Title: Abeng
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00001
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 1, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Summary: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text






















SIGNPOST


THERT.


IHON.P.C.

AFTER SPEAKING strongly
against British Honours in the
Jamaican Parliament a fe w
months ago, Mr. Shearer is now
found guilty, of saying one thing
and doing another.
The Prime Minister 'has ac-
cepted an invitation by Queen

member o: her "Privy Council"
He has. therefore accepted a
British Honour alter our Parlia-
ment rightly discarded the colo-
nial Brjtils hi ours system a
few months ago


Tire Queen has given Mr
Shearer the right to be entitled
"The Right Honourable" and to
use the initials "P.C." after his
name. Any title which is not
earned by some deliberate effort
on the part of the individual
[ contd. on page 41


WHY ABENG
We are a very distinctive people with a very distinctive history
But we know very little of our own past and of the struggles of our
forefathers who survived the horrors of slavery and managed to
build what little we have today. The task of this newspaper is
to help us discover ourselves not just the past, but also what we
are today and what we can be tomorrow if we can move forward
together.
In keeping with this aim, we had to seek a name which would
most appropraitely convey our intention and purpose. The paper is
to be an instrument for Jamaicans to communicate with one another
The Abeng was used by the Maroons and other Jamaicans in bygone
days to communicate with one another in a very precise and special
way in much the same way that this paper would like to do.
The Abeng "is made of eight or nine inches of the small
horn of a cow sufficient of the tip is taken off to leave a hole the
size of a pea. On the concave side of the horn and close to the
smaller end, an oblong opening or mouth hole is made ... about
a quarter of an inch wide about an inch long.. The lips are placed
to the oblong opening and the thumb covers the hole in the tip
the opening and closing of which gives a variation about a tone...
The Maroons have regular code of signals for the Abeng which is
never divulged to any but their own people.
According to Dallas in his 1803 History of the Maroons, "it
is very remarkable that the Maroons had a particular call upon the
horn for each individual, by which he was summoned from a dista-
ce, as easily as he would have been spoken to by name, had he been
near. It appears wonderful at first that a single horn should be able
to express such a number of names ... Allowing that the horn
admits a less variation of tones than the chimes of twelve bells, it
has a greater advantage in une respect for conveying of particular
ideas being capable of varying the duration of sound .. as to
transmit a great variety of ideas."
What more appropriate name could we find?
The intention is that this newspaper will have "a particular
call" for each and every Jamaican. Wa hope that each and every
Jamaican will answer the summons. The newspaper, by helping
the society to examine itself for what it is, will "convey particular
ideas" about the state of the society what is wrong with it and why
And in seeking possibilities for change, the newspaper will invite
the views of everyone; thereby it will "transmit a great variety of
ideas."
In short this newspaper is to be an instrument similar in func-
tion to what we are told the Abeng was to the Maroons.
So now we know why "ABENG."


UWI CLOSES CAMPUS GATES
TO CHILDREN


Town. Elletson Flats, etc., are
now forced to walk th? lrazard-
ous way, which is the traffic-
congested Mona Hernitage
For the past week or so, the Road, instead of the tranquil
University of the West Indies and scenic campus.
has closed its Garden Boulevard All because the children pick
edestrian entrance at 3.00 p.m. and eat coolie plums from trees
very day. The reason to pre- on the Campus. The AEENG Re-
fet children from nearby Mona porter understands that the
rimary School walking through trees are not near to any of the
he campus. University class rooms, and that
Small children, on their way these children have never been
ome to Hermitage, August known to disturb classes or any


ABENG


other U WI business
It is a scandal that there are
people in this society who would
prefer to see 'coolie plums rot
on the ground rather than to
have infants eat them.
ABENG calls on the attorneys
at the Mona Plantation to give
the little ones a chance to share
the tfuits of the provision
ground
Many ou tihe sann, attorneys
as childari Iusrd. I kill tlhe
imangoes at Hope Bush


IS


GOVT.TO MASH UP



NEW SCHOOL


HERE


A 4,000 basic school in West
Kingston is going to be knocked
down because it does not fit in
with the Government's "Devel-
opment plans" for the area
The school is now being built
on Ebenezer Church land by
Operation Friendship, an inter-
denominational venture which|
has provided almost the only
educational, medical and voca-
tional serices the area has had
over the past eight years.
On Tuesday. January 28, the
Government Ministers Wilton
Hill and Edward Seaga, accom-
panied by a crowd of followers,
visited the site and told Revs
Didier, Cadogan and Grenier
that Ebenezer Church could
stay, under the Government's
new 'Development Plan' for the
area they could stay on 2C6
feet of land
But the Basic School (begun
in early December, with KSAC
approval) must go Mr Hill i.:
alleged to have said that the
only way it would not go is if
he lost his Ministry.

Church officials were told that
a new Basic School would be
tuilt in the area -- presumably
with Governmint money and for
the constituents of Tiroli Gar-
dens, who are nearly all JLP
No mention was made of the
work Operation Friendship has
been doing for eight years in
the area, while everyone else
was talking about doing some-
thing. No offer has been made
to integrate the Operation
Friendship volunteers into future
efforts except of course, on
Government terms 'See back-
ground story on Page 3,
So Operation Friend-hip, the
people it las been helping on a
non-party basis, and ABENG,
wait for the PWD bulldozers to
come in early one morning and
moasl-up' eight years of hard.
selfless work


WHO DECIDES
"COMMUNITY
'INTERESTS"?
Home Affairs Minister Roy
McNeill. who presides over hhe
committee trying to decide how
to cut up the Corporate Area
for the proposed elections, has
suggested that "community in-
terests should decide just how
the electoral divisions are made
ABENG wonders who will de-
cide on .'hat are the "interests"
of a particular community
The community? Or. as usual-
ly happens, will these bunch of
men IJLP and PNP) sitting in
their air-conditioned council
chamber simply tlil the conm-
munity what is good for them.
And then proceed to cut up the
pi" accordingly


WATCfH-OUT NEXT WEEK FOR WHY WE ARE DISPOSSESSED! UNEMPLOYMENT THE FACTS AND MUCH MORE


I THREE YEARS "ABEN.G" MUST BLOW DAILY.


Duffus Report

cause ruckus



ASHENHEIM, ;eader of Senate
No-Nonsense, made the om-
plaint last week about the Maf-
fesanti Enquiry being a great
waste of time and money" The
Business Leader iin and out of
Senate' makes it clear for all
to see that the only reason'Gov-
ernment consented to having an
Enquiry at all was because "un-
pleasant things were being said
about Ministers"
And Duffus's Report now pro-
vokes still more unpleasant
things. Ashenheim claims Duf-
fus didnt really understand
that his job was merely to clear
the reputations of Cabinet Min-
isters So the Government is
rousing all over the place that
the Chief Justice failed to ful-
fil his function properly Un-
pleasant findings make the 3ot-
ernment say unpleasant things
about the highest Judicial officer
in the land
Maybe that is Duffuss fault
Like most of the members of the
Judiciary, he is the product of
the colonial past The colonial
legal service has never be'n
known for the quality of the
judges it produced, largely '-
cause the lawyers in it perform-
ed as faithful cogs In the mach-
inery of colonial domination
These men played no dyna-
mic function in developing the
concept and substance of human
freedom. Preoccupied as they all
were in the maintenance of ex-
isting colonial order, they be-
came subservient to those men
who had the direct responsibility
for enforcing political decisions
on an oppressed people
Her Majesty's "chickens" gt-
ring a new home in Sir Nevilles
"roost" taking a lot of blows
llese days





BUY



ABENG



EVERY



WEEK



6d


I


















VOL I. NO. 1 FEBRUARY 1 1969


BREAD, WORK AND


HUMAN DIGNITY

THE CRY FOR BREAD, WORK AND HUMAN DIGNITY 30
YEARS JFTER THE REVOLT OF 1938 -- STILL GOES UN-
AN.yEWF ED IN JAMAICA. Thirty years later, dispossession is still
the lot of thr vast majority of our Jamaican people. But this is
precisely what 1938 set out to end, once and for all. At bottom,
it s as to be mole than tile vote for every adult and eventual
Nationhood tb Jamaica. These were only the means. The end was
to be a new way of life for our people On the evidence, the basic
soeiai and economic organization which alone could have achieved
thil new life has either not been attempted, or what little has
lren attempted now stands corrupted and decayed.
This is the root of the crisis which confronts this country;
and is today shaking the very foundations of social order. The
.ericly as presently organized, seems only able to meet the crisis
.vitih lhe suppression of popular demands and basic freedonis
ii d the cra'ven handouts of loans from abroad. What is equally
ler i ta the striving of the people cannot be suppressed for-

in spin- ot the formidable problem of making these changes,
'vcrywhere our people daily show signs of their readiness. It will
demand an even greater mobilization of popular energies to get
Ihi' gigantic effort started
Basically this is what this NEWSPAPER is about. A new
kind of newspaper is an absolute necessity. The narrow divisions
on partly lines which frustrates the really important task of mobil-
i;ntn our society must be overcome It is now time once again


ABENG SOUNDS



TO ACTION

THE ABENG CALLS INTO QUESTION that system which has
been fixed not for us but for a minority of owners. It has been
fixed by people hose primary concern is the taking of wealth
from this country
In the past, a few newspapers have come out challenging this
domination and it is with this heritage in mind that we appear:


We also harer much in com-
mon faith those Jamaican sing-
ers of 0oda0 singers hose
statements about the society ring
true Their statements become
electlineenn g sloganr but are
never examined for their true
taiue Te neest powerful me-
diuni, which ihas not been fully
utiliecd is ih, Sound System.
Here tile arisate relates to his
life I tuie same w 5 ie speaks
and With a depth v hich cannot
be arr ved at in transl.tion into
Standard English The Abeng in
orcer te be mean:inglua realises
tha' as a literary r.edgu it has
to 1oin forces v.th lte rcth oral
tradition on which the Sound
Systeni is based
C L R Jamnes riting about the
press in the West Indies say it
must
give ihe whole population a
different view of society as a
hoile from that thiuc it has
to take and has taken for de-
cades a newspapers con-
veys above ail an attitude, not
roly t pfliics but o i1 al s-
pecct of socia lile at hioSm and
abroad


TREMENDOUS TASK

Tnh fiufuliamnt of these two
priciples is a tremendous task
Shen we consider the history of
he press i Janlmaca The press
ha, so ar csen dominated by
weafnh irsti by the planters
and secondly by businesamnen,
or whole a newspaper is an-
other commereial undertaking
However. men like Edward Jor-
dan, Robert Love and Marcus
Garvey have used the nearpaper
to influence many aspects Of
Ule in Jamaica. Whi their
newspapers have In common is
an unrelenting fijht gains


racial and colour discrimination
This issue had been smothered
by the other newspapers.
As editor of the Watchman,
Edward Jordan waged a battle
for the political rights of col-
oured people which earned for
him a prison term Robert Love
published the 'Jamaica Advocate
which came out on behalf of
the black man T'Is influenced
Marcus Garvey into giving up
I- !ob as a printer to publish
a I.u:- paper called The Black-
man.
Mar-us Garey has been the
nio. impcritan publisher and


MARCUS GARVEY
editor in our hisotry Re found
two ne-spayers, the Black Man
l19k2i and the New Jamaican
(1832 which eolgaed coutem-
pjrary colonial publications and
the colonial system in a duel
-wlicly we must eriume For it is
that sacile 1iitero veish is being
a~finistered todo- Garvey's
voie had a, direct inilpeupe on
tpe 4.wlgtio4 of the later thir-
ties arnd on subsequent tlews-
papers like Painsral the early
Public Opinion and the National
Negro Voice all of which were


'I"S het faloed
Thi ohiti c-mcern of this NEWSPAPER till Le to ensure the
widcl posssiP: participation ,f ideas coming from tihe people. To
mAkr sure that this is achieved. Editorial Committees working
at the Parish and village level will form the backbone ol is es -
tigatlons and reporting These Committees located across the
length and breadth of this country will alone guarantee that the
NEWSPAPER is truly the voice of the whole population, a forum
for the points of view of all groups, and an organ independent
of existing political parties and comunercial interests.
The Editorial Committees will make it porslbale for the NEWS-
PAPER to recognize and record all the attempts which our people
are making daily to break out of the continuing oppressive system
of colonial control of our resources: land, labour and capital
resources These attempts are the stifled renewal of a people
embarking on the task once more of building the new society
for all. It f lows then that news will be reported which at present
is either withheld or not regarded as fit for thr public to know
about The real issues ahich are presently tightly secreted will
also Ie frankly and openly discussed
Thus the new climate of consciousness abtoad in the land
will be able to find free and certain expression, and cons-
qdently heightened. Definite possillttiis for change 'wll emeree
and our people will be in to see clearly the hap" of the new
society which we ail are striving to erret. if 'he pent-up energies
for creative, constructive action are to be released
This NEWSPAPER is to be more than a token of the future.
It is itself a dynamic component of the new society, gathering
around itself fresh efforts to fashion p free Jamaica



PRIMARY PURPOSE

The ABENG will be owned, published and pr ited bt The
Abeng Pubishing Company, registered under the Compani~s Law
Our primary purpose is to produce a weekly newspaper an.
In due course (as increased revenue and sale of share; make
possible) a daily newspaper. By establishing The ABENO as a
weekly paper now, we are taking the first practical and positive
step towards a national press equipped Ct mac' a renity of the
aims of this ventrue.

The Company will acquire sufficient equipmen-:t print the
paper and to undertake a wide ranpe of ohb nrintnino whih illn


A CALL


started in the nineteen-thirties.
W,en we see wihat 'he Press
now defends in Jamaica we can-
not help bhit recg use its
patched-up colonial orl.k It
is Involved in double-eross if we
are to believe the stor, of Ja-
malca's independence For we
do not see our aiplrat ,n' or
problems being frankly exatoia-
ed The pres i oa bu' tresingR
a decrepit systeoo In tslfs ing
this pcatical re whenever a
new idea comes ci ri rd to chal-
lenge le ou'W-rn ideas of THE
BOSS it s ,hipped ontr ob-
scranty on purpose, ignored or
ridiculed Otheraise red-her-
rings ace dragged ir.:,: whatever
little discussion is permitted

PROBLEMS IGNORED
This has gone on tor roo long
Garvey departed from this news-
paper tradition which looked
outward and ignored the prob-
ei:ns facing us In the first edi-
tiOn of tle Blak Man, Saturday
March 30, he wrote:
From a long period of Ittle
or no activity we arise again
ruth determination to place
ourse)es in politics and com-
i arce, in arts aid science WE
W ANT OUR PEOPLE TO
THINK FOR THEMSELVES
Jult here we must begin. No-
body can do our thinking for
as Other peiplce think far us
aid we ,ork for them- We are
exploited This mluat ease Let
us paui-e and assimilate UuCs
Let us thiilk for ourselves and
,ork for oiurseles InI no other
way cal we be f-rtcesppcting
and respc ted

NEW DAY ARRIVED
A nea day has arrived for
our people in Jamaica. in the
West Indies. in West Africa, in
every place theere we dwell by
ourselves or with other cn-a-
muilties No longer do we
mtl n min sorru'v. the gave is
empty and we la.e arisen to
a nfei lift ForgAttis thilgs
beo *il one thing we orf, *we
press rewardd to our place of
honour andI dignity among the
nations regardless of what
others think


ftI


the newspaper costs. A;tr gis
initial stages, it is al icipeali
increase substantially The Ce
for job printing
After careful exami, tion
of t25 .00 will be needed for
working capital so0.000 S to t
f15,000 by subscriptitl.i Detail
tlons will be decided en ti
SUbscriptions will' ie in:
of the population: so tiat sh
The intention is to mc'nt 1fu
and community leel twhen Th






OURl
Individuals and -roups int
campaign in their areas ar .:
LISHINO CO. 4 Colins Grre

We intend to print neev
comment, analysis, on ever.
ment, the economy crir:e, e
matters.
Among our regular co:-.l
Girvan. Foggy Burrowe S:,;c I
Becklord. Robert Hiiil Trevor
kins.

In addition t,: n s,. & co;:: l
articles on iWhere \V C.n 0
tirban, de'elopmesnt rtf5 rm


The present 4 pace w e ,.
weeKl; by June after acquir.t
cial subscriptijns

After that the target i.a
in three :ear's


S H D-


"THE COPS COME ON, ADVANCING

AS IF THEY WERE ABOUT

TO ATTACK"


i ;,' \,rn a n i the r. '-
'ieY, Ott, at Mn' on- a, I
was o'-: t' fe 5-l Lo-n
a" tven l

O 0'- 0.-r. 0e sbli. reeaTs 'cfi'
On ii'. r -0o1l I watmed t
learn adL -4 forere Rose Hal
Sugar Fact0or:y aiera I pest 7
years ulnti it was d nro up in

Fronm there I oentc on t swork
at Appleton. Bybrooa and Frome
Suo,' S Facories as a 0'idIcsr
I got the knowiledO t tht the
i.vernm-ent of Jamaoua are sel-
eraEin masn ar mim*rasal at
the US Naval Bae Gu~itanrva-
me Bay Cubl I made applica-
tSi.er until I wa- eslled upon to
take entertiew and nmel:al test
aid ,aos succedstful in paing
1eery'h.ng .r n th.r a.ifac:lon
so I was sele teL;
On- the 22ni Apr.' 1h'd. I got
telegram to report to the Mirus-
try af Laour ,in th e jth of the
Eaad month f: r dlpalture b t
never left uwntl the 2th t. toake
up my job.


I signed a contra t far 4
months where upon I amn en-
titled to 10 days vacation leave '
Instead I did 8 months straight
and cAme out December "i of
the said eyear for a longer vaca-
tion leave pus 10 fays sick leave
and returned to take up duty
in February 1967 where upon I
must say everything was going
calm and stetad as usual
On the l0th of April 1C67. I
was an my job at th, Ships Re-
pairs Department and it was 10
o'clock that morning when my
Btols caita tp ~e and sys the
talls nrcf ane
I ordeoty p OCQZ there and
'tllh in tino aS~ they send us
for o*yu.
I ask. what for? The eops
reply, come on. aJvancing as if
they were about to attack me.


but o was keeping a good head
and COko eery order given.
They took me to my barracks
and tild me to pack up I told
them I had no suitcase as my
friend borrowed mine to go on
leave and is expected to come
back today That said day. they
reprimand me so I asked them
to take me 'o the Navy Exchange
sii p to buy one and packed my
belongings or please cheek Rich-
ad Eobeon giving his location
fr yss anttcise and they re-
fused both

+

I says I am going td leave
them. thee reply we will throw
rtim in e1e sea. at that same
utie one Jamaican police start-
ed to pack my things in a bed-
spread They took me and the
bundle to the Police Department
tearing many of my own things
behind The police hand me over
to the prison surgeon. He
searched my person and locked
me up 1.30 o'clock in darkness.
On the l1th I was released 12.30
o'clock, then straight to a cov-
ered metal van. Feels as If com-
ing out of a oven. where they
locked me in and took me to
the airport for deportation.
I was locked up in that van.
for I hour in the hottest sun
until the plane was ready they
tacked the van up and ordered
me out where I walk from the
van to the plane.
On reaching Jamaiea the MID-
istry of Labour received me d
took statement. and I can'tt
any reply that is good a*r
writing several letters to thli,
I wrote the American 4P1-
bassy to get the reason iM rea-
sons of such deseprati move
and they answer mie not
BYRONW K. LEE


tl


paper and to undertake a wide range of lob rio!m which will









fishing a wide circulation in the
th?. adertising revenue -lI;
ally will o'ler conl c:Atici ratcs

.hs iccn csiilnatd !hat the umn
st:i to provide equipment and
raicd L, i an and the remaingln
f the nature of th-se subscrlp-
prospectu is ready
t ino the widesr cross section
Is 'il be in slall denominations
I raising campaigns at the parish
printtd prospectus is ready public
ry aili be used as a mean of





UTURE
sted in t" ping t" organize the
it'd to \wite THE ABENG PUB
eltc Kiinest, 5

Iucil,, not available elsewhere,
ic sport, politics entcrtain-
c invite voluntary help inl thlles

tin wnitcrs will be Norman
iynter. Errol Tow nsend. Georg
nroe. Huli Siall. Wilmol Per-


land analsis we will run feature
,nm Here plans for rural and
c civil service legal reform etc.


a start to move up to a 12 page
ir own press with popular finan-


LY. The ABENG nust blo\ daily


OPERATION FRIENDSHIP



THREATENED FROM 'ABENG' WEST KINGSTON BUREAU

OPERATION FRIENDSHIP will soon be no more at least
if the Government has anything to do with the matter.
The hbenezer Church land, on which the organisation con-
ducts most of its work, has been declared part of a Housing'Area.
Its huilw ings are slated for demolition.


Up until Press Time, no ilter-
native arrangements had been
made by the Government for
Operation Friendship. Thus a
great voluntary effort which has
brought medical care, education
and skills to thousands who had
none of these, is going to be
replaced by what' A housing
scheme whose tenants, like those
of the other schemes in the
area. will be handpicked by the
Housing Officers.
Abeng has it from reliable
sources that Operation Friend-
ship was approached about three
months ago by a member of the
West Kingston Trust. (This is a
body set up by the Minister of
Welfare to stimulate and man-
age contributions from the busi-
ness community to West King-
ston ) Would O.F. consider hand-
ing itself over to the trust? The
officer asked. The answer was a
firm NO.
On January 9 an order from
the Ministry of Housing appear-



Free Dental Care at the
Frinnrshin Clinic


YOUTHS SUFFER

MANDATORY SEN

An aiarmlng situation is developing m the Courts of the land
with potentially dangerous effects for the whole society. This
situation has been taking a heavy toll both against the young
offenders as well as against the entire system of justice in Jamaica.


In the first three weeks of
1969 there were 11 cases in which
accused persons were found
guilty of criminal offences in
the Circuit Courts. Five were
cases of robbery with aggrava-
tion. Two of the accused were
young men of 17 and 20 years
with no previous convictions.
Each were sentenced to seven
years in prison and flogging,
In another case, a young man
of 21 years with three preflous
convictions was sentenced to 15
years and 10 lashes. Putting it
another way, the Judge decided
to shut that man away until
1984 when he will be 36 years
old.
What has brought about this
brutal, situation? In 1963 the
Government and Legislature.de-
claed that minimum sentences
of 5 years with flogging should
be made compulsory for crimes
of robbery. The Government's
justification for this legislation
was that the harshness of the
sentence would prevent any
wrong-doers in the future.
The statistics reveal that these
brutal.sentences have not had
their intended effect. In fact, the
number of instances of robbery
have increased!
The situation of these mini-
jnum sentences also exists be-
cause the, legal profession and


the Judges have failed to stand
up to the Government. They
have remained silent in the face
of expert scientific opinion on
this matter.
More than 4 years in a prison
inflicts permanent damage on
the personality of a young mnan,
making it impossible for him to
live a responsible social life later
on when he gets out of prison.
The lawyers end Judges have
also not pointed out to the pub-
lic other important facts. Mo-
dern investigators of the causes
of crime recognise that crimes
like robbery have deep roots in
social and economic conditions
and psychological responses.
Thus punishment should at-
tempt to reform the offender
and the causes that drive him
to crime.

POWER REMOVED
Instead of standing up for
what they know to be right, the
legal profession has allowed the
Government to pass laws which
take away the discretionary
power of the judge to treat each
case before him on its merits,
and in the light of what is best
tor the Individual offender and
the society. The Government has
been allowed to put binding re-
strictions on judges by enacting


ed in the.Jamaica Gazette: it
declared the brea in which Oper-
ation Friendship is situated a
Housing Area,

Starting as little more than al
idea eight years ago, Operation
Friendship has grown into a
highly effective venture, offering
medical, educational and voca-
tional assistance to thousands
of Jamaicans who had never
been shown such interest before.
The Operation has been made
possible by contributions of
money and skilled help from Ja-
maican and overseas sources .
Its medical, dental and family
planning clinics treat 200 per-
sons weekly. Doctors andnurses
give their services free.
WAITING LIST
Its day nursery cares for 50
children, and has a waiting list
of 40 more
Adult literacy classes have an
enroidlent of 400, Youth Clubs
a membership of 100, and the
O.F. Basic School is attended by
225 children. There is also a
Household Training Centre.
On Industrial Terrace is a
Trade Training Centre at which
30 boys learn lathework. fitting,
welding and sheet-metal work.
It is now being expanded to In-
clude auto-mechanics and elec-
trical installation
The school's total operating
and building costs come to over
11,000, provided largely by the
Kingston Rotary Club and Ox-
fam, an English organisation, as
well as youth clubs in England.
On Ebenezer church land, a
new basic school is under con-
struction, at a cost of 4.000,
and a new clinic is soon to be
built
No doubt the Government, in
their wisdom, will demolish the


FROM

TENCES




by HUGH SMALL

the minimum punishment which
must be handed down for crimes
of robbery.
Martin Luther King once said
that there are times whep
silence is no option It is cer-
tainly no option with respect to
these minimum sentences, since
most of the offences for which
they are imposed result directly
from the social and economic
realities of slum-dwelling in so
many Jamaican towns.


Most of the offenders are
young men who have no skills
and therefore no steady and dig-
nified means of work. Many of
them have never been to prison
before Few of them can afford
a lawyer
Very soon these youths must
inevitably begin to doubt the
moral pretensions of a society
and its legal system which turn
a blind eye to robbery in high
places but commands the jailer
to whip and imprison Quashie.
Double standards of justice in
the midst of economic starvation
have already produced high feel-
ings among the barefooted peo-
ple of Jamaica.
It happened not so long ago.
The target for attack was the
Morant Bay Court House.


basic school and prevent the Children learn at Basic School
building of the clinic. Because (Operation Friendship)
there is obviously a feeling in
there is obviously a feeling in came into office, the annual sub-
Government circles, as shown by sidy of 2,000 to Operation
their arbitrary action on the Friendhip from the Mnitry of
matter of Operation Friendship, Social Welfare and Development
that no one shall conduct any (inherited by Mr. Edward Seaga
activity to benefit the people of h P. for Wetern Kingston) wSo
a depressed area other than the Immediately suspended.
Government. immediately suspended.


NEGOTIATIONS
Early in December the Meth-
odist Church (who own Ebenezer
Church land, through Operation
Friendship is a joint venture of
all the Churchesi received a
letter from the Permanent Sec-
retary iA the Ministry of Hous-
ing, offering to negotiate for the
land. No metion was made of
the purpose for which the Min-
istry wanted the land The Rev.
Atherton Didier, Chairman of
Operation Friendship, pointed
out in reply two weeks later that
the cemetery adjoining had been
cleared for the construction of
a basic school and clinic. He did
not, it isunderstood, close the
door on negotiations.
But a month later the Housing
Area order appeared anyway,

What is the meaning of all
this? Why this abrupt treatment
of Operation Friendship, and the
absence of alternative plans?
Is this part of a pattern?
Back in 1962, when the JLP


Obviously there is no place for
social work in the area unless
under the control of the Govern-
ment established West Kingston
Trust.
There seems no other logical
reason for the; treatment meted
out to OF. If it is land that is
needed, why not use May Pen
Cemetery? A Government Junior
Secondary School is already
under construction on May Pen
Cemetery land.

WHO DECIDED?
With what is the Government
goiAg to replace these voluntary
organisations?
tWho decided that the land
should be declared a Housing
Area?
Remember the bulldozed land
on Marcus Garvey Drive? /
Were it not for the same
churches who organilsed Opera-
tion Friendship, most of the
people in that area would not
have found a place to, live. The
Government made no alternative
plans for them


As late as 1956, it was reported by one writer that "The
Abeng (or abete) is still blown in Westmoreland as a summons
when there is some communal job to be done." (Minister living


"Before we had radio and all these fancy things, the horn
was used to tell banana growers when the banana boat would
reach, when buying would begin, and so we knew when to start
to cut." (Midtle-aged banana farmer in St. Mary).


"Man, I remember this plantation with some overseas
owner with a attorney in Kingston. Anytime the attorney arive
when we dont expect him and busba out in the field, we would
blow a special sound on the horn and busha would know right
away him must come to the house." (Old small farmer in
Portland).


FROM NOW ON 'EVERYBODY WILL REMEMBER. FOR
WHEN EACH OF YOU ANSWER THE CALL TO SUPPORT
THIS NEWSPAPER. "ABENG" WILL BLOW FOREIVR THRO-
UGH THE LENGTH AND BREATH OF THIS COUNTRY.











MASSADAY

DONE?

L "'st rne im "ol Tnim-
d i' :' iesitaner -'n thei
-' :.i:ti part t attllend a
Si. A.. Summit Mr Shrar-
r's iur kin ofl Caribbean Affair.
S"'iak-p hipi. a most iinrPi-
S I' ;i rtnPr in West :ndiln

Fir thle I"nect 'h lie, Prime
lMibier 'Wiiarsa of Trinidad
is been trying to convene a
rotn'rnsr,'ealto Caribbean Sum-
ito' to dil;:tes urgelt Caribbean
tli.iessi Realonal Develop-
!tl Barnk and ther University
; .:-rr evetytne of the Primni
.'!a'n~s it invove d found time
t., Ll to lndon at Wfion's
tbr kiiitne to discss- Wilson'
busoines And Wilson didn't even
?fen to their views
Or Rhodesia he listened to
sl thse lacks but did not arccpt
iheli rec'm: 'endations Ie Will
Snt'lite a' he pleases.
On Biafra, he didn't even
; r:lr thm to speak. Why, Be-
: iue he would be unable to
r'c'-.l his support for 'rbee!"
iiith with his support for
e1 icinat0i Federal Nigerian
C virti nment
'i) SWo' ymassa day done".

'STRANGERS" IN MOBAY
On Thursday night last it Ca..e
ic pass that a high official of the
tITU. Peamell Charles, was denied
servicee at the Beach View Hotel
n Montego Bay. This was the sec,
)nd incident of access denied to
lemaicans in MoBay since the new
.ear began
On New Year's Eve night
some Jamaican males were barred
'rom Vemey House. They were "
strangens," the term which the man
ageres used to justify their debar-
'ing- Since when have black Jamai'
ans, become "triangers" in the land
If their birth, and white foreigners
oconie relative?
P arnelt Charles is a well-known fav-
trite of the Prime Minister, as well
as a person of some consequence in
our national life. But maybe this do-
asn' maan anything in MoBay when
Mou are black all over, as Mr. Charles
. conspicuously happens to ye.
The Manager of the Beach View
Hotel armed himself with a reason
of some significance "Security".No
ocal people in his hotel after 7 o'
ciock at night! MoBay is obviously
saot a oafe piece these days for the
tourist Great Houses.
ABENG is quite confident that the
next step will be the appearance
of signal


icontd. from page 1]
ci' gets (i is an honour. What
1 r. tri' Itr Shearer done tc
q1'!)!, 'I : xa' xmination did
Ih. p 3 ("' iallft We do not
kwv-' off asy Irnlrernens to
nuolify fs a Plivy Councillor if
there sri any the must ob privy
t" the oQueUn nd since she
alone knot-s it must be an
hobnoul
we ate not persuaded by the
argument that becAuwe it in-
yol';es duties it is riot an honour.
That is pure eyewash What
duties? T he Queen's Privy
Council has 300 persons today.
RBt When a meeting of the
Council takes place, only those
Privy Councillors who are sum-
moned attend, the quorum being
three. being the Ministers
concerned with the matter
which is to be dealt with." Throe
out of 300! When will Mr.
Shearer be one of the three?
According to the above, only
when the matter concerns Ja-
umnica for perhaps other Com-
monwealth Caribbean territories
like Angutllai. But, In that
event, the Queen or the British
Government would have to con-
sult Jamaica's Prime Minister
anyway. So there are really no
special duties attached to the
honour.

BACKWARD SYSTEM
Our backward and colonial
legal system provides for appeals
to the Judicial Committee of the
Pri y Council although we have
a Constitution and Britain does
iiot. 'Bt that is another scan-
dal). The point is that some
people claim that because of
that. Mr Shearer had a right
to accept the honour. Mr.
Shearer is not a lawyer and
therefore cannot sit on that
Privy Council Committee. Inter-
estingly, the Guyanese Prime
Minister Mr. Burnham, who is a
barrister-at-law, refused the
same honour Mr. Shearer ac-
cepted at the same time that
it uas offered the lamaican
Prime Minister. In refusing, Mr.
Bunham the lawyer said that
"he only believes in professional
honours SHe Queen's Council
which hc already holds as a
barrister". Mr, Shearer. who is
not a lay er accepted the hon-
our v'e ore told, to perform
some duty. What duty we ask?
More precisely, what Jamaican
duty? Jamaica wants to know
from the "Right Honourable"
Mr. Shearer,
PS We sincerely hope that our
Prime Minister does not have
personal ambitions to migrate
permanently like "Lord Con-
stantine' of Trinidad, to the
United Kingdom.


SCHEDULE OF MEETINGS Ti LAUNCH "ABENG"

THtRF7DO5 JANUA I Hi 0

Sc u's Hea'dquiarLr- P 0O 9 m
*2, Moneo Bay 7 30 pm
FRIDAY, JANUARY A1:
S1 P-.r Ar. o 7 C p m
2 Mornt Bay 7 pm.
SATURDAY. FEBRItARY I:
Sav-l.-mna 730 p To
Falmouth 630 p.m.
3 Br-own Town 730 pm.
il3ND\Y. FTBRItARY 3:
'I Spanlsh T .n 6.30 pnr
-2 May Pen 7 00 0 m







PRINCE MUSTER
Ja'aai a N I Ra "'V Personal.ty a
R*CCRED SACK
S 47 'HLE5 STREET .

I EC S H G .7.', :CA W. I
0TERTAINEs0
RECORDINGS
A STAGE SHOwS Phone 26272
m)IIIo uate moo


THE

HOUSE

SLAVE


Deep in tBe hbitory of the
I cst Indies is the role of the
afllc-s!ave. White the ma-
jority of his fellows sweated
in the fields he wielded a
whip as nverer. His wife
an'd daughter tif comely)
cooked or washed tor render-
ed other valuable services
for the white plantation own-
er. Revolt after revolt of the
slaves (the most rebellious
social group history has
known,. rebellion after reblt-
lion. was defeated or smoth-
eied owing to treachery by
the house-s avre. They flour-
ished on their scrap? anl
driblets. No one could have
foreseen that in time they
"'ould become rulers of the
territorieS But house-slaves
they were and house-slaves
they have remained. They
foresee an infinity of house-
slavery. But the Caribbean
breed is faced with extinction.
The breed cannot overcome
a deadly insecticide. It is
called democracy.
"Faced with a national
community, the foreign power
gives way. It is only when
they find house-slaves that
the blood flows."
C. L. I. JAMES,
-Patriach of living West
Indian Writers.





4 H Y

ALL THE FUSS


A4 BOUT SOBERS?



by Foggy Burrowes
I cannot uinderitand the critics
oi Gary Sober. Here is the cow
uho has given mos: milk down
the year, and because the liquid
is no longer flowing abundantly
his owners are regretting ever
having bought him
The W.I became world cham-
p:onr when the3 defeated Aus-
tralia under the captaincy of
So ers in '65 We kept this posi-
tion against England in '66
large! because Sobers averaged
o'er 100 with the bat: also be-
cuse he nade it clear for all
'i-ho ere still stupid enough to
doubt that he was and is the
greatest cricketer the world has
seen
. The fact is that Sobers cap-
taincy has not changed since
65 We uon in England because
he was performing superbly, not
because he was captaining as-
tutely We won because he
stayed in the middle long enough
to average over 100 as he did
in India '67 and also against
England here last year. He did
not spent a lot of time at the
nets in '65 neither was he often
with the team off the field. I go
further, and this will surprise
ltany Worrell spent as little
time with the team in 63 as
Sobers did in 66 and is now
doing in Australia.
We cannot now complain that
Sobers has got too big. He has
for a long time bedn the biggest.
This consciousness of his "size"
is mainly responsible for his
greatest achievements. Let us
not ask him to forget to deny
or to be unaware of his great-
ness Let us hope rather that he
will speedily regain his cunning,
his guise, his consumate skill
and that the rest of the team
will also perform to the best of
their ability.
And yet we must all realize


RHODE SIA


WHAT JAMAICA


CAN DO


by Omo Ogun
There are many battles being
fought in Africa today Some of
them are against foreign rulrs
others against new masters who
have taken over since independ-
ence and are lust as bad as
the old ones, others against con-
ditions of life like poverty.
gEnorance and disease This
paper wi:l try regularly to bring
you news of one of these battles
Today let us look at Rhodesia,
where a few hundred thousand
whites hold millions of blacks
in subjection, exploiting their
labour and permitting them no
no real human `ri"h` Wh-n "'
Smithn the leader of the white
minority, declared Rhodesia to
be independent from Britain in
November 1965. it was the res-
ponsibility of Harold Wilson
Britain's Prime ,Minist'r, to do
something about this But Wil-
son would not take military
ao'ton: he only imposed econo-
mic sanctions against Rhodesia's
trade. These have not worked,
since Smith has been helped by
South Africa and business in-
terests in countries like Japan
and France. Now Wilson would
like to reach a negotiated settle-
ment with Smith; having sold
out Socialism in Britain, he
seems ready to sell out the black
man in Rhodesia.
A Commonwealth Prime Min-






























that this is more a hope than
an expectation Australia were
World Champions with Miller
and Lindwall. England with
Trueman, Statham, Tyson and
and West Indies with Hall and
Griffith Our pace bowlers are
no longer what they used to be,
hence we can hardly. expect to
remain world champions
Finally and most important .
give credit to Sobers when we
win blame him or lament
vith him when we loose, but
don t ce petty. Do not suddenly
realize that he should never
have been captain or that he is
conceited. Those great moments
you remember were possible be-
cause as captain he felt com-
pelled to perform above the
ordinary, and because he was
conceited enough to think him-
self capable of doing it. When
Nat King Cole sings "Mona Lisa'
I appreciate and enjoy it; I
never stop to think that he
could never ha-e starred in
"Student Prince'.
So Gary I thank you for the
major role you played in making
the West Indies world cham-
pions. The joy though temporary
was sweet. Thanks too for being
the greatest cricketer the world
has ever seen. It makes met
proud to be a West Indian,


sisters" Conference has just been
held In London. at which the
Rhodesian question was discuss-
ed Wilson was strongly criticised
by some of the delegates for
negotiating with Smith; one of
the critics was Mr. Shearer.
Prime Minister of Jamaica. This
sounds very fine, as does his
assurance of Jamaican sanctions
against Rhodesia! But all such
declarations are just words.
What was said at the Confer-
else will not affect Wilson's
policy of sell-out: it was just a
way of letting off steam by talk-
ing tough. The true picture was
given by the report from Lon-
don which pointed out that the
"more recent members" of the
Commonwealth (like Jamaica
showed "an increased willing-
ness to come to terms with
realities of international poh-
tics" What that really means is
that they have learned to talk
plenty and do littler
Fortunately the real answer
to Smith and Wilson is not in
the hands of the Commonwealth
leaders 'among whom Kaunda
of Zambia and Nyerere of Tan-
zania are honourable except-
lons' The answer is in the
hands of the clack people of
Rhodesia whose sons and bro-
thers are now fighting a guer-
rilla war against Smith's troops
and police. It is this which in
the end will bring down his re-
gime. If Mr. Shearer really
wishes to see majority rule in
Rhodesia he should stop talking
and start sending money, arms,
and any ether necessary help to
the black freedom fighters there

ANOTHER SUGAR REPORT?
We gather that the Sugar Ad-
visory Council has sent in- a
report to Johnny Gyles on as-
pects of the report of th2 Mor-
decal Commission on Sugar.
With the Go-ernment's fond-
ness for setting up ;and ignor-
ing the reports of, commissions
and councils. ABENG wonders
whether in the near future, they
won't set up a council to study
the report of the Sugar Advis-
ory Council on the Mordecai
Report

DIFFICULT
YEAR-
FOR WHO?
1968., WE GATHER-from the
Chairman of the Board, was a
difficult year for Jamaica Omni-
bus Services Ltd. Their operating
costs went up. and their profits
went down,
There was no one at the
meeting to point out to this
gentleman that 1938 was also a
difficult year for the bus-using
public. Our operating costs went
up too. by anything up to 8d a
day. And it goes without saying
that, with the numerous bus
strikes, our profits took a head-
dive as well.





BUY



ABENG




EVERY




WEEK


6d
UNTED i THE ABNiG ruwiNstiG OP
otr val ass o t r sait
Minose AVMew ue INGlS L tD
K sI A




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