthosemastersoflanguagewhosemagicsentencesrecreatetheworidtothesoundofwondrousmusic.Ourpicture,atthebest, is poor.Wecannotgiveitthatlastincomparabletouchof genius,cannotadd-"thegleam,Thelight that never \vas, on sea orland,Theconsecration, and the Poet's dream."Thereis nopartofJamaicathathas notsomethingtoenchanttheeye, noparishwithoutsomebeauties of its own.EvenKingston, amerecity builtonanalluvial plainthatstretchesfromthefootoftheBlueMountainstotheedgeofthesea, has this ofbeautyaboutit;itsbackgroundof hillsonwhichthesunlightandtheshadowscontinuallyplay fromdawnto dusk.Butoneneedstobeoutoftownsandcities to seetherealJamaica;oneneedsto gazedownintoprecipicesintheearlymorningwhenthedewis stilluponthegrassandthewhitemistscomerollingupwardslikehugecloudsorthickvolumes of palestsmoke;ortostandonmountainpeaksandseegreatstretchesoflandbrokeninto hillsandvalleys,studdedwithinnumerabletrees,gleamingwithstreamsandrivers,andflashinghereandthereintobrightnessasacascadeleapsfroma hillsidetotherockydepthsbelow. Alandof hills as well as alandof woodandwater.Alandof mads andbridgeswhichhavebeenbuildingthesetwohundredyears,andwhich are to-daytheprideof Jamaica. Noothercountryinthesepartshasthe mads andthemeansofcommunicationthatJamaicahas;sothattravelling,whichis notyeteasyinCuba,andismostdifficultinHaytiandinCentralAmerica,

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND139is easyanddelightful here,thanks to therailwayandthepublicwayswithwhichtheisland isendowed.I took horseonenightandrodeslowlyuptowardsoneoftheoldmansionsofthecountry,a house built ahundredandfiftyyearsagoonthetopof a hill fifteenhundredfeethigh,whenceyou lookdownwarduponKingstonsomenineortenmilesaway.Theroadcurvedlike a snake,twistinghereandthereintospirals, sothatfromonepartofityou lookeddirectlydownuponthatportionofityouhadpassedoverbutfifteenminutesbefore.Up,up,upitwent,onelong,continuousclimb,andalmostallthewaytheweather-beatenlimestonerockstoweredhighaboveone'shead, whiletothelefttheprecipicesyawned,verdure-coveredtotheirutmostdepths.Theroaditself is rock,andwhenportions ofitarebeateninto holesbythetorrentialrains of MayandOctober,themendersbreakthelimestonefromthemountainside,andwiththatit is repaired. A simple, effective process,andonethatmakes travellingsafe;sohigherandhigherIwentuntil,thepathturningsuddenly, I sawthelights of Kingstongleaminginthedistance-aburstof brillianceinthemidstofthesurroundingdarkness.Thousandsoflightsdowntherebytheedgeofthesea,andthousandsoflightsintheheavensabove.Andaboutthehills themselves,amongstthetrees,thebushes,totherightandtotheleft,beforeandbehind,myriadsof fireflies flashingtheirtinylanternsofgreenandgold tomakethepatha piece of fairy-land.Thedarknesswassetwithdiamonds,withemeralds,andwithotherpreciousstones,andpresentlythemoon, risinglateatthistimeofthemonth,cameuptofloodthemountainswithsoftradiance,andto palethebrightnessofthestars. But, asthoughtodisputeherreign,darkmasses ofcloudroseinthewest,andgraduallyspreaduntiltheycoveredavastspaceoftheover-archingsky.Thenfromtheheartofthissombrecanopylightningsflickered forth, followedbytherumbleofthunder.Butstillthemoonsailed on, calm, sweet, light-giving, beautiful,andbathingthemountainsinanivory glow.Theeffectwasmagical,wonderful.Thepowersoflightandofdarknessseemedstrugglingforthemasteryupabove.Orrather,notstruggling,forthe rain-cloudsneverswepteastward,themoonwasneverobscured.Afewgreatdropsofraincamedown,thenalmostassuddenlyastheyhadarisenthecloudsdissolvedanddisappeared.Thenasweetrefreshingbreezewanderedamongstthebranchesofthe b-ees, andthesilence was onlybrokenbythecryofthenightinsectsandthewhisperingofthewind.AndanynightinJamaicayou will seesuchscenes;nightanddayNatureclothesherself inrichrobes to dazzleandbewildertheeye.OnecantravelthroughtheheartofJamaicain it railwaytrain.Thesecondtownofcommercialimportance,PortAntonio, isbutfouranda halfhoursdistantfromKingstonbytrainandthejourneyisonewhichcanneverbeforgottenbyanyonewhohasmadeit.

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAremembermy firsttriptoPortAntonio vividly:itseemstomeasif Ihadmadeityesterdayandhadjustreturned.ItookthetrainonaSaturdayafternoon,afterbuyingmyticketandpassingthroughtheirongatesso carefulIyguardedbyrailwayguardstopreventpersonswhowerenotpassengersfromthrongingontheplatform.Inspiteof this precaution, a few friends ofthepassengershadslippedthrough,andthesestoodneartothecarriagewindowstakingleave oftheirfriends.Tenyearsbeforetheywouldhavewept.Foreventhentherewas littlemovingaboutdonein Jamaica,andtogouponajournevofthirtymileswasalmostliketakinganexcursionintotheunknown:youhunguponthenecksofyourfriendsandcried,andbadethemfarewelI piteously,andimploredthemto takecareof themselves.Butnowyouarequitecheerful:you can travel toPortAntonio, adistanceof seventy-five miles,ortoMontego Bay, ahundredandthirteenmiles from Kingston,inlessthana day.Theouterworldhasbeenbroughtclose tothepoorerfolkofthecity;andthecity hasdrawnneartothoseinthecountry,soonenowlaughsandsmileswhereonewouldhavewepta fewyearsago. And, smiling, we pulIoutofthedarkiron-roofedstationandsoonarespeedinguponourway.Wegoattherateoftwentymilesanhour,sometimesatfifteen.FromKingston toSpanishTownwegoatourmaximumrateofspeed,forthelandis flatandthelinerunsalmoststraightahead.Forsometimewepassbyanugly,drear,evil-smelIingswampinwhichrankvegetation grows.Thespotisunhealthy,yetithasits uses,foritisherethattheland-crabsaboundinthefirstrainyseason oftheyear,andat any timeyoumaysee inthesoftgroundtheholestheyhavedugasplacesof shelter.Evennowif you look closely you wilI seesomeofthesecrabscrawlingorrunningabout.BigyelIow-whiteorbluishcreatures,andholdingtheirnippersthreateninglyup,theycanfightsplendidlywhendriventobay;andonlythemanwhohastriedtocatchthem,as Ihavedone, knowshowdifficult ataskitisto holdtheirclawsdownwitha stick, while,withyourfreehand,youtrytocatchhold of thecrabbythatpartof itsbackwheretheclawscannotreach.Thesecrabsarecaughtatnight.Hereamongsttheswampsyou wiIlcomeuponlittlecompaniesofboys,onearmedwith astorm-lanternora blazing torch,anothercarryingalargecoarsecrocusbag, athirdwith ashortstick. AlI ofthemassistinthehuntingdownofthecrabs,andwhenthebagis full tothebrimtheylugitintotown,andinthemorningtheytaketheirstandoutsideofthemarket,proclaimingthattheyhavethebestcrabsintheworld,andthatfourmaybehadfor a quattie.Itisthenthateverybodysaysthatcrabsarepoisonous,thattheyeatthedeadbodiesinthenear-bycemeteries,andthat,beingscavengers,theymustattheveryleastbe unwholesome.Itisthenthateverybodybuyscrabsandeatsthem.Itis saidinJamaicathatwhencrabsare"in"notmuchbeefandsaltedfish is sold.Itis alsosaidthatwhenmangoesare"in"verylittlebreadis sold.Nowthetimeofthecrabisthe

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND141timeofthemango,andwithtwodozenmangoesforquattie,andfourlargecrabsforthesame,onemayliveverycomfortablyonlittle.ThemangoesaredeliciousjIhaveahighopinionofcrabsmyself.Isn'titablessingwhenthingsarebothcheapandgood!Butwhilethinkingaboutcrabswehavepassedtheswamps,andnowwearerumblingovera highironbridgethatspansoneofthelargeriversofJamaica,theRio Cobre.TheSpaniardsgavethedull,greenish-lookingriver itsname,andthenameremainsto-day.Butfor a fewsuchnameshereandthere,namespoeticandappropriateandsweettothetongue,thereisnothingoftheSpaniardleft inthisland.Hehadnottimeenoughtobecomepartofthecountry:heworkedtheIndianstodeath,heintroducednegroslaves;thenhisdayendedandhewasdrivenfromtheislandbyEnglishtroops.HewenttoCuba,andnowonehardlyeverremembersthathewashere. Yethewasoncemasterof alltheGreatAntilles,andmightstillhavebeenbutforhisgreedofgoldandhisincapacityfor colonialadministration.SpanishTownVIestopatfor aminuteortwo,butbeforewepullintothestationwehavepassedoneoftheprettiestsightsupontheway.ThisistheGovernment'sPrisonFarm,aninstitutionestablishedforthepurposeofteachingshort-termprisonerstheelementsofagriculture:itis alargepieceof'land,fringedwithbananaplantsandcrotons,cutintolongrowsof hillocks ineachofwhichisplantedthe sweet potato, ashrubthatgrowsverylowtotheearthandbearsaprettypurplishflower.Thisis,perhaps,thebestbitofcultivatedlandinalltheisland:certainlyitisoneoftheprettiest.You seeitthereinthesunlight,andhereandthereaboutitarethebare-footed,cloth-cappedprisonershoeingthegroundundertheeyeofthewarder.Thelatterisarmed,butthepistoldoesnotshow. Ashortstaffaloneisthevisible sign of hisauthority.Yettheprisonershardlyevertrytoescape,andasnoonedrivesthemtogreatexertionsJamaicaisnotalandwhereonedrivesorisdriven-Iimaginetheyarefairlycontentwiththeirlot. Inumbersomeex-prisonersamongmypersonalacquaintance,andtheyactuallyspeakintermsofwarmappreciationof His Majesty'sprisonsinJamaica.Theyhadnotbeenguiltyofthecrimesimputedtothem,ofcoursejsomeonehad"tolda lieonthem."Still,theprisonhadnotprovedsobadaplaceafterall!Theremaybesomebravadoinall this, a wish tobrazenoutdisgraceandservitude.Yetharshnessbeingstronglycondemnedbylocalpublicopinion, Idonotdoubtthatmanyaprisonerisagreeablysurprisedatthetreatmenthereceivesinthepublicpenitentiaries.Andnowaswetravelonwebegintoseemoreofthestaplecultivations ofthecountry.Forestsofbananasasfarastheeyecanreach-veritableforests ofbananas.Thereisnootherwordto use.Plantedin 1"OWS somefourorfiveapart,risingtoaheightofeightorninefeet,thesofttrunkofthetrees, all fibreandwater,endsin agreatplumeofbroadgreenleaves,each

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAofthemsomefiveorsixfeetinlength.Thereisnomorefragileplant.Thecoolplume-likeleavessplitintoathousandribbonsifeversolightawindpassesthroughthem:thetreeitselfbendstothegroundundertheweight.ofitssinglebunchofgreenorgoldenfruit.Itbearsonebunchonlyinitslifetime.Thatdone,itmustbecutdowntomakewayfortheyoungplantsthatarespringingfromits roots.Withinayearitswholelifestoryistold.YetwhatsugaristoCubaandcoffeetoHayti,thebananaistoJamaica.FortyyearsagothevalueofthefruitshippedfromJamaicawasonly .,124. To-dayitisover,143,000.AndbutthatthisfruitcametotaketheplaceofsugarandcoffeewhenthepriceofthosewentdowninthemarketsofEuropeandAmerica,itis difficulttoguesswhatwouldbethepositionofJamaicato-day.Thestoryoftheoriginofthebananatradehasoftenbeentold:anAmericanskipper,comingtoJamaicabyaccident,took ashiploadofthefruittoJamaica.Hesoldit;peoplewantedmore.Sohecameback,andasitwasthepeasantsmainlywhogrewthesebananas,heandthosewhofollowedhiminducedthesepeasantstoextendtheirplantings.Otherstookupthebusiness,moreandmorefruitshipscameandwentbetweenBostonandJamaica,andPortAntoniowastheheadquartersofthetrade.ThentheBostonFruitCompanywastransformedintotheUnitedFruitCompany,thegiganticAmericantrustthatnowcontrolsthefruittradeofAmerica,andthatownssugarestatesinCuba,andbananaplantationsinCostaRica,Panama,andJamaica.GotoalmostanypartofJamaicaandyouwill findthebanana.Isayalmost,forthequalification isneeded.ForoncewhenIdrovethroughtheparishofWestmoreland,andthencetoHanover,andthroughHanovertoSt.James,Itravelledformilesandmilesandscarcelysawabanana-tree.SugarestatesinplentyIpassed,andcattlepens.Thelow-lyinglandsofWestmorelandwerecoveredwithcanes,therollinguplandsofHanoverwerecoveredwithcattle,big,wide-horned,broad-backedbeaststhatcroppedthegrassinthestone-fencedpasturesthatborderedtheroad.Andinotherparishesyouwill findthese;forthoughJamaicaisthelargestbanana-producingcountryintheworld,sheyetgrowsotherthings,andrearshorsesandcattle;andsomeofthethingsshegrowsarethebestoftheirkindintheworld.Inthehighmountainsshegrowsthebestcoffee.Shealoneproducespimento,forthepimentoof MexicoandPortoRicodocsnotcount.Her'gingeristhebest,herrumthebest.AndsomeofhersugarlandsneedfearnocomparisonwiththoseofCubaorJava. Soonemayfeelconfidentthatforthisislandarichfutureisreserved,sincethetimemustsurelycomewhenitsalmostundevelopedresourceswillbemadetoyieldgoldenprofitstomenwithenergyandcapital.AndmenwithcapitalandenergyarenowturningtheirattentiontoJamaica.TheJamaicabananagoeschieflytoAmerica.ButitgoestoEngland

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND143alsobytheboatsoftheImperialDirectWestIndianLine,ownedbytheElderDempsterCompany.ThetradewithEnglandhas not asyetdevelopedasitwashopeditwould,yettherearemanywhofirmly believethatwithinareasonabletimeJamaicabananaswillbelargelyeateninEngland.ThedifficultyuptonowhasreallybeenthefacilitywithwhichbananasfromCosta RicaandtheCanariescanenterthemarketsofthemothercountry.ThesecompetewiththeJamaicafruit,andsellers of Costa RicanbananashavenohesitationinofferingtheirfruitasJamaicabananas.Somethingshouldbedonetopreventthis,justasstepshavebeentakentopreventEnglishpublicansfromsellinginferiorspirits asJamaicarum.ButifthefruittradewithEnglandhasnotgrownasthepeopleofJamaicahopeditwould,therecanbe nodoubtthattheImperialDirectWest India Linehasdoneagreatdeal tobringJamaicaclosertothemothercountry,tointerestEnglishmeninthisisland,andtoinduceJamaicansto visitEnglandandthuscomeintoclosertouchwithEnglishmanners,habitsandcustoms,andwithEnglishideals.ThousandsofJamaicanshave visitedEnglandbytheDirectboatsduringthelasteightyears.TheLinehashadanImperialisticmission,andhasdoneits best tocarryitout. Ithinkit will domoreinthefuture:Ithinkit will be toJamaicawhattheRoyal Mail SteamPacketCompanyhasbeento alltheBritishWestIndies.Thisothergreatline ofsteamershasbeenconnectedwiththeWestIndiesforquiteanumberofyears.Itsshipsarefamiliarlyknownas"thepacket"throughouttheWestIndies,and"packet-day"is adayof note.OnehearsfromEnglandthen.Therearelettersfrom home.Therearenewfaces from home.Howmuchall thismeanstoanEnglishmaninaWestIndianIslandevenhehimselfcouldnottelI.Hefeelsitallasheeagerlybreakstheseal oftheenvelopeonwhichistheold, familiarwriting;hefeelsitasheturnsoverthepages of a magazinetwoorthreeweeksold.AndthegreatbigblackboatsoftheRoyal Mail,withtheirsplendid serviceandcourteous officers,havebecomea householdwordintheWestIndiesandhavebeenafactorintheircivilisationandprogress. Darkness! Thickgloomandarushof smoke,anda shrieking,thundering,deafeningnoise.Wehavebeenspeedingalongwhile IhavebeenthinkingofJamaica'sindustriesandfuture,andnowwe haveentereda tunnel,thefirst ofthemanytunnelsonthewaytoPortAntonio.Wesoonemergeintolightandthesoftfreshairagain;thenoise subsides,andpresentlywehaltata wayside station,BogWalk.ASpanishnamecorrupted,evidently:BocadelAgua,mouthofthewater,andnowBogWalk-whatachangeITheriverthatwe see flowinghereisthesameRioCobrethatwepassedsomemiles below,andhereagainwe findoneofthegreatbridgeswhichtheEnglishhave builtinJamaica. Magnificentstructurestheseare,andbuiltto

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144INJAMAICAANDCUBAlast.Therainsmayfall,thefloodsmaydescend,theriversmayriseandover flowtheirbanks,yetstillthesebridgeswillremainunshaken. You will findthemspanningchasms,thebottomsofwhicharethebedsof rivers,and,asyou sweepoverthese,itseemstoyou as thoughyouweresuspendedinmid air, asthoughbuttheslightest swerve tothel'ightorleftwouldsendyouhurtlingtothehorriddepthsbelow.Butnosuchaccidentsoccm';andas youtravelonthecharmof thejourneygrows. Look there, a hill rises infrontof us.Werushstraighttowardsit;in amomentweareenvelopedindarkness.Thenoutagain,andlookingbehindwe seethatwehavesweptthroughatunnelcutthroughtheveryheartofthehill.Thousandsoftonsofearthwereaboveourheadsamomentago,andaswelookupwecanseethehillunderwhichwehavepassed,andcan see little houseshereandthereuponit,andpeasantboysandgirls,andthesewavetous as wehurryaway,twistingandturninglike a snake.Onehalf ofthetrainisroundthecurve.Bythetimethatweroundit also,theengineisalreadydisappearinginanotherdirection.Werockfromside toside:we lookoutagain:see!weareclimbinga hill.Doesn'titseem as if we were likelytoslip backwards, a mass ofwreckage?Supposeoneof thecouplingsgives way,supposesomethinggoeswrongwiththeengine,suppose-weareflyingdownwardsnow, down,down,down;wearegoingslowly-ahHills risebehindhills,andyetmorehillsappear.Sheerbeneath us aprecipiceyawns. Igasp:buteven as IgaspI lookouttowardsthefarhorizon, tothesky-linewheretheazureoftheheavensblendswiththegreenofthehills. Milesuponmiles of gloriouscountryunrolls itselfina mag nificentparonamaofgreenandpurpleandyellow.Thehillsidesarecultivatedhereandthere,andhereandthereyouseehorsesrollingandgallopinginthefields,andsolemncattlebrowsingintherichpastures,orstandinguptotheirkneesinlichen-coveredponds.Acountrygentleman'sred-roofed house nestlesinthemidstoffloweringshrubs,someadeepscarlet,andnearitI seeorange-treesladenwithfruitthat"burnlikebrightlampsofgoldtoshametheday."Parasitesgrowuponmost ofthehugetreesI see,sendingdownlongtendrils totheground.Greatsilkcotton-trees,coveredwithparasiticgrowths,havebeenkilledbythese,andnowtheystandthere,withered,dead,yetimposingandgiganticevenintheirdeath.Werushon,nowbetweenhighbanksofwhiteandyellow limestone,nowbetweenbroadacresofwire-fencedbananalands.NorthandSouth,East,andWest,you seenothingbutbananasnow.WhattheRoyalpalmsareinthewest of Cuba,thebananasareinthispartofJamaica.Thewholelandscapeis a massofdark,movinggreen.Thebroadleaves oftheplantsshineinthesunlight,onthehills,ontheplains,whereverone's eye isturned.Itis striking,thiscountrysopicturesquelyclothed.I lookandlook-green,green,

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THE SQUARE, MONTECOBAY.THEfORT,MONTECOBAY.

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND145andyetmoregreen.Iturnmyeyesaway;I lookagain;isthat-yes,surelythatisthesea-thebroad,blue,sparklingseathatburstsuponourview.Itisjustbeneathus.Wearerunningalongtheedgeofthereef-boundelevatedshore.Thesandsaremilkywhite;pearl-greenandpinkisthecolourofthewaterwelookdownupon;greenandblueandfoam-crestedthewavesthatrollandtossoutyonder.Westartedfromthesouth, wehavecometothenorthernshoreof Jamaica.Wehavejourneyedfromseatosea.* *Andnow, untilwereachtheendofourjourney,weIshallconstantlycatchglimpses ofthiswonderfulseaview.Ina veryshorttimevisitors will travelalongthispartofthenortherncoast ofJamaicainmotor-cars, for amotorcompanyisnowbeginningoperationsinJamaica,andthemainroadthatrunsalmostparallelwiththerailwayline will makemotoringa delight.AlreadyAmericantouristsbringovertheirmotor-carsinthewinter,forthefameoftheJamaicaroadshasspreadabroad.GovernorMagoon toldmethreeyearsagothatsome of hisfriendswhohadmotoredthroughJamaicawereloudintheirpraiseoftheisland'shighwaysandscenery;andI seethetimecomingwhenhundredsofmotorswillbespeedingalongtheuplandsandalongthegreatroadthatrunsaroundtheisland like abroad,twisting,green-edgedwhiteband.Onenevertiresofthesceneryof Jamaica.Itisnevermonotonous.Themountainsgive toititsappearanceofgrandeur,theluxuriantfoliage clothesitinagarbof softbeauty.As you travel on,thereis alwayssomethingnew, alwayssomethingtocompeladmiration:if youtireof lookinguptowardstheheights, youmaylookdownintodeepchasmswherethewatersgleamdarklyastheylosethemselvesbeneaththeoverhangingfrondsofgigantictree-ferns.Fernsof almosteveryvarietyarehere:thedelicatemaidenhairfernaswell as fernsthatatfirst youmaythinktobesmallpalm-trees.Andmoss-coveredrocksareneartothese,rockscoveredwithmoss of adelicategoldengreen.ButI havewanderedfrommysubjectalittle:letmesee, IwasspeakingofthejourneybyrailtoPortAntonio afteronehasemergeduponthesea coastatAnnottoBay, ajourneythat,becauseofthesceneryandbeautyofthecountrywepassthrough,isoneofthemostdelightfulintheworld. Allalongthelineonestopsatlittle stationstotakeupfreightandpassengers. Ateverystationtherearetheinevitable idlers,theloaferswhoregardthemselves asentitledtotheconsiderationoftheirfellow-men,becausetheyalonehave fully realisedtheindignityof labour.TheJamaicacountryloafer isinhis way abitof asportsman.Mankindis hisgame.Likethelilies ofthefieldhetoils not,neitherdoeshespin,andthoughIcannotsaymuchaboutthegloryof hisapparel,whichis usually exiguous, Itakeitthatheisquiteashappyas Solomon, especiallyinthematterof wives.Hisphilosophyof lifemay be setforthinafewsimple sentences.WorkheregardsastheII

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INJAMAICAANDCUBAprimeval curse,andhedoeshisbesttoescapethecurse.Honestyhelooksuponasthebestpolicywhenoneiscertaintobecaughtifonesteals;butifthereisnosureriskof detection,heconsidershonestyasthevirtueof fools. Asheexpresses it,"Dereis achancefordebirdas well as fordegun." Asheisthebird-markthepoetryofthesimile-hetakes hischanceswhenhegoesforthatnighttoplunderhisneighbour'sprovisionground,andhewillsometimeshavetheeffronterytopassthegun(i.e.,his neighbour)nextdayto askhimhowheisgettingon.Heandhis likearewellknowntoallthevillage.Buttheymustbecapturedbeforetheycanbeaccused,andveryoftentheymanageto establish asystemofterrorismwhichrenderstheircapturealmostimpossible.Whenamancasuallymentionsthat"ifanybodyeverlieonme"he willcommithitherto-unheard-ofmurders,whatis apoortimorouspeasanttodo?You willunderstand,of course,thattoreportaJamaica pra::dial thieftothepolice is,inhis opinion, to lieagainsthimmostfearfully. His indignation, hewouldhaveyou believe, isbasedentirelyuponmoralgrounds:itis asanupholderoftruththatheprotestsagainstyouract.Thepolicebeingthenaturalenemiesof allmen,too,hefeelsthatyouareactingasatraitortoyourkindbyhavinghimarrested;while if youareablackmanheexpressestheutmosthorrorandindignationthatyou should seek toinjure manofyourownrace:hesaysitis a case of"dognyam'dog."Sometimeshebecomesplanter.Thatis to say,herentsa smallbitoflandonwhichtheremayhappentobetwoorthreefruit-bearingtrees.Thesegivehimtherighttohaveandtosell fruit alltheyearround,eventhoughnoonemayhaveknownthemto bear.Hemayevenbecomeastrongcriticoftheagriculturalmethodsofothers, for, as a rule,hehasa voluminous flow of language,anda magisterialwayofdelivering his opinions,gainedbyafrequentattendanceatthenearestpolice court. I see histypeateveryrailwaystation,complacentlygazingatthepassengersinthetrain. I seetheinevitablevendorsofbreadandcakeandfruit, sellingtotheLordaloneknowswhom,forthethingstheysellneverappearto diminishinquantity.Nearthestationsareusually afewbuggieswaitingfortheirownerswhoarecomingbytrainandwhomaylivetenorfifteen milesfromthestation.Someofthetrapshaveanantiquatedappearance,buttheygooverthegroundverywell,andthat,afterall, isthechiefconsideration. Almosteverybodywhoisanybodyownsabuggyandacoupleof horsesinthecountrydistricts ofJamaica.Nottodoso is definitely totakeyourplaceamongsttheworkingclassesorthesmallerpeasantproprietors;and,if youareawhiteoracolouredman, you willsurelyforfeit allclaimtorespectif you traveltheshortestdistancesonfoot.Inatropicalcountry1Eat.

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND147certainconventionsmustbeobserved,howeverunnecessarytheymayappeartobe.Tobewhiteandpooris acalamity;tobewhite,orlight-hued,andyetbeobligedtodowithouta.servant-thatis social suicide.ForwagesarelowinthecountrydistrictsofJamaica,andliving ischeapsothemanwhosecolourissupposedto give him socialrank,butwhoneverthelesscannotmaintainhisrank, iscontemptuouslyregardedbythepeasants:regardedwithgoodnaturedcontempt,withacertainamountof pity,andtreateda little familiarly. Sogallingis this totheproudinspiritthatsomewillgotoanylengthstokeepupappearances.ThesteadyturningofFortune'swheelhavingbroughtpovertytonota fewwhooncewerewealthy, allthatmaynowremaintomanya family is thelargehouse builtbytheirancestorsandafewacresofuncultivatedland.Thehouse is slowly falling to pieces,the-buggy holdstogetherthroughsheerforce of habit,theonemanservantonthepremisesis himself a survival ofbyegonetimes.Butstillhetoucheshishattotheold ladies,andstilltheyspeaktohimwithconsummatedignity."John,"theywill say tohimofanevening,"driveinthestock."Thestockmayconsistofhalf a dozengoatsanda solitary cow,butthewordispronouncedasthoughtenthousandheadofcattlewereroamingover countlessacresof land.Then,ona Sunday,JohnharnessesRosinante tothericketybuggyanddriveshis mistressestochurch.Prim,proud,livinginthepast, feelingsurethatthecountryhasdegeneratedbeyondallhopeof recovery,theyattendthenearestEpiscopalianplaceofworshiptosetanexampletotheirinferiorsandtomaintainthetraditionsoftheirfamily.Theyfeelthattheyandsuchastheyaredisappearingfast:theysaythataneworderhas arisen....Asthetrainleavesthestation,andI seethebuggies rolling slowly overtheroadwithsomerepresentative oftheoldorderof things, IthinkofJohnandthestock,andmysympathygoesouttothosewhohaveseentheworldchangingaroundthemwithoutquiteknowinghowandwhocannotunderstandwhyitisthattheyhavebeenlefttostagnateinthebackwatersof life.Inthetrainitselfaremenwhorepresenttheneworder,andthesearejourneyingbackfrom KingstontoPortAntonioortosomeotherplacealongtheline.Theyareprosperouslooking,theseplanters;dressedinheavytweedsdespitetheclimate(some ofthemalsoweartop-boots),theyareclean-shaven forthemostpart,andratherportlyiftheyareover fortyyearsofage.Theirtalk is chieflyofthecomingcropandofthepriceof bauanas,andofthefreightrateschargedbytherailway,whichtheydenounceas infamously high. Some ofthemaredarkmen,butthepointof view ofthewhiteandthedarkbananaplanterispreciselythesame;agriculturecreatesa psychologypeculiarto itself, sothatoneagriculturistthinksmuchasdoesanotheronallquestionsconcerningthecolonyasa whole. Livinginthecountry,withhisnearestneighbourof like positionsome five orsix miles away,andwithalargepeasantpopulation lookingupto him

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IN JAMAICAANDCUBAasthegreatmanofthedistrict, hethinksthattheGovernmentshouldregardtheplanterwithparticularcareandsolicitude,mingledwithdeferenceandrespect.HeisnotquitesurethattheGovernmenthasnotdegenerated."ClerksintheColonial OfficearebeingmadeGovernorsinthesedays,mydearsir,"hesometimessays;"yetonceJamaicahadearlsanddukestogovernher."Thusfarhisknowledgeofthehistory ofJamaicamayextend;he also hasstrongopinionsonthenecessity oftheGovernment'ssubsidising.coolie immigration,"for,"hesays,"howcouldagriculture,thebackboneoftheisland, thrivewithoutindenturedlabourers?"Youmayagreewithhimthatsuchlabourersarenecessary,butmaydisagreethataGovernmentsubsidyisneeded.Thatargumentdoesnotmovehim;hesimplyrepeatstheproposi tion withoutanyqualificationwhatever:ishenota planter,andmusthe notknow?Withala kindlyandeasy-goingmaninthemain,andhospitabletoa fault. Conservative, slow-going, genial, he isnotatall abadrepresentativeofthecharacterofthecountryinwhichhe lives.Inthesecond-classcarriagesonefinds a multi-colouredcrowd.HindoosandChinamen,blackmenandblackwomen,colouredmenandcoloured women,oneortwo whitemenandwomen.Thefarehereisjustone-halfwhatitisinthefirst-class carriages,andthedifference is aconsiderationif youarepoor.Someofthemenaresmoking, a fewmaybesleeping, somearetalking;andIhearonetellanotherthat "I willnotprognosticateyouinyourdiscourse, fortheterminusofyourconversation isdrawingtoanend." Itakeitthatthespeakermeanssomething,thoughjustwhatIcannotpossibly guess.ButI know his type,andI finditintenselyinteresting.Heis a smallproprietorwhoalso buysbananasinsmallquantitiesfromthepeasantsandsellsthemtotheUnitedorAtlantic fruitcompanies.Thushe makesmoneyandisatall times possessedbyasenseof hisownimportance.Offend himandhebringsyou up.Hehas alikingfor lawsuits.Hedoes notobjecttobeingbroughtuphimself:ratherlikesitin fact."WhenIdonesellmebananas,"saidonesuchimmortalperson, "if ImeetamanonmewayhomeI kick him."Theideahewishedtoconveywasthatthekicking was tobeperformedthroughsheerlightness ofheartandintheexuberanceofgoodspirits.Havingsold hisbananashe would havemoneyenoughtopayanyfine likely tobeimposedbythemagistrate,and,thatbeingso, kickinganotherpersonmightreasonablyberegardedasthelegitimateenjoymentof one'ssuperiorfinancial position.Happily,herestscontentas arulewithknowingthathecankick amanif so disposed.Themeresenseofpowerbeingpleasant, he doesnotoftenactuallycarryouthisthreat.Itwouldbeunsafeforhimtodo so.ThelowestJamaicapeasantdoesnottolerate illtreatmentorabuse.Workingwhenhepleases,andknowingthatcoercioncannotbeappliedtohim,hehasdevelopeda sense of personalindependencewhichleadshimtoresentevenanimaginaryinsult. Soone

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLAND149has tobecarefulindealingwithhim,forheanswersback.Indeed,hewarnsyouatthestartthatyoumustnotlethim"getignorant."Toloseone'stemperis togetignorant,andwhenonegetsignorantonesaysunmentionablethings,andleavesone'sworkandmakesanyamountof trouble.Fortunately,theignorancedoesnotlast.EverybodyforgetsquicklyinJamaica.WearriveatPortAntonioatabouthalf-past six o'clock.Thenumberof vehicleswaitingatthestationshowsthatthisis a busyandprosperouslittletown;shows, too,thatnotmanypersonswalk here.ButI choosetowalkthisevening, so,sendingonmyluggagebytheTitchfieldHotel'svan, I leavethestationyardandstrikethehigh.roadthatbecomesoneofthestreetsofPortAntonio a littlefurtheron.InaveryfewmomentsIcomprehendthecharacteroftheplace.It b athrivingtown-inCentralAmericaitwouldbecalled acity-atownwhereagreatdealofmoneyismadeina quiet, leisurely fashion.Itis a citysetupona hill, as youperceivewhenthetrainisnearingtheplace.Thebestresidentialportionofitisonthetopofthehill. a loftypromontorythatjutsoutintothesea. Asthoughitwerea castledefendingtheseawardapproachestothetown,theTitchfieldHoteltowersabove alltheotherbuildingsandlooksdownuponthesea. Allthebestfolk liveonthetopofthehilloronthesides thereof,lettingtheirlightssoshinethattheymaybeseenfarawayandthatmenmaythinkwell ofthegoodpeople ofPortAntonio.PortAntonio isthechieftownoftheparishofPortland,whichwasnamedaftertheDukeofPortland,oneofJamaica'sformerGovernors.TheTitchfieldlandsbearthenameoftheDuke'seldestson,LordTitchfield.Thirty yearsorsoagoPortAntonio wasbutaninsignificantvillage;to-dayitissecondincommercialimportancetoKingstonandistheheadquartersofthebananashippingtrade.Itis entirelyanAmericantown, atownthathasrapidlysprunginto existence,thatdependsupononeindustry,andthattakesitstonefromtheAmericanswhocomeyearlyintheirthousandstoPortAntonio. As Iwalktowardsthehotel I seeshopsandlodging-houses allopenandlighted,andsomeofthetownspeoplemovingquietly about,andmanybuggiesdrivingupanddown.Theshopsarenotlargebutarewellstocked;thestreets, you observe,arepavedwithmacadamandhaveconcretegutters;thehousesawayfrom"thehill"arelowwoodenstructures,nothingatalltolook at,butinterestingas types ofWestIndiantownresidencesofthepoorersort. A widestreetleadstothehill;climbsthehillinfact. As yougoupyoucatchmorethanoneglimpse oftheseaonyourrighthand,andpresentlyyouarepassingbetweentworowsof comfortahle-lookinghouses;thenaturntotheleftbringsyoutothestreetthatleadstothehotel.Paintedwood isthematerial usedforbuildingmostoftheprettycottagesonesees allaround;andeachcottagehas its lowgardenfenceandits littlegardenfilledwithtropical shrubs.CrampedforspaceasisthetownofPortAntonio,ityethasmanagedtosparesomelandfor
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INJAMAICAANDCUBAithasreapeditsreward.For"thehill,"withits well-keptstreetsandits holidayatmosphere,isoneoftheprettiestspotstobefoundinJamaica.Andas I seecrowdsof touristswalkingorridinginthestreetsborderedbygardensinwhichallsortsof colours flameandblend, IunderstandhowitisthattheAmericantouristlovesPortAntonio.ItistheAmericanthathasmadethetown.ItisAmericanenterprisethathas builtupthebananaindustryoftheparish.Andthegreathotelwhichis thecrowninggloryofthehillwasbuilt, is owned,andismanagedbyAmericans.Itisoneofthebesthotels I have everbeeninto.ItisbetterthananyhotelinCubaorinCentralAmerica.TheyarenowbuildinganhotelinKingston, tobeopenedinJanuary,1910,whichis to IJe inallrespectsliketheTitchfield,andwhichis,indeed,tobeunderthesamemanagement.Therearealsootherhotelsintheisland,andgoodlodging-housestoo;andasJamaicabecomesmoreofatouristresort,otherswillbebuilt.ButTitchfieldstandsfirstatpresent,thoughtheMyrtleBankinKingstonmaybeits rivallateron.AndafterstoppingatTitchfieldfora littletimeIcanquiteunderstandits popularity.Itnotonlyprovidesexcellentfoodandaccommodation,butitalsocatersliberally fortheamusementof its guests. Excursionstothepicturesquepartsoftheparish,tripsdowntheriver, sea-bathing, balls, horse-riding,motoringyou havetheseinrapidsuccession,anditiswonderfulto seehowtheenergeticAmericangirlsspendhourafterhourinacontinuousroundofenjoyment.Theolderfolk,thosewhocometoJamaicaforrestandrecuperation,sitontheverandahofthehotelandlookoutupontheseaduringthewarmerportionoftheday:theywarmthemselvesinthemellowsunlightandletthecool sea breezes playuponthem.Theeffect is marvellous.Theyrecovertheirenergyin a week,andyou seethemgoingabouteverywherequiteas briskly astheyoungerpeople. Iwonder,bytheway,whatanAmericanwoulddoifhelost hisenergyentirely?TheAmerican,whoisnotlikedinCuba, is,onthecontrary,likedinJamaica.Inthisislandheisnotidentifiedwithtroublesome political questions.Heoffends nobody.Heis pleasedtofind anegropopulationaltogetherunliketheAmericannegro,anditissometimesamusingtohearapartyofAmericansextollingthevirtues of a little black boyorbrowngirlwithwhomtheyhavebeentalking. As 65percent.of Jamaica'sexportsgotoAmerica, too,thepeopleoftheisland feelthattheirconnectionwithAmericais close.HencethegeneralgoodfeelingwhichtheAmericaninJamaicasomuchappreciates.Butlifeon"thehill"inPortAntonio,thoughpicturesqueandinteresting, isbutonepartof the life ofPortAntonio.Theotherpartdelightsmealso. AfterdinneronenightI strolledfromthehoteldownthehillandthentothebigwharfoftheUnitedFruitCompanywheretwoshipswerebeingloadedwithbananas.Everynowandthenhugewagonsfilledwithfruit

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THROUGHABEAUTIFULLANDanddrawnbyteamsof mulescamethunderinguptheroadandintothewharfatfull speed.Thefruitwasrapidlycheckedandheapedintosomewoodenstructuresnearathand,and,even while thiswasgoingon,gangsof boysandmenandwomenstoodinsingle file,eachwithabunchofbananasonhisorhershoulder.Aseachonesteppedforwardheorshe received abrasscounterfromoneoftheagentsofthecompany;andthebananastheycarriedweretakenfromthembymenintheshipsandstoredsafely inthehold. Sometimestheysangastheyworked. At intervals youheardthe"tally!"ofthemaninchargeashecheckedthebunchesofbananascarriedpasthim.Itwasa busy,animatedscene, full ofinterestandofhumourandof life.Onthepieritselfsomeamusingincidentsweretakingplace.Ahugeelectricarclamplitupthescene.Seatednearlyunderthislampwas awomanwhowassellingtotheworkerssundrydelicacies,suchas fritters,bread,"lappedfish," &c.Aroundherwasagroupofadmirerswhohadcollected,partlyforthepurposeofadmiringtheseller,partlytoadmireandcastlongingglancesatherwares.Therewasamongstthemoneyoungmanwhowasparticularlysolicitousinhis attentions.Twoorthreetimeshehadevenpurchaseda quattie'sworthofhergoods,remarkingeachtimeashedidso,"See,Idehworkfe you.'" At last,growingbolderhetouchedherwithhis foot.Shetook nonoticeof this.Thenhetouchedheragain. Stillnosignfromher.Thenhetouchedherathirdtime;uponwhichthefollowingconversationensued:-Lady:"Boy,whatyouhabwidme?Metroubleyou?Tap!itseemlike youfarrad!'"Boy:"Butmenodoyounoten?Me onlytouchyouwidmefoot."Lady:"Butwahyoutouchmewidyou footfor?A wus in a youGuineaNiger;demomentsomebodymeklittle funwidunoo,3 unoo feget you'self."Gentleman(whowasstandingnear-byregardingthescenewithaprofoundlyphilosophiccountenance):"ButI say,whycan'tyou fellahsbehaveunoo self,eh?"Waxingindignant,hecontinued:"EfdatfemalewasmyfamblyIwuda hole youan'gie youwhatyoulookin'for."AnotherBoy:"Butitseems likehimwanttoputcourtingquestiontodefemale."OriginalBoy:"Andwhynot?Don'tquestionmektobeput?"Lady:"Yes,questionmektobeput,botnotbyyou."Herethecurtainwasrungdown.Butitmustnotbethoughtthatthelady'ssharpanswersmeantthatsherejectedherwould-belover"foreverand a day."Notabitofit.Itwasbecomingthatsheshouldrejecthisadvancesatfirst:thatis all. I havenodoubtthathefinallyconquered.Allnightlongtheloadingoftheshipswenton,anddayandnightthesceneisrepeated.AndthissamecompanythattakesbananastoAmericabringsthousandsof touriststoJamaica. As IwriteIlearnthatarrangements,..See, Iamworkingforyou."2Impertinent.3You.

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152INJAMAICAANDCUBAarebeingmadetoreplacethepresenttouristshipswitha fleet ofsplendidpleasureboats,andthisshoulddoagreatdealtoincreasethetouristtradeof Jamaica.Itis as atouristresortthatthe island willbecomebestknownintheimmediatefuture,andthisnewarrangementonthepartoftheUnitedFruitCompanyshowsthat,asusual,theAmericanshaveaccuratelyforeseenthefutureof Jamaica.AnotherprettylittletownofJamaicaliesonthenorthsidealso-IspeakofMontegoBay. Icannotwriteof it here,butitsatmosphereofdreamyrepose, itscleanwhitestreets, its old-worldairof respectability, itsquietpride:allthisappealstomewithpeculiarcharm;besides,ithasafuturewhichmaybesecondonlytothatof Kingston.Jamaicaisawakening.Thatistheimpressionthatstampsitselfindeliblyuponone'smindasonenotesthechangesandimprovementsthataretakingplacethroughouttheisland.Withitssplendidmeansofcommunication,itspeacefulpeasantry, its settledgovernmentand its fertile lands, itcannotbutcontinueto develop, especiallywhenthePanamaCanalopensandtheCaribbeanSeaagainbecomesoneofthegreatoceanhighwaysoftheworld.Butis thisislandtobechieflyanagriculturalcountryandatouristresort?Willithavenomanufactures?Manufactures, sofaras Icansee, willneverthriveinJamaica. Amanufacturingcountryrequiresaconsiderablenumberofdisciplinedworkers, tomentionnothingelse,and,asSirSydneyOlivier hasshowninhismasterlyworkon"WhiteCapitalandColouredLabour,"the"VestIndianlabourerwillneverallowhimselftoberegimentedintofactoriesandworkshops.Hewillbecomemoreandmoreanownerofthesoil,andwill sell hissparetimetothecultivatorsoflarger propedies; but,evenso,Jamaicawillprospergreatly:forifshedoesnotmanufacturethingsfor export,shewillbeabletogrowlargequantitiesoftherawmaterialofmanufacture.ButImustnotbeunderstoodtosaythatshewillmanufacturenothingwhatever,for,asamatterof fact, she isnowmakingforherselfthingsthatoncesheboughtfromEnglandorAmerica.ThustheP.A.BenjaminManufacturingCompanyof Kingstonnotonlysuppliestheislandwithalargequantityofthepatentmedicinesanddentrifices used,buthasactuallyestablishedathrivingexporttradeinthesethingswithCentralAmerica, Cuba,andtheotherWestIndianislands.Thenalltheaeratedwaters,andagoodquantityofthe"preserves"nowconsumedintheisland,aremadelocallyandareofexcellentquality.Buttheseareasnothingcomparedwiththesplendidagriculturalpossibilities ofthecountry.Jamaicaliesalmostvirgin,awaitingthedevelopmentthatiscertaintocome.She hassome3,000squaremiles of cultivablelandawaitingtheadventofthecapitalistandexploiter.Hermountaintopsareas fertileasherrichvalleys.Thereishardlyanyproductofthetropicsthatshecannotproduce.And, ifCubaisthePearl,sheindubitablyistheQueenoftheAntilles.Thatisthetitlesheclaims.

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CHAPTERXA VISIT TO PANAMA"COLON!..Thecrycamefromafewdeckerswhoseemedtohavebeenwatchingallnightfor a firstglimpseofthelandtowhichtheywerebound.ForhoursIhadheardthemchattering.Sea-sicknessdidnotdeterthem,andtheloud plash ofthewavesagainstthevessel'ssideonly impelledthemtoviolent vocal exertions. Aglanceoutoftheportholeofmycabinshowedthemtome,agroupof six, half-recliningoncanvaschairsandapparentlymorecomfortablethanmanya first-classpassengerwhomightthenbeenduringallthehorrorsof a sea voyage.Theskyabovewasdarkwithheavyrain-cloudsthathunglowandthesearanfiercely-onevastexpanseof slate-colouredwater.Nota star,notalightofanykind,andyetthekeen-eyedwatchersonthedeckhadperceivedinthedistancesomethingwhichlookedlike ahugecloudonthehorizonandwhichtheyhadinstantlyguessed tobetheirdestination.Bystrainingone'seyesonecouldjustperceiveit;butitwasnotColon,forthattown lay fullysomefifteen miles away. StillitwaspartoftheIsthmusofPanama,andasthesunlightbeganslowlyandpainfully to fight itswaythroughthecloudsthatwrappedeverythingas with a shroud, youcouldseestretchedoutfor milesthelow.lyinginhospitableshores ofthecountrywhichhas one ofthemostromantichistoriesintheworld.TherethemainlandofPanamalay,dreary,ugly, uninviting.Onecouldseethewavesbreakinglistlesslyagainsttheshore,justasthoughtheveryenergyofthewaterwereaffectedbythe terrible,steamingheatwhichseemedtostifleeveryone.Therewassomethingunspeakablygloomyaboutthescene,somethingdepressing,andsoitwasin silencethatbothdeckersandsaloonpassengerswatchedthemangrove-coveredbanksslipbyastheshipspedonherway. Awonderfulcountryandastrangeis thisIsthmusofPanama,acountryofstartlingcontradictions, too,forwhatisitnowsomefourhundredyearsafterits discoverybytheSpaniard?Informertimesitwasone