• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Arrival at Santiago de Cuba
 Manners and habits
 Sunday in Santiago
 IV: Before the war
 Cuban women
 A day in a Cuban home
 Streets in Santiago
 A visit to the hacienda of Santa...
 Saints in Santiago
 Insects and moonlight
 The Spanish lion and the blue...
 Advertising






Group Title: Santiago de Cuba before the war;
Title: Santiago de Cuba before the war; or, recuerdos de Santiago
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081398/00001
 Material Information
Title: Santiago de Cuba before the war; or, recuerdos de Santiago
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Wallace, Caroline L.
Publisher: F. Tennyson Neely
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1899
Copyright Date: 1898
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081398
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2600432

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Arrival at Santiago de Cuba
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Manners and habits
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Sunday in Santiago
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    IV: Before the war
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Cuban women
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    A day in a Cuban home
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Streets in Santiago
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    A visit to the hacienda of Santa Anita
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Saints in Santiago
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Insects and moonlight
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The Spanish lion and the blue fan
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Advertising
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text














UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

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BY THE UNIVERSITY OF
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SANTIAGO DE CUBA

BEFORE THE WAR;








SANTIAGO DE CUBA



BEFORE THE WAR;

OR,

RECUERDOS DE SANTIAGO.


BY
CAROLINE L. WALLACE.
,I---

deely's Booklet Library, No. 4. Jan. 23, Z80q. Issued Weekly, $5 fer
y7ar. Entered as second-class matter at N. Y. Post Offce.










F. TENNYSON NEELY,
PUBLISHER,


NEW YORK.


LONDON.






THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
MICROFILMED
BY THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA LIBRARIES.


Copyright, 1898
by
F. TENNYsoN NEELY
in
United States
and
Great Britain.
All Rights Reserved.


LAMTI
AmgriUCA














PREFACE.


HAVING passed several happy years in this
"Siempre Fiel Isla" before the unfortunate
animosity between 'he people inhabiting it
had developed into savageness; ere the pomp
and pride of Spain had been humbled, and its
fruitful lands devastated by the vengeance of
its native born inhabitants; when all was fair
and quaint and fascinating, with a glamour all
its own, I found that this "Pearl of the An-
tilles," cradled upon the calm waters of the


Caribbean, clothed
the tropics, and
breezes, extended a
ing to the stranger
of new and foreign
With charming
hospitality of the
stately courtesy of
was thrown, I am


in the gorgeous verdure of
fanned by soft southern
hospitable hand of greet-
attracted hither, in search
scenes.
memories of the gracious
Cubans, as well as of the
the Spaniards with whom I
tempted to embody a few







PREFACE.


recollections of those happy days, that -an
impressed themselves upon my memory in
never fading pictures, whose glowing lights
and brilliant colors shine out undimmed
among the many scenes that time has hung
around this gallery of gems.
Now that Cuba can no longer be considered
the "fairest gem in the crown of Spain," and
the Stars and Stripes float where the red and
gold of Spain long proudly waved, I can but
waft one sigh of regret to those departed days
on that once tranquil island, which will so
soon take on the work and hurry and onward
march of improvement that kills out all pic-
turesqueness, all romance, with its metallic
nineteenth century advancement.
C. L. W.
AUJstI, 1898.


















CONTENTS.



CHAPTER. PAGE
I. ARRIVAL IN SANTIAGO.... .................. 7

II. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS....................... 15

III. SUNDAY IN SANTIAGO........................ 24

IV. EL COBRE AND THE MIRACULOUS VIRGIN .... 31

V. CUBAN WOMEN........... .................. 36

VI. A DAY IN A CUBAN HOME..... ............. 44

7II. STREETS OF SANTIAGO ...................... 49

VIII. A VISIT TO THE HACIENDA OF SANTA ANITA. 56

IX. SAINTS IN SANTIAGO ....................... 64
X. INSECTS AND MOONLIGHT.................... 70

XI. THE SPANISH LION AND THE BLUE FAN..... 75













SANTIAGO DE CUBA

BEFORE THE WAR.


I.
ARRIVAL AT SANTIAGO DE CUBA

ON Sunday, the 6th of October, 18-, in the
early morning, we came in sight of Morro
Castle, which crowns the heights on the right,
at the narrow entrance of the tortuous way,
that, with many windings and turnings, leads
up to the bay of Santiago de Cuba.
Its yellow walls, embrowned turrets and time-
stained battlements surmount the abrupt height
which rises from the sea, its threatening air
dominating with ancient imperiousness the
narrow entrance.
The rocky base, deep moat, and huge draw-
bridge, of the fifteenth century, form a frown-
ing, though most pictuesque object against
the blue background of a cloudless sky; with







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


the green waters of the sea curling around its
base, and the red and yellow colors of the
Spanish flag waving from its apex, while its
black-mouthed guns, rusty with the moisture
of ages, point savagely at the bold intruder,
who would dare to brave their anger.
Excavated out of solid rock upon which this
ancient fortress stands, were the cells, offices,
and torture chambers of the inquisition, used
in the times when the "Holy Office" assumed
to be arbiter of all Spanish America.
Diagonally across the outer entrance of the
harbor, to the west of "Morro," and opposite
to the fortress of Santa Catalina, stands the
Castle of La Zocapa, on Cafones Point.
As we pass close beneath the walls, it seems
as though there was hardly room for another
vessel to enter, a distance of not more than one
hundred and twenty yards lying between the
opposing shores.
Any hostile vessel essaying to enter the har-
bor of Santiago would not only be subjected
to the fire of "Morro," and the water battery
below and behind, to the east of this castle,
but would also run the gauntlet of La Estrella,
Santa Catalina and Zocapa, and in addition,








BEFORE THE WAR.


Thus, Santiago is eminently fitted by nature
to be a western Gibraltar; and, next to that of
Rio de Janeiro, the bay of Santiago de Cuba
is decidedly the most picturesque on the west-
ern hemisphere.
The hills that rise on either side are crowned
with palms and cocoa trees, the yellow blos-
som of the century plant making a perpetual
golden glow. Cacti, prickly pear, mangoes,
bamboo, the cotton plant, with flowering vines
innumerable, riot luxuriously in all the se-
curity of perpetual summer that knows no
change, fears no decay, nor winter blasts.
The faint trace of the early morning mist,
still hanging around these verdure clad shores,
was fast melting away beneath the ardent kiss
of the fiery god whose warm embrace misses no
spot nor blossom in his morning salutation.
As we approach the city, the wide waters of
the bay spread out before us, calm as a mirror.
The wharves and custom-house buildings-
from the moment she had well passed Morillo
Point, be subjected to an enfilading fire from
Punta Gorda, and, as soon as the narrowest
point was reached, to another from Isla de
Smith.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


large, low structures, with wide sheds, and red
tiled roofs-the blue and white coated Cara-
bineros, with their wide somberos and red
rosettes-badge of their authority, are the first
objects of our attention.
After much deliberation, for hurry is a thing
unknown in Spanish countries, we disembark.
Several stalwart negroes, clothed in the fashion
of Paradise, with the addition only of scant
garments about the loins, their dark skins
shining, and smooth as ebony, their great
muscles standing out, strong and vigorous as
Hercules, seize upon our trunks, bags and im-
pedimenta, and, regardless of size or weight,
hoist them up on to their heads, and start off
up the steep and stony street that leads to our
hotel.
There are no hacks, cabs or carriages of any
description awaiting the traveler as he steps
upon terra firma; and- your choice of getting
your luggage carried lies between the negro
who takes it on his head and a small caretta,
or two-wheeled cart, harnessed to a mule that
looks as though he might succumb even to its
diminutive proportions, that squeak and rattle
as it is jolted over the rough stones, in spite







BEFORE THE WAR.


of the numerous ropes with which it is bound
together.
Walking up the narrow street, creeping
along on the shady side, as we regard the one-
story houses and strange aspect of things in
general we feel as though we had been landed
back a century or two in the past.
Apartments had been engaged for us at the
Hotel del Commercio, and we were glad to find
ourselves within the shelter of its thick walls
and substantial floors after so many days of
discomfort on board the small Spanish
steamer that had brought us from Havana.
Our first breakfast in Santiago was a gas-
tronomic delight, the variety and service of
the dishes leaving nothing to be desired;
"Monsieur Jean," the head waiter, with true
French tact helping us so daintily and deftly
that it was a pleasure to have him moving
about.
At the head of the table we found Colonel
C---, whose nine years' residence there had
so imbued him with the spirit of the place that
he seemed a part of it; his genial atmosphere
giving an added charm to these quaint and
unique surroundings. Here, also, we met the








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


handsome Spanish officer whcse grave and
dignified demeanor had so impressed us on
board the steamer. Over whom and what he
might be I had myself inwardly much specu-
lated. With true Spanish courtesy he recog-
nized us as his companions de voyage, making
a graceful salutation as we took our places at
the table.
Although the foreign element was in prepon-
dirance, there were several English-speaking
g.mtlemen among them, who, with the ease of
manner and social instincts of the Latin races,
did not fail to make everything as agreeable as
possible to the newcomers.
Our breakfast consisted of almost as many
courses as a dinner, and every one smoked
cigarettes between them, finishing with black
coffee and cigars, sitting over them, and pro-
longing the conversation until nearly noon.
Breakfast over, we went out into the cor-
ridor in front, which seemed to take the place
of a parlor or reception room, as a point of re-
union. Here, whoever came to call waited for
his friend to come out, in case he should still
be at table. To my surprise, several small
Cuban horses, all saddled and bridled, were







BEFORE THE WAR.


tied to the railing, patiently awaiting their
owners, who had been breakfasting within.
A commingling of tongues strikes the ear
like the music of varied instruments, as this
gathering from many lands join in animated
conversation; and though but an hour or two
ago we were all strangers, one to another, a
sympathetic chord, the result of kindly feeling
and courteous speech, vibrates through the
whole company.
A spacious, lofty apartment on the ground
floor, had been assigned to us, with windows
looking out upon the theater opposite; the
first story of which was a deep brownish red,
and the second a bright blue, with much white
decoration on facade, doors and cornices. The
broad flight of wide stone stairs and terrace
leading up to it appeared to be the rendezvous
for many colored nurses with their charges,
from the baby at the breast to the three and
five year old tots, who enjoyed unrestrained
possession of their playground, their little
chemises twisted up into a narrow wisp about
their waists with a knot behind, which the
nurse's outstretched hand held tightly, and
kept them from falling or straying away into
danger.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


Our other windows, and also doors, opened
upon the patio, around which we had to pass
in going to the dining room, which was upon
another street at a different altitude, so that
we were obliged to ascend a flight of stairs to
reach the corridor that led to it.
The visitors from the haciendas who could
not reach town by railway (there being only
one in any direction) were obliged to come in
on horseback; around this lower patio their
animals were tied, and patiently awaited their
owners; an occasional donkey adding his sono-
rous voice to the neighing and stamping of
the horses.
The loud voices of the drivers and attendants
in Creole-French and Spanish, the numerous
passers-in-and-out of all sorts, formed a curi-
ous conglomeration of sounds and sights that
kept one on the qui vive of expectation, won-
dering what would come next in the strange
panorama that was constantly changing before
our astonished gaze.








BEFORE THE WAR.


II.

MANNERS AMD HABITS.

THE long day in Santiago begins early, for
with the first sunrise all business and working
people are astir; and although in this indolent
atmosphere nobody hurries, everything be-
gins at an hour that to an American seems un-
earthly.
By three or four o'clock in the morning one
is awakened by the patter of the small hoofs
of mules that come in long strings of perhaps
thirty or forty, each tied to the tail of the one
in front of him, and laden almost out of sight
with fruits, vegetables and produce from the
neighboring haciendas or estates, which are
sent into supply the market, from which all
the city buys its daily rations of food and pro-
visions for man and beast.
The colored servants of every shade, from
darkest mahogany up to palest yellow, with
blue eyes and crinkly, light hair, erect, and








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


with stately grace, are moving about in the
early morning; the crowning bit of bright
color in the inevitable bandanna (which be-
comes a part of their costume even in tender
years) making a gorgeous setting for their
dark skins. Their long trailing skirts of
bright-hued cotton, well starched, rustle over
the pavements to the accompanying sluff-sluff
of shoes down at the heel, that clatter along, as
laden with trays and baskets they go to bring
from the market the day's provisions.
After a cup of coffee and a roll the mer-
chant, banker, or commissioner, in lightest of
clothing, neatly and elegantly dressed, sets out
for his place of business d..wntown, the ladies
and children taking their coffee or chocolate
in flowing and loosest of dishabille, in most
unceremonious fashion, for the real breakfast
is not before ten or perhaps later, -when the
gentlemen of the house, having had three or
four hours devoted to business, are ready to
return and breakfast at leisure with the family.
A Creole breakfast consists usually of five or
six courses, beginning with rice and eggs,
fried plantains, delicious fish, beefsteak,
buniata (a vegetable similar to sweet potatoes)







BEFORE THE WAR.


salad, fruits, and some sweet dish, with red
wine, ending with excellent coffee; the smok-
ing of cigarettes always accompanying every
meal.
In the middle of the day comes the siesta,
indispensable to the early riser who has been
up and at work, before the heat came on, as
also to the languorous sefiora who has rocked
all day in her easy chair and been fanned by
her servant, or perchance done a little fancy
work, or studied her music lesson, and played
with the half naked baby that its black nurse
brings her to admire.
Heavy curtains hang before the wide, iron
barred windows which project outward into
the street, and admitting of conversation with
the passer-by, are the scene of many inter-
views, filled with telling glances and fervid ex-
pressions that, later on, develop into attach-
ments which, with the ardent Creole tempera-
ment, expand like flowers beneath the sun
into the full bloom of maturity with tropical
rapidity.
As the Creole sefiorita is not supposed to re-
ceive or converse with young men, except in
the presence of some older member of the








SAN TIAGO DE CUBA


family, etiquette not even permitting her to sit
beside, but always opposite, her visitor, she
does not fail to avail herself of the opportunity
of the friendly window, with its half-drawn
curtain and wide-apart bars, which allow of so
near an approach to the one who has been
walking up and down, waiting for the happy
moment when his inamorata shall appear in
response to his desires.
A gracious hospitality characterizes Creole
manners. Even though the first salutation:
"A los pies de Usted," to which you reply:
"Beso Usted la mano," seems a somewhat ex-
aggerated expression, much cordiality and evi-
dent amiability make you feel at home within
their borders, and a simplicity of manner and
freedom of conversation contribute to a feeling
of well-being most grateful to one in a strange
land.
At the entrance .of a house one is apt to
encounter lolling about the door negroes of
all ages and sizes, and in the hall you pass
the elegant volante, with its immense wheels
and long shafts, glittering lanterns and rich
upholstery, which is always driven directly
into the house after it has given the seiioritas







BEFORE THE WAR.


an outing, and there stands a gorgeous witness
to its owner's financial status.
One peculiarity of Cuban houses is the
single entrance, for, being built with a patio
or court, on to which all the rooms open, the
great door upon the street, which swings open
wide enough to admit the volante and pair of
mules, affords entrance and exit for all that
pertains to housekeeping as well as for all
visitors from the highest to the lowest degree.
I frequently saw the elegant Doctor de L- ,
on his return from his morning round of visits,
dismount on the sidewalk, and, throwing the
bridle upon his horse's neck, pass up the steps
into his house, followed by his gentle horse,
who walked up after his master as tamely as a
dog.
A Cuban menage is simplicity itself com-
pared with American life, and in passing one
may look in through the great windows and
open doors, screened during the middle of the
day by heavy curtains of striped linen that
keep out the sun but flap in the wind and
show glimpses of the whole picture of domes-
tic life as you pass along the street.
Evening descends early after the red sun








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


Las hidden behind the hills across the bay,
leaving his crimson glow upon the placid
waters; no long twilight lingers here, but
night, with dusky wings, swoops down, mak-
ing a quick transition from the tropic day.
With darkness comes the refreshing land
breeze; and the social nature of the Creole in-
cites to visit with his neighbors and the "ter-
tulias," or gathering together of near friends,
fill the streets with cheerful voices and merry
laughter. Often whole families and their visi-
tors are seated out on the sidewalk in front of
their houses, from the grandmother down to
the five-year-old, all chatting and smoking, the
seiioras as well as the men, including the little
boys.
The shops are open, and much of the buying
is done at evening; the merchant, in most
familiar fashion, addressing you by your first
name and inquiring after your family as in a
social visit; and, -if purchases are made, some
little thing is offered as a "iape" or present,
thrown in to bind the bargain. If it is not
offered, the shopper does not hesitate to ask
for his little gift, which it would look small to
refuse. The merchant accompanies you to the









BEFORE THE WAR.


door, and bows you out, with the compliments
of leave taking and good wishes.
The name of the owner does not appear upon
the sign above the door, but the name of the
store, as "La Puerta del Sol," "La Caridad,"
"Le Monte de Oro," "El Paradiso," etc.
The Plaza de Armas, in front of the palace,
on certain evenings is filled with promenades,
who go to listen to the music of the military
bands. Here one meets all one's acquaint-
ances, and enjoys what is called the "opera
economique," for the Cubans are a music-lov-
ing people, and the Spanish regimental bands
give a programme that is a delight to listen to.
The ladies, with true Creole dolcefar niente,
remain seated until the last number, which is
usually a Cuban danza; even not hesitating in
passing before a gentleman occupying a seat
they may desire, to stop before him, and, with
a movement of the head, indicate that she would
like his seat. He is in duty bound to rise
and offer it, and she accepts as a matter of
course. But when the "danza" strikes up
all the ladies arise, and in twos and threes,
begin to promenade around the plaza; the gen-
tlemen taking their vacated seats, and enjoying








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


in their turn the pleasure of looking at and,
perchance, criticizing the ladies. Those not
fortunate enough to secure seats form in a line
opposite their more favored brothers, and be-
tween this phalanx of admiring eyes all the
promenaders have to pass. Although a Cuban
lady seldom walks, there is a remarkable un-
dulating grace of movement, rythmic and sway-
ing, harmonizing with the languorous air and
peculiar passion of the Cuban "danza."
With the "Danza," the Retrata closes.
The band marches through the streets to the
barracks, playing to the end. The plashing
fountains and fragrant jasmines remain sole
possessors of the now empty Plaza.
Ten o'clock is the usual hour for the closing
of houses, and all visitors expect to leave at
that time. Indeed, all down the street one
hears the banging of the heavy doors as reg-
ularly as the striking of the clock.
Then sally forth the "serefios," or watch-
men, picturesque in the white uniforms, with
long pikes and lanterns, calling out, in musical
tones, the hours and quarters, and at the same
time the state of the weather as "Las dies, y
ser-e-no!" "Las nueve, y nu-bla-do!" "Las







BEFORE TIE WAR. 23

doce, y estrell-a-da esta la no-che!" so that,
at whatever hour during the night one chances
to be awake, one can know with certainty the
time and the conditions that prevail. They
have a way of singing out the hours that
leaves a long echo behind as they pass down
the street that lingers lovingly on the soft night
air, till it dies out upon your ear as you fall
back into the land of dreams with a feeling of
security that without, as well as within, "Esta
la noche serena."







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


III.

SUNDAY IN SANTIAGO.

SUNDAY is a fie day in Santiago. Very
early in the morning the bells ring out with a
joyous clamor, calling the devout to prayers.
The ringing is not done by pulling a bell rope,
but by striking with a metal rod upon the bell
itself-a, repetition of rapid uneven strokes,
producing a singular effect, which seems to
say, "Hurry up, hurry up, and come to
church."
After attending mass -it is not unusual for
visits to lh paid and received. In fact, even
the religious function at the cathedral and at
the Misa de Trop, which is celebrated at the
San Francisco, have more the air of social
gatherings than of religious services.
The center of the church is filled with ladies
in fine attire; a black lace mantilla, which
falls partially over the face like a veil, taking







BEFORE THE WAR.


the place of a bonnet, which is not considered
appropriate in church here.
Servants carrying low chairs and rugs ac-
company their mistresses, and after spreading
the rugs and placing the chairs upon them,
they with careful hands draw out the folds of
flowing skirts, so that no effect shall be lost
upon the critical observer who may be seated
behind or at the side.
Here the matronly seficra, in all the beauty
of full-blown maturity, with dark flashing eyes,
now half concealed behind the lowered veil,
with jeweled fingers parts the sacred beads as
she repeats her "Padre Nuestro," while her
young daughter, just blossoming into girlhood
at her side, looks out with shy but ardent
glances at the young lieutenant, fresh from
Spain, trim and erect in his gold bands and
bright buttons, that have not yet been tarnished
in his country's service, who, leaning against
a column not far away, is not insensible to the
language of her eyes, and answers back flash
for flash. All around the sides of the church
stand the military, while a few pews or seats
in front only are reserved for the high func-
tionaries and foreign consuls. The dark and







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


wrinkled duenna, whose flashing eyes alone re-
call her departed youth, does not fail to fulfill
her accustomed part in the general devotions.
Numerous colored servants in Sunday garb,
and bright bandana turbaned heads, stand
piously behind their mistresses. All around
the entrance and massed between the arches
stand the troops, resplendent in gay uniforms.
As this is the Misa de Tropa, the regimental
bands take a prominent part in the music, and
in addition to organ and choir give a gorgeous
coloring to this part of the ceremonies.
When the services are over, the military are
the first to leave the church. They stand
around outside, in front of the entrance, await-
ing the exit of the sefioras, looking for recog-
nition and probably exchange of salutations, if
not in expectation of some word perhaps, in
soto voce, intimating an intention to be at the
retrata in the evening, or on the Alameda at
the usual afternoon promenade,where the mar-
ine band plays about 5 o'clock.
On the way home from church it is quite
usual to pay friendly visits, even as early as
9 or 10 o'clock in the morning.
Late in the afternoon, toward sunset, all the







BEFORE THE WAR.


world flocks to the cool Alameda, where under
the shade of overspreading trees which border
the broad alleys, in sight of the beautiful
waters of the bay and the distant hills that rise
upon the opposite shore, those fortunate
enough to be possessed of volantes drive up
and down, and listen to the strains of the
marine band that gives its Sunday concert
there. Those who do not ride sit around upon
the stone seats, fanned by the soft sea breeze,
or saunter up and down in the shade of the
trees till the promenade is over.
The volante is the only carriage known in
Santiago de Cuba, and a most luxurious and
comfortable affair it is. The body is fashioned
like a chaise, with top that is deep enough to
cover the whole till its occupants are com-
pletely hidden from sight, or can be thrown
entirely back, leaving in full view the sefiora,
who, without wrap or bonnet, reclines luxu-
riously upon its upholstered cushions, her ele-
gant toilette in full evidence from the tips of
her small boots to the crown of her head. The
single seat is wide enough for three ladies to
ride comfortably.
The body of the carriage hangs upon strong







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


leather straps that extend inside the long
shafts, giving a delightful swaying motion that
avoids all jolting as it is drawn over the pave-
ment. The two immense wheels are placed so
far behind the swinging body that the cos-
tumes of the occupants can be outspread to
their fullest extent without risk of being soiled
from contact with dust or mud.
Gayly caparisoned mules, with much silver
plating upon their harnesses, and with tails
and manes braided and tied up with ribbons,
draw these vehicles. One mule is harnessed
between the thills, while the other is entirely
outside, and carries the calesero or driver, who
rides upon his back while he directs them
both.
The calesero is as conspicious in his appear-
ance as the rest of the equipage, with his much-
braided jacket, white breeches, and high top
patent-leather boots. With whip in hand
and gathered reins he urges on-his little beasts
with many quips and quirks, in language in-
comprehensible to any other than mulish ears.
On Sunday evening there is always music in
the Plaza. There congregate whole families in
gala attire. They sit around in groups, chat-








BEFORE THE WAR.


ting and. listening to the music of the regi-
mental band, which begins to play at 8
o'clock and closes promptly at 10.
The blue facade and Moorish architecture of
the governor's palace stand out distinctly, out-
lined by rows of gasjets, showing its broad
portals and arching windows, its white cor-
nices, pilasters and balconies in bold relief
against the dark background of the evening
sky.
There is no chill or dampness in the air, and
no wraps are needed. The young sefioritas,
in lightest of muslins and organdies, in trailing
skirts, with gleaming shoulders and arms, walk
joyously about, enjoying the freshness of the
evening, with no other covering on their heads
than their own dark hair.
Here sociability and flirtation reign. The
Cuban jeuness dork, as well as the large con-
tingent of Spanish officials, in immaculate
evening attire, promenade up and down, look-
ing the things they dare not say, as they pass
the objects of their admiration, seated in close
proximity to parental or family guardianship;
while the soft fluttering fans, in the expressive
language so well understood by Spanish women








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


everywhere, indicate the sentiments of those
using them as plainly as do spoken words.
The young men generally walk about during
the evening, until the final danza is played
when the ladies promenade up and down with
all the insouciance and nonchalance of women
who would be surprised if in the passing
"viva la elegancia!" "via la gracia!" "que
hermosura!" and a thousand other flattering
compliments were not expressed.
The danza finished, the band strikes up the
stately Marcha Real, and with measured tread
marches off down the narrow streets, playing
as it goes, the sounds growing fainter and
fainter until it reaches the barracks and the
last note dies out.
In a few moments every one has departed,
and the Plaza is deserted, but the plashing
fountains still play on, and the sensuous fra-
grance of the tropic night still lingers beneath
the starry vault.








BEFORE THE WAR.


IV.

EL COBRE AND THE MIRACULOUS VIRGIN.

LEAVING Santiago by the small steamer
Fedrico, we cross over to "Punta Sal," where
we take the railroad for El Cobre, some twelve
miles distant. Here are located the Cobre
copper mines, perhaps the richest in the world,
and certainly the first ever worked by Europeans
on this continent, they having been opened in
1524. Here we saw the begrimed and black-
ened miners ascending and descending in their
cages, drawn by means of ropes from the
depths below, and far underneath the surface
of the heated earth; the shafts extending over
a thousand feet under ground.
El Cobre is celebrated quite as much for its
"Miraculous Virgin of Charity," as for its
copper mines-thousands of people making
pilgrimages there from all parts of the world,
in hope of being cured of ills and diseases of
all sorts.
This "Miraculous Virgin" was discovered
floating upon the water in the vicinity of this








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


coast, so the story goes, was picked up, and
carried into a church and placed upon the altar,
but evidently this was not the spot intended
for the abode of this supernatural occupant,
for suddenly it disappeared from the church,
and was afterward found calmly reposing upon
the site of the one which was later built
for it, and where it has ever since remained.
The church stands upon an eminence, and
in order to reach it one has to ascend several
terraces paved with brick-up several wide
flights of stairs which extend the whole length
of these terraces.
Up and down these terraces pilgrims are
coming and going at all hours of the day;
many of them making the whole ascent upon
their knees, the better to demonstrate the piety
of their pilgrimage.
As many come from great distances, some
overland and on horseback, at cost of much
fatigue, large comfortable hostelries have been
erected near the church for their accommodation.
Architecturally the church is not remarkable,
being a rather plain edifice built of brick.
The chief attraction centers in the "Miraculous
Virgin," although to me the massive chains
of marvelous workmanship in beautifully-








BEFORE THE WAR.


wrought silver (which had been sent from
Spain) hanging from the ceiling, and to which
were attached the lamps by which it is illumi-
nated, were the object of greatest admiration.
Suspended from some of these beautiful sil-
ver chains were large pans, filled with oil in
which wax tapers were floating around and
constantly burning. I saw many persons come
up, and with a large spoon, after carefully
pushing away the small bits of floating straw,
tiny insects and gnats that had accumulated,
take out a spoonful of the consecrated oil, and
saying a prayer or two, swallow it. Others
would fill a small vial with it and carry it
away, in full faith that its healing properties
would work the wonders they so much desired
upon some sick child or invalid left at home.
Before partaking of the blessed oil, however,
all had knelt before the sacred image and in
prayer invoked her blessing.
This diminutive image in wood, for it is not
more than twelve or fifteen inches in height,
stands on the right of the altar. Inclosed in
glass, with locked door, it is visible from all
sides. All around at its feet are jewels in-
numerable and of immense worth that have








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


been brought and laid there as offerings in
gratitude for miraculous favors bestowed.
We were conducted to a large room behind
the sacristy which was devoted to the pur-
pose of preserving the hundreds of testi-
monials, such as crutches that had been thrown
aside by their owners, who had not for years
walked without them, but had been instantly
cured and gone off, having no further use for
them, leaving them behind as evidence of their
marvelous restoration.
One young man was cited, who, after years
of helpless invalidism, had made a vow that
if he was restored to health he would devote
the rest of his life to good works, was brought
in upon a mattress and laid before the virgin,
and was healed; he arose and walked out of the
church, joined the troops then fighting in
Santo Domingo, and was still doing valiant
duty in the army.
Magnificent gifts of all descriptions were
shown us that had been brought in grateful
recognition of benefits received.
Drawer after drawer was opened by the
courteous padre, who displayed to us the
costly garments of rich fabrics, covered with








BEFORE THE WAR.


heavy embroidery in gold that stood out in
high relief, solid as sculptured marble.
Incredible seemed the treasures of money
and jewels and precious things that had been
lavished upon this small wooden image. But
more wonderful still seemed the unknown
power behind this frail object that had so in-
fluenced with believing faith the many souls
that had with reverent hopes sought and found
the fulfillment of their prayers.
Here also there were for sale small gold
medalions with an effigy of the virgin on one
side, with the inscription "Mater Caritatis,"
and on the reverse the church crowning these
terraces and many stairs, and this inscription:
"Puis te hizo la trinidad tan perfect y sin
egual, Librar nos de todo mal Virgin de la
Caridad," which translated signifies, "Since
thon wert made by the Trinity perfect and
without equal, deliver us from all evil, Virgin
of Charity."
I was myself so imbued with the spirit of
the place that I immediately possessed myself
of one of these sacred medals, and attached it
to my watch chain, where it has hung ever
since as a mascot, as well as a souvenir of my
visit to El Cobre.








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


V.

CUBAN WOMEN.

CUBAN women, or, as they call themselves,
Creoles, are usually very good looking. In-
deed, among young women it is rare to see a
homely one. With dark eyes and hair abun-
dant and curling and pale complexions with
regular features, they possess a type of beauty
all their own. The children are little fat
cherubs of the Murillo type, and run about un-
trammeled by clothing until they are seven or
eight years old. Nothing prettier than a
young girl just blooming into adolescence can
be imagined; a little older they incline to em-
bonpoint, and I will remark en_passant that
fil sh is an important factor in beauty here. To
bo slender and thin is considered ugly and
worthy of commiseration. Neither is color
desirable. An additional whiteness is obtained
by a free use of cascarilla, a cosmetic prepared
here from fine white shells, ground up into an
impalpable powder, which is abundantly and








BEFORE THE WAR.


generously applied, and even if visible and
thick enough to rub off upon a gentleman's
coat sleeve nothing is thought of it, as it is in
universal use. Rouge is never used.
Fine shoulders, beautifully molded arms,
small hands and feet, with the typical high-
arched Spanish instep, complete the ensemble.
Easy, graceful manners, and fine voices, musi-
cal and trainante, with much vivacity and ges-
ture, expressive features, emphasized by little
movements of the hands and shoulder shrugs,
render them charmingly piquant. There seems
to be no awkward period in the life of a Creole
girl, for from the opening bud to the full-blown
flower, the interval is short.
At fourteen a girl is considered marriage-
able, and is never permitted to go out alone,
and even after an engagement is declared, she
never receives herfianc, except in the presence
of some older member of the family. He may
accompany her to the theater, concert or bull-
fight, but always with the family.
If the parents oppose a marriage, the lover
may steal her-of course the robbery is com-
mitted with her own consent-and deposit her
allowed to visit her under the usual conditional








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


in the house of a mutual friend, where he is
etiquette, until the time necessary for taking all
the preliminary steps preparatory for the mar-
riage has expired. Once taken away from her
parents' house parental authority cannot pre-
vail against the marriage.
Large families are not considered objection-
able, but, on the contrary, many children are the
precious jewels in the crown of motherhood.
When quite a little girl the Cuban maid has
a playmate among the colored children, chosen
from the servants or slaves of her own age,
who grows up with her in the double capacity
of companion and servant, and who, when she
marries, goes with her as her own attendant to
her new abode.
Creole women are frank and affectionate by
nature, and do not hesitate by word or glance
to show their admiration-the concealment,
skirmishing and flirtation practiced by Ameri-
cans being quite unknown.
When a man falls in love with a girl he at
once declares his sentiments to her parents
and asks permission to visit her; thus all em-
barrassment is avoided.
A marriage in church often takes place at








BEFORE THE WAR.


midnight or very early in the morning, avoid-
ing publicity, and the newly-married pair go
direct from the church to their own house, or
perhaps into the country for a month or so to
pass the honeymoon.
On moving into a neighborhood the new-
comer is expected to send his card to all the
residents on each side of the street in the block
on which he lives, these being considered his
neighbors.
It is not unusual if any one sees you pass
wearing some article of dress which especially
pleases them, to send a servant with their
compliments bearing a tray and request you to
send it for them to look at and probably to
imitate. Should you express admiration for
anything of theirs, it is at once placed at your
disposition. Of course, this is merely a form
of compliment which you are never expected to
take in earnest.
Young girls are always conducted to and
from school by an attendant, and no lady goes
into the street unaccompanied, as it is not con-
sidered comme il faut, and she would, by so
doing, expose herself to the possibility of
being spoken to by any man who met her un-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


accompanied. Neither would a man be found
visiting a lady alone (unless he were privileged
by his great seniority of years), nor would he
detain her in conversation in the parlor of a
hotel, lest by so doing he should compromise
not only her but himself as well. You cannot
walk or ride out alone with a man-there is
safety only in numbers, and a tWte-a-tete is not
admissible except when the opportunity pre-
sents itself in the midst of company. Les
conveyances are rigidly observed. Yet this is
a country where love is in the air, and the
winged god, ever watchful, has his shafts
always ready, and with unerring aim plants
them where he wills, despite the barriers that
hedge about his divinity only to increase and
stimulate his persistency.
Although a lady may go out into the street
with nothing over her head or shoulders, either
in a volaute or walking, she would not lift up
her trailing skirts to save them from the dust,
lest by so doing she expose to view her pretty
foot or ankle; yet a Spanish officer told me that
he fell in love with the lady of his admiration
at first sight on seeing her foot as she de-
scended from a volante at El Caney. She,







BEFORE THE WAR.


with her family, came to the hotel where we
were both stopping, and although he did not
understand a word of French, nor she a word
of Spanish, I had the pleasure of seeing the
rapid denouement of their mutual infatuation,
and by receiving from both their confidences,
thus helping in bringing about the consumation
of their betrothal. In a short time she with
her family sailed for France, and the young
comandante had masses said at the cathedral
for their safe journey across the ocean. Al-
though I cannot complete this little romance
by saying he followed her to France and mar-
ried her, as I left myself soon after, yet I have
no doubt that the little foot that walked into
his heart so emphatically, did not relinquish
its possession, but kept him fast under its tiny
weight, till not only the foot itself, but the whole
of its possessor became the crowning joy of
the soldier's life.
Creole women in general are not intellectual,
though those who are sent away to be educated
have many accomplishments. They have great
artistic perceptions, are quick to learn, and
having natural ability for music, they are fine
musicians, but early marriages and many chil-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


dren soon fill up a woman's life with domestic
duties, and a natural indolence does not con-
duce to study. They excel in all social graces
-possessing charming affability, with cordial,
affectionate manners, which render them very
fascinating. Fond of dress and finery-the
warm climate being conducive to many changes
in the filmy fabrics, which are manufactured
especially for the Cuban market-they require
a large assortment of gowns; for no one who
has any regard for her reputation for being
well dressed would be seen at theater, ball or
opera in a dress that had been worn before.
At the theater and opera ladies never occupy
the orchestra chairs, but must always have a
box. The chairs are reserved for the men, who
engage them for the season, just as are the
boxes.
The low, open-work gilded railings and par-
titions being all open, the whole toilette is dis-
played, back and sides as well as front. A
constant movement of the beautiful fans that
with a soft click of pearl on pearl and ivory on
ivory, as their jeweled sticks are folded back
and forth with a swinging motion peculiar only
to Spanish women, is heard all over the house








BEFORE THE WAR. 43

like the fluttering wings of a flock of birds or
the rustle of the wind among the trees.
The beauty of the Cuban woman soon passes
its meridian. She either becomes immensely
stout or shrinks and shrivels like a piece of
parchment. Her pale complexion becomes
brown and dark, and she settles down into an
old woman, unredeemed by intellect or intelli-
gence; even as the gorgeous flowers of her own
country which, after they have been gathered a
few hours, wither and curl up into a blackened
mass, devoid of all beauty and fragrance.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


VI.

A DAY IN A CUBAN HOME.

BEING invited to spend the day with some
friends, escorted by the son, who had been
educated in the United States, I went over,
curious to see what a day passed in a Cuban
m&iage would be like.
A most cordial and gracious reception was
given me, and the first thing asked was:
"C--, have you not brought a blusa to put
on?" The blusa is the usual indoor dress
worn by Cuban ladies at home; and a very
appropriate and comfortable garment it is for
this extremely warm climate. It is usually
made of very thin muslin or batiste, full and
wide, hanging loose from a band or yoke, and
floats, unconfined by belt or sash, with perhaps
only a single garment beneath it. The sleeves,
being loose and flowing, with the open neck,
also contribute to the coolness and comfort of
the dress. A little addition of lace or em-








BEFORE THE WAR.


broidery about the neck and sleeves and down
the front gives a touch of elegance to what,
under other conditions, might have an air of
slovenliness. When the blusa is made dkcolletM
a light handkerchief is thrown across the
shoulders or pinned about the neck. Thus at-
tired the Cuban matron is always considered
amply dressed to receive whatever visitors may
present themselves.
The young lady immediately brought out
one of her own pretty white muslin blusas, and
asking me if I did not wish to take off my cor-
set and make myself comfortable, helped me
to put it on.
This struck me as a most sensible arrange-
ment, for the long, warm day in prospect was
thus denuded of some of its terrors. The
mamma and the seiiorita were both in blusas,
and I seemed to feel myself more at home in
my borrowed blusa than in the grenadine I had
taken off. The various younger children were
playing about, untrammeled by garments of
any sort.
There were no carpets on the floors, no up-
holstered furniture of any sort. The door
from the street opened directly into the parlor,







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


while the great windows down to the floor con-
tributed light and air in abundance.
The rocking-chairs, which are the first neces-
sity in the furnishing of a Cuban house, were
ranged in the center of the room, in two rows
facing each other, between the outer door and
those opening onto the patio or court, in the
center of the house, and onto which all the
rooms open.
Here, rocking and fanning and chatting, we
sit in view of the street, in view of the court
till breakfast is announced.
After an elaborate menu of many courses
and much smoking, in which the ladies join,
we find we are quite advanced beyond the mid-
dle of the day.
A visitor spending the day does not inter-
fere with the usual afternoon siesta, for you
are made so much at home trat you feel no
hesitation in joining in the needed rest.
Late in the afternoon, as the hour for dinner
draws near, the children are clothed; the host
goes out into the patio and refreshes himself,
bathing face and hands with entire nonchalance
in full view of us all.
The young gentleman, having already








BEFORE THE WAR.


ordered his horse, which was brought out from
his stable somewhere in the rear, mounts him
and rides though the parlor where we are and
out into the street.
My hostess smoked as much as her husband
and son, and the little five-year-old boy also
seemed to enjoy his cigarette.
In no way were the usual habits of the
family disturbed by the entertainment of a
visitor. The simple menage was all in view;
there was no straining for effect, but the
natural, kindly ease and courtesy made it im-
possible to be otherwise than delighted with
the atmosphere of cordiality which reigned in
this household.
Cots are usually the beds most generally
preferred, though brass and iron are some-
times seen, these latter being curtained with
lace or netting against the mosquitoes.
The cots during the day are folded up and
set aside out of view, and at night are easily
placed wherever desired; with a linen sheet
thrown over them, and a pillow added, they
are ready for occupancy.
After an abundant and pleasant dinner the
smoking continued up to the moment of my de-








48 SANTIAGO DE CUBA

parture, my hostess saying she even took her
cigar to bed with her, smoking until she fell
asleep, and if it remained unfinished, she laid
it on a chair near the bed, so she might resume
it on awaking in the morning, and enjoyed the
picking it up again and making her morning
toilette with it still between her lips.
I came away with reiterated invitations to
come again soon, and whenever I liked, im-
pressed with the feeling that the assurance
always given you when visiting a Cuban that
"Usted esta in su casa" (you are in your owner
house), in this case at least, was not an empty
compliment.








BEFORE THE WAR.


VI.

STREETS IN SANTIAGO.

THE streets in Santiago are narrow, dirty,
badly paved, even when paved at all, and un-
inviting; though they are not so bad as in
Havana, where in some instances, they are so
narrow that in passing a carriage, when walk-
ing, one is obliged to squeeze himself close up
against the houses in order to get by and to
drive up one street and down another in order
to ride at all. The city being built upon an in-
cline, many of them are steep and laborious of
ascent, and equally disagreeable in descent.
The sidewalks are narrow, in some instances
not more than two can walk abreast-while
many streets have no sidewalks at all; the
wretched pavement of huge stones, painful to
walk over, reaching from house to house on
either side.
The walks are raised a foot or more above
the road, and sometimes the step down is so
abrupt that you are willing to accept the ex-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


tended hand of some gallant cavalier, who, in
passing, extends his own to facilitate your de-
scent. Stranger though he be, an attention of
this kind offered is only considered a passing
civility, and he raises his hat, politely bowing
as he leaves.
Large square stones are left in the pavement
at intervals of from one to two feet apart, a
foot or foot and a half high, so that in the
rainy season when the waters rush down in
floods over the streets pedestrians may be en-
abled to cross by means of stepping from one
stone to another. There are no trees on the
streets, shade being dependant upon the low,
closely built houses.
Architecturally Santiago is very disappoint-
ing; the houses, with few exceptions being
plain, flat one-story edifices without cellars,
without chimneys, without windows, often
without any elevation above the street, one step
only being necessary in making an entrance.
I should not say without windows, for the great
iron-barred openings, extending from floor
almost to ceiling, are provided with inside
shutters that can be closed in case of storm,
and in which is inserted one pane of thick,








BEFORE THE WAR.


opaque glass that admits light, but is not trans-
parent enough to see through.
Chimneys are not needed, as there is no oc-
casion for fires in this superheated atmos-
phere, and the cooking is done out of doors,
upon brick ranges over small, square openings
for burning charcoal.
On account of the frequency of earthquakes
the houses rarely are more than one or two
stories in height. Heavy timbers are planted
several feet deep in the ground at the corners
of the building, and at intervals of several feet
apart, and these intervening spaces are filled
in with stone, brick or adobe, as the case may
be;. often the tile roof projecting over and
making a veranda or corridor, as they say in
Cuba, on the front, as also over the patio
around which the house is built. Thus, when
an earthquake comes, the houses sway from
side to side under the shock, and though there
is a great creaking of timbers and a grinding,
jarring sensation, like the movement of a boat
going through the locks, as it is bumped up
against the sides by the boiling waters; though
a sickening sensation invades your inmost
being as the ground heaves and rumbles be-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


neath your foundations and your pictures swing
out of plumb, and the bric-a-brac tilts and tot-
ters on its base, yet, when it has passed you
find your walls still standing, your floors still
beneath your feet, and your roof still over
your head, thanks to this precautionary way
of building.
All your neighbors have run out into the
street crying: "Misericordia!" and you are
left with a nervous, apprehensive fear that
another shock is likely to follow.
These one-story houses are built compactly,
contiguous one to another, the separating par-
titions often extending up only as far as the
top of the room, leaving a space between that
and the roof, which permits the sounds from
your next neighbor's house being quite easily
heard. There being no plastered ceilings, only
the painted rafters boarded over, and upon
which the tiles are laid; a somewhat bare, un-
finished aspect is given to the interiors of
Cuban houses. The floors are of marble, tile
or wood, without carpets or matting, on ac-
count of the numerous insects which abound.
Rows of rocking-chairs, standing opposite
each other, are placed down the middle of the








BEFORE THE WAR.


room, and, besides a piano, very few other
articles of furniture are needed.
The patio is the most attractive part of the
house, being usually surrounded by broad cor-
ridors, out on to which all the rooms open.
Vines, trees and plants make it charming; the
bright red pomegranate, with its dark, pol-
ished green leaves; yellow limes, and darker
oranges, hanging from more lofty trees; the
banana, with its broad leaves breaking into
narrow slits as it reaches up higher and higher,
with its one stem of fruit like a great red heart
bursting open with its hundred small bananas
clustering close to the stem; climbing jas-
mines, with starry blossoms that make the air
fragrant as soon as evening falls; parrots chat-
tering and paroquets hopping about among the
branches of the trees, a fountain playing in
the midst and children sprawling about, often
with nothing on but a pair of shoes, or possi-
bly a cambric shirt, rolled up into a wisp
about the waist and tucked into a knot behind,
so that the nurse may take hold of it; little
black children of the servants and the white
ones all playing together, there being much
more familiarity between mistress and servants
there than here-such is the ensemble.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


But to come back to the front of the house:
its great doors swing open wide enough for the
volante to be driven through into the hall,
where it is kept. In one of these great doors
there is usually a smaller door for persons to
pass through, and this is the only entrance for
everything and everybody that comes into the
house, from the governor down to the mules.
All houses are painted in light, and generally,
bright colors; blues, yellows, reds, and some-
times, when they are of two stories, the lower
will be of one color and the upper another. It
is all in harmony with the gorgeous, tropical
landscape, and the eye soon becomes accus-
tomed to the deep ochres, dull reds, pale blues
and pinks, which seem to vie with the flowers
and foliage and rank vegetation, and in a
measure atones for the want of architectural
beauty that would otherwise leave these nar-
row, steep, uncomfortable streets bare and un-
attractive.
The banks, the Casino, the clubs, and some
rich private residences, are built of marble,
have two stories, and some are in Oriental
style, and are of very elaborate architecture.
Several streets, like the Tivoli, for instance,








BEFORE TIE WAR.


are so much higher than the one next, on ac-
count of the steep rise in the land on this side
hill, that they have the appearance of terraces,
from whence one looks down upon the roofs of
the streets below as well as far out over the
lower portions of the town and away over the
bay. Nothing more fascinating can be con-
ceived than thus, from your second story, to sit
on your own corridor late in the afternoon and
enjoy the sweep of view that stretches out be-
fore you.
In various parts of the city small plazas are
interspersed, with shade trees, fountain, and
the sweet scented jasmine, they afford
breathing places where in the evening people
may gather to refresh themselves.
Thus the ensemble of the city, viewed from
the landing at the pier as the houses extend
quite down to the water's edge and away up
on to the green hills, or I might say mountains
behind it, presents a most romantic and pic-
turesque appearance with its multicolored
walls and red tiled roofs gleaming out among
the royal palms and feathery cocoa trees
against its green background, capped with
purple, and all overarched with the cloudless
unchanging blue of skies that never frown.








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


VIII.

A VISIT T TTHE HACIENDA OF SANTA ANITA.

HAAVIG been invited by Mr. O'C-- to pass
Christmas on his estate, we were obliged to
get up between three and four o'clock in the
morning to take the early train which would
carry us Ipart way there. Thus for the first
time I saw the sun rise in this tropical coun-
try. Stopping at the market on our way to the
depot we got a cup of black coffee to fortify us
for our early journey, and were soon on board
the train for El Christo.
As we drew out into the open country all
vegetation was dripping wet as from a recent
shower. But not a clofid was in sight, and we
learned that it was only the usual heavy dew
that had drenched everythingso copiously and
hung with glowing drops every leaf and branch
and stem.
The rank luxuriousness of vegetation was as-
tonishing-a perfect tangle of tropical growth.
Flowers and plants unknown greeted our eyes







BEFORE THE WAR.


on every side, with gorgeous blossoms and
trailing vines, all glistening in the early sun-
shine, still bedewed with the abundant moisture
of the previous night.
At the end of our journey by rail we found
horses and mules sent by our host awaiting
us. The ladies took off their hoopskirts,
which were put into a bag and with other bag-
gage packed onto the mules. Exchanging our
dresses for riding habits we mounted the sad-
dle horses, and soon all were ready for the up-
ward and onward journey.
The Cuban horses have a peculiar gait,
which I have found in no others, between a trot
and a canter, which gives one no jolt, but is
rather a rocking movement producing no fa-
tigue.
Our course lay over no traveled roads, but
across estates, through plantations, under
orange groves and through fields of sugar cane.
Our sure-footed horses scrambled along, pick-
ing their way over fallen trees and rolling logs,
rough stones and wild climbing weeds, up hill
and down dale, till at last we came in sight of
Santa Anita. Here at the threshold of his
hospitable abode our delightful host awaited us.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


We had been prepared for a not very elab-
orate manage, for Mr. O'C-- had told us
when he invited us that it was hardly the
place to invite seioras to, as he had never yet
built his house there, though always intending
to, and was only living in a rough way with
his bachelor sons, his engineers, servants, etc.,
and had no ladies in his family.
We dismounted before a wide veranda with
solid brick floor, long enough and wide enough
as I afterwards discovered to serve as a dining
room. Upon the wooden railing in front were
disposed the saddles of our several horses,
which were then led away by various colored
grooms, while we seated ourselves upon the
leather covered chairs and settees to rest after
our long ride.
The room assigned to me (as being the one
least accustomed to roughing it) proved to be
the room usually occupied by Mr. O'C--,
opening out from his library, of which I re-
'marked little except the several large handsome
mahogany bookcases which lined the sides and
were filled with a choice collection of works in
many languages. Upon the table were reviews
and periodicals of all countries, and news-
papers from New York, London, and Paris.








BEFORE THE WAR.


This residence, for I cannot call it a house,
was merely a huge pavilion or circular roof of
tiles resting upon wooden supports without
walls and without foundation. Here and there
at various points around the supports, rooms
had been built by boarding up a square space
beneath the roof like a box stall.
The greater part of the area under this im-
mense tile canopy was occupied by the fires
and kettles required in the process of making
the sugar.
A little railway from the cane field brought
the long stalks up to an engine stationed a few
feet away from the veranda, where it was
ground up, and in a few moments issued forth
in a liquid state and ran out into a conduit or
canal, where long ranges of iron kettles were
waiting to receive it, and where after due pro-
cess of boiling and drying it was transformed
into sugar.
On opening my shutter in the morning, for
window there there was none, my room was
invaded by a great fog of steam arising from
the boiling kettles with which the whole place
was filled.
I hastily closed my blind to shut out this








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


steam that was wetting everything, and made
my way out onto the veranda in search of fresh
air.
The men of our party who had been early
risers, and before going out had fortified
themselves with cognac and a cup of black
coffee against the early morning air, were just
beginning to come in after their tramp around
the estate.
Toward nine o'clock the table was set out on
the veranda, and the first meal of the day
called the "tent a pied" was served. There
was chocolate, cafg au lait, rolls, warm bread
of various kinds, pickled oysters, Westphalia
sausage, stuffed olives, cold meats, everything
in greatest profusion, all served by colored
servants.
Although it was the 25th of December, and
the temperature was the lowest I had exper-
ienced since I had been on the island, we found
it quite agreeable taking our meal al fresco at
this early hour.
At one o'clock came breakfast-an elaborate
meal of many courses and good wines, served
by many servants, and it was evident if our
host did live in a house with no walls nor win-








BEFORE THE WAR.


dows, he required the services of a good cook
and supplied his larder with the delicacies of
many lands.
As the table on the veranda commanded a
view of the sugar-boiling and all the negroes
engaged in the process, it was not unusual for
our host to call out in French or Spanish to
them, in the midst of the chatter over the
glasses and cigars which made the meals under
this hospitable roof a long period of sociability
as well as conviviality.
Dinner was served at 7 o'clock, and as
course after course came on with its accompani-
ment of choicest wine, its rich and varied
menu and charming conversation in alternat-
ing English, Spanish, French and German,
time sped on unheeded. Nine o'clock came,
10 o'clock came and found us still at the
table, the colored servants darting in and out,
bringing in from no one knows where the
steaming viands.
Doves were perching upon the rafters above
our heads and circling tamely about, cooing
and flapping their wings in seeming satisfac-
tion at the scene.
Great dogs were stretched out in close prox-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


imity with noses on their paws, apparently en-
joying the savory odors.
In the ruddy glow of the red fires beneath
the seething caldrons stood out the dusky
forms of the negroes with their long-handled
dippers scooping up the boiling syrup, the
white steam rising in transparent clouds, par-
tially obscuring them with its filmy drapery,
making a weird picture against the darkness
of the night without.
All this formed a singular accompaniment to
the elegant assemblage around the hospitable
board of the man who, living far from city or
neighbors, found within his own domain all the
elements of lavish entertainment.
The next morning we were surprised by
a cavalcade of ladies and gentlemen who ap-
peared and dropped in to make a morning call
on their way to some distant plantation.
They needed no urging to accept an invita-
tion to remain and take breakfast; evidently
Santa Anita's reputation for hospitality was so
well known that visitors were always sure of
receiving a hearty welcome.
Around this hospitable board there was
always room enough for half a dozen or more







BEFORE THE WAR.


additional guests, and though neighbors were
distant and scattered, they did not fail, when
an opportunity presented itself, of making the
most of such rare pleasures as came in their
way.
In this land of leisure and slowness, where
everything is put off till "maiana," there is
time always to be sociable even in the morn-
ing, to sit at length over the table and laugh
and chat, as the wreaths of smoke curl upward
from fragrant cigars, with no thought of hurry
or work, but with a sybaritic enjoyment of the
present moment that makes life seem a long,
long summer day.
On the third day we left Santa Anita, having
had a taste of new and unique experiences, and
brought away with us pictures in strong and
glowing colors that afford unspeakable pleas-
ure as we recall them even now from afar
away down the dim vista of time.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


IX.

SAINTS IN SANTIAGO.

As in all Catholic countries nearly every day
in the year is a saint day, that is to say a
holiday. In the calendar they are marked as
single cross days, which signifies a half holi-
day, or with two crosses, which means an all-
day holiday.
All these holidays are instituted by the
church and religiously observed by attendance
at the various services, and also by a suspen-
sion of business,- and much social festivity,
which it is always considered proper to indulge
in after the religious duties of the day have
been duly performed.
Instead of celebrating the anniversary of the
day of one's birth, they celebrate the day of
the saint upon which it falls; for in the nam-
ing of a child some saint is always included,
often several, as for instance "Frederic Maria








BEFORE THE WAR.


Joseph de la Tehada," or "Anita Jesus Maria
de los Angeles Jiraudy."
A child is baptized very soon after it is
born, when but a few days old. Its padrinos
or sponsors are chosen, and accompanied by
the father it is carried to church, where in the
presence of invited friends the baptism takes
place. The occasion of a baptism is always at-
tended by a gathering of youngsters outside
and around the doors of the church, to whom,
on coming out, the father of the newly-made
Christian throws a quantity of small silver
coins which are vigorously scrambled for and
picked up by the gains who have been
patiently awaiting them.
Cards announcing the advent of the newly
born, to which are attached a ribbon, with the
name and all the saints' names and date of
birth printed upon it, and at the end of which
hangs a small gold coin, are sent around to in-
timate friends as souvenirs of congratulation
upon the happy event.
As soon as the child is old enough to be
taken out it is sent forth, beautifully dressed
in a long robe of thinnest and finest white batiste
elaborately trimmed with lace, its sleeves








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


caught up with jeweled clasps, and a chain
and little locket about the neck, lying upon a
pillow in the arms of its black nurse to be
viewed by admiring friends.
The day of Corpus Christi is one of the most
gorgeous celebrations of all the fete days.
This occurs early in June, and elaborate prep-
arations are made for it long in advance.
Modistes and couturiers are busy over the
making up of costumes ordered expressly for
that occasion; many of the sefioras having also
imported their dresses from Paris or Madrid
for the occasion, it being indispensable to be
dressed in an entirely new costume, and, in-
deed, in two, or perhaps three, in the course
of the day.
The procession bearing the holy effigy leaves
the cathedral with-much pomp and display,
escorted by many prominent personages in
both Church and State. The streets through
which it passes are decorated with flags and
gorgeous hangings, in some instances forming
a complete and continuous canopy which
reaches from side to side across the narrow
street.
In the windows and balconies of every house








BEFORE THE WAR.


are assembled parties of ladies who have been
invited to see the procession pass. Here are
displayed the fine toilettes, which for weeks
past have been the subject of so much conver-
sation and solicitous consultation. These in-
vited guests usually remain to breakfast, and
the gentlemen make frequent promenades up
and down before the windows and balconies,
enjoying the display of beauty and elegance
afforded by the occasion.
Later in the afternoon another toilette is
made, and the streets are filled with a proces-
sion of volantes, with their gayly appareled
occupants which are driven round and round
through the decorated and canopied streets and
finally debouching upon the Alameda, wind up
with the usual promenade to the music of the
marine band, and the gaze of admiration of
less fortunate onlookers.
Sunday is the day par excellence for the best
functions both at the opera and theater, as
also the soirdes dansantes at the Casino.
A good Catholic, having been to his early
mass, considers the rest of the day well passed
in social conviviality with his friends and
neighbors. A lady may occupy herself with her








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


crocheting or embroidery, if it is taken up only
as a pastime, while she would feel condemned
were she obliged to do any work from neces-
sity.
About midsummer comes St. John's, or as
it is called San Juan's day. This is a day
given over to all sorts of grotesque jollity, to
the accompaniment of musical instruments of
all sorts, the firing of torpedoes and fire-crack-
ers; and hilarity of the most noisy description
is freely indulged in; the colored portion and
the lower classes contributing the greater part
with their processions, frolicking and the wild-
est kind of dancing of all sorts. This being
their especial holiday, it presents at some
points a wild bacchanalian scene, such as only
the hot blood and extravagant, saturnalian
temperament of the dark race can portray.
The first of November is "All Saints' Day,"
the second is the "Dia de los Muertos," or
"All Souls' Day," when the graves of the de-
parted are visited and decorated, and masses
said for the repose of their souls, and is one
of the most rigidly respected. No carriages
are seen in the streets; not a piano is heard,
and over all an air of unusual, all-pervading
quiet reigns.








BEFORE THE WAR. 69

In Santiago everything is named after some
saint; not only streets and churches, plazas
and barracks, but even clubs and cafis, fort-
resses and islands, as also are estates, rivers
and cemeteries. Indeed, a name without the
prefix of "saint" would be difficult to find.
Being about to take a journey across the
ocean I was asked to what saint I was going to
commend myself before setting out; but as I
could not, with truth, say I had arranged with
any for safe conduct, I know I was an object
of solicitude and commiseration on the part of
my more believing friends.







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


X.

INSECTS AND MOONLIGHT.

HElE the sun leaps from his morning couch
without the lingering dalliance that in the
North makes the cold, gray dawn that deepens
slowly into the golden glory of its full awaken-
ing. With a bound he is above the horizon,
and his flaming breath fills the earth with his
torrid warmth, and all nature is aglow with his
fervid magnetism.
Quickly the soft mists break and disperse
from mountain-top and valley, and sea, and
stream, and rivulet stand revealed in all their
blue and green and foam-flecked loveliness.
The bud of yesterday is now a full blown
flower, clad in gorgeous colors, and shedding
her perfume lavishly, as incense before her
god. Myriads of insects disport themselves in
the shining rays and fill the air with their tiny
hum.
The red flamingo, with outstretched wings,
lazily preens himself as he stalks daintily
along with his fine slender needle-like legs,








BEFORE TIE WAR.


down to the water's edge, where, after his early
sip, he stands, with one foot drawn up under
his wiutg gazing down upon his own reflection
in the watcr below.
Slhendr green and gold lizards climb up the
tree tri-lksi aind the brown chameleons changing
coloh with every new shadow, disport them-
selves harmlessly on the projecting walls and
balconies.
"As you rock back and forth in your rocking-
chair a crunching sound arrests your attention,
and you find you have unwittingly rocked upon
a scorpion, whose lobster-like claws and long
tail may measure six inches, and sometimes
among the laces in your bureau drawers you
may espy one of their black tails, raised in
warning; and it is well enough to shake your
shoes before putting them on in the morning to
make sure that you do not come in contact
with one in your first steps toward your morn-
ing toilette.
Whole cordons of tiny red ants, with senti-
nel at either end, are likely to line the walls of
your room from ceiling to floor and across to
the plate containing any fruit or eatables or
drinkables left unawares upon your table-a








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


constant line of comers and goers, making an
unbroken chain of small unconquerable ene-
mies, always at hand to prey upon your deli-
cacies.
Multitudes of fleas introduce themselves un-
ceremoneously between the interstices of your
open work stockings, and if you are sensible
to their punctures make life a burden until
you become accustomed to them.
Cockroaches of magnificent proportions, of
glossy brownness, huddle behind your bureaus
and buffets, and must be swept out now and
then, by regiments.
Tarantulas and centipedes are sometimes en-
countered, and to the student of entomology
there are always new species to be discovered.
Butterflies as large as bats, of gorgeous, spot-
ted green, as also the somber, black-winged
ones, whose presence portends death, and fills
a mother's heart with terror if one rests upon
the pillow of her child, are seen.
When the sun has lowered his heavy velvet
curtains before his face, and in the dark blue
dome the stars come thickly forth, the in-
numerable fireflies flutter out from every
blade and spear, and the great cocuyo, queen








BEFORE THE WAR.


of fireflies, appears, emitting electric flashes of
greenish light from breast and eyes and back,
till the whole of its dark shell is hidden out of
sight as an ugly face is sometimes illuminated
and transfigured by a flash of genius.
One can see what o'clock it is by the watch,
or, with two or three under a glass, may see to
read, and sometimes they are sewed under
tarletan or muslin dresses to add a touch of
brilliancy to an evening toilette.
As you float at evening in your faluja out
over the waters of the tranquil bay propelled
by the steady strokes of stalwart rowers, as the
rythmic oars rise and fall they cleave into a
flaming deep, alive with tiny phosphorescent
insects which gild the oars and fall in golden
splashes back into the waves again.
Leaning back against the cushioned rail you
see the great Southern Cross clear and distinct
in the heavens. The great silver moon seems
twice its size at full, and so near that you
almost shrink from its closeness, and feel in-
clined to raise your fan between it and your
face, and as you glide about between the great
ships anchored there, looking below the water
line, can distinctly see the colored stripes








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


thereon painted, so great is the illuminating
I. .' r of the moonlight upon and below the
vnwatr. Yet within all the witchery and fascina-
timo of this wonderful moonlight there lurks a
c:ouiter-charm of dangerous power.
it is nut considered prudent to sit long where
it falls serenely upon you, lest you find a head-
ache settling down over you; and young chil-
4,ieu if taken out at night are carefully guarded
from its rays by having an umbrella carried
over them.
Sitting out upon your balcony, you choose a
ciw: ir which affords a spot of shade rather
tiani subject yourself to the malign influence
tat counter-balances the pleasure of its full
iojijoyment.
Fish or meat after a few hours' exposure to
to its rays become unfit for use.
To sleep in the moonlight is fraught with
unhappy consequences-contortion of the fea-
tures, if not a disturbed condition of the brain
ensuing; as upon the unconscious sleeper, en-
wrapped in its silvery sheen, silently and
mysteriously under the cover of night its poi-
soned arrows unerringly swoop down leaving
their fatal impress upon their innocent victim.








BEFORE THE WAR.


XI.

THE SPANISH LION AND THE BLUE FAN.

LATE in the afternoon there was an unusual
stir and commotion below in the hotel. Arola
asked Geneveva, her faithful colored friend and
servant, what it was all about.
"Oh, mademoiselle! Buque just come in-
great heap mens-from Santo Domingo-en
pile officiers--'
Looking down from the corridor on to the
patio below Arola saw numbers of uniformed
officers with swords dangling from their belts
and spurs clanking at their heels as they strode
hither and yon across the tiled floor and up
and down the stone stairs, while soldiers and
assistants were bringing in equipages, port-
manteaus and impedimenta of various descrip-
tion, and piling it up against columns in door-
ways, and in all sorts of inconvenient places,
until our usually attractive patio began to look
like a military barrack, with all this additional
influx of Spanish soldiery.








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


Madame Adela, in flying blusa, flapping
slippers and gay bandana, was bustling about
as fast as her great avoirdupois would allow,
unlocking doors, apportioning rooms, and dis-
patching Juan, Eduardo, Melina and Caesar in
various directions to prepare the rooms, carry
up the trunks and provide for the comfort of
her newly-arrived guests, while Don Eugenio,
her white husband, but in no sense master of
the house, meekly carried out her instructions
in all matters, stooping in the meantime every
now and then to catch up in his arms the little
naked three-year-old negreto Eduardo (who,
like a little black puppy dog, was running
around under everybody's feet, in everybody's
way), and giving him a hearty squeeze and
kiss, much to the amusement as well as disgust
of some of the on-lookers.
Madame Adela owned her husband, as well
as the hotel, and, being the landed as well as
monetary proprietor, did not scruple on some
occasions (when Don Eugenio forgot to come
in at proper hours or indulged too much in his
favorite beverages) to turn the key in the door
of his room, and keep him in solitary confine-
ment a day or two, until he came back to a
sense of his marital responsibilities.








BEFORE THE WAR.


Although Don Eugenio was white and
Madame Adela mulatto, she came of good
French descent on her father's side, which
showed itself in her gentle manners and kindly,
dignified hearing, that won the universal re-
spect and appreciation of all who were domi-
ciled beneath her roof.
This was an invasion, indeed! The salon,
patio, corridors, halls, and stairways, all over-
flowing with these returned militaires, fresu
from an encounter with insurgents in Santo
Domingo, from whence the "Regiment de Es-
pagna" had just disembarked.
Arola looked down with dismay upon this
taking possession of our usually orderly, quiet
hotel, to whose homelike tranquil atmosphere
she was so accustomed that any disturbing in-
fluence was most unwelcome. It was as though
a rough wind had swept across the placid
waters of the bay, stirring up into rough waves
its peaceful depths, setting all the barks toss-
ing and rocking restlessly upon its surface.
As Arola took her seat at dinner she saw up
and down the length of the table opposite as
also at her side the various types of the Spanish
race, with all their arrogant consciousness of







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


superiority, their pride of birth and pride of
conquest, tempered with easy grace and de-
bonair, chivalric manners, and warm magnetic
temperament, which at once swept us all within
the radius of its influence, subtly permeating
with its atmosphere the susceptible recipients
of its fascination.
The atmosphere at once became electric, cur-
rents darted here and there, creating sympathy
or producing opposition as they flashed in
upon the new elements just encountered.
Tall, serious and dignified as a young palm,
the sedate and valiant Colonel Sandoval
chanced to occupy the seat at the right of the
head of the table, next to the sympathetic Con-
sul, who, although he had never got further in
the Spanish language than "Buenos dias, como
esta usedd" and "Muchas gracias," neverthe-
less, by his cheerful, gracious ways, had won
the title of "Muy Sympatico" from all who
knew him, and was always the favorite neighbor
at table or wherever good company was
desired.
Discussion ran high, and anecdotes were re-
counted of the late experiences in the recent
Santo Domingo outbreak of one officer in par-








BEFORE THE WAR.


ticular, whose extravagant exploits and reckless
daring was the theme of comment in every
action; evidently he had cut a wide swath
wherever he went, and consequences of deep
import were left behind.
On arriving at a new place in a few days he
was master of the dialect; in battle was always
in the thickest of the fight, at the bivouac he
was always the foremost drinker; could tell the
best story and sing the best song, and with
holy horror the dignified Sandoval exclaimed:
"When I went to my room I found his assist-
ant setting up his bed there!"
"Well! Did you not order him out?"
"Oh, no! I knew the best thing for me to
do was to keep quiet. He had been out to
supper with some friends, and, coming back
late, found the door fastened, and with a bang-
ing and clatter enough to break it down he
nearly scared Juan out of his senses, when he
finally succeeded in rousing him sufficiently to
open it."
Thus, his advent into our hotel was followed
by the characteristic whirlwind he usually
brought in his wake.
Arola's curiosity was much stimulated by all








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


these revelations with wonder as to what sort
of a personality this stormy petrel could pos-
sess. Her imagination busied itself with pic-
turing this altogether new type, that seemed
instantly to have created a peculiar attraction
for this strange unknown in the quiet Ameri-
can girl, who had listened to all the varied
comments upon this rough and arrogant Ara-
gonese.
Coming into breakfast Sunday morning diag-
onally across from her seat at table and near
the dignified Sandoval, Arola beheld a new
face, with a wide, high forehead, from which
the closely cut, dark hair was brushed severely
back, deep, blue-gray eyes, looking frankly
out from beneath heavy, dark brows; a fine
Roman nose with expanding nostrils, betoken-
ing a fiery, haughty temperament, surmounted
a heavy, dark mustache and closely-trimmed
beard, that outlined a chin indicating firmness
of purpose and unyielding will. A grave,
almost sad, expression pervaded this face in re-
pose; strength and almost severity were the
characteristics indicated in its lines.
Suddenly Arola became aware of an intense
gaze being fixed upon her, and looking up in







BEFORE THE WAR.


the direction from which she felt it, beheld the
eyes of the Aragonese fixed seriously upon her.
His remarks were addressed to his compan-
ions in arms on either hand, but his eyes were
speaking a language of their own while they
held the attention of Arola, who in vain tried
to withdraw her own.
Presently a mingling of phrases as well as
regards began to fall upon her outward ear
that indicated they were intended for her, as,
in answer to some one, he remarked:
"Yes! I am a very capricious person, and
I will go all lengths to arrive at the consumma-
tion of my caprices. I am never defeated."
Thus saying he threw himself back a little,
partially behind the one next him, from
whence, unobserved, he could watch the effect
of his words upon her.
As was her custom, while her father and the
gentlemen remained chatting over their cigars,
she arose and retired from the table; passing
into the salon, she seated herself by a window
opening on to the corridor, which commanded
a view of the bay and the signal station. Even
from this distance she was still conscious that
those eyes were upon her, as the Aragonese








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


continued his conversation and smoking at the
table. Presently a footstep coming toward her
attracted her attention, and a whiff of fragrant
smoke was wafted toward her, as the stalwart
figure of the Aragonese strode across the salon,
and, passing through the open door out on to
the corridor, took up a position opposite the
window near which she was seated, and lean-
ing against one of the columns, in a loud whis-
per, said:
"You are very cruel, very ungrateful."
Arola turned a startled, surprised look upon
him, astonished at his thus addressing her,
and he repeated his remark.
"But senior," she said, "you do not know
me-we are strangers."
"Ah! But I do know you. I have been
here more than twenty-four hours, and I have
observed you closely. Did you not see I was
always looking at you at the table?"
"But I supposed that might be accidental."
"There are no accidents with me. In you I
have found the one being I adore-that I have
sought for in vain. I am alone in the world;
I have led a wild life. Of all the women I
have met, none have I loved till now."








BEFORE THE WAR.


The salon began to fill up as the others left
the table. The conversation was broken off.
Some one asked Arola to play, and she went to
the piano and commenced playing in a half
dreamy way some Spanish boleros and dances.
Presently she became aware that some one was
leaning over the instrument, closely watching
her, and a low voice at her side was pouring
out, in unbroken monologue, the history of
his life, thus taking advantage of the accom-
panying music which drowned the low tones of
his voice, making a secluded oasis among the
general conversation.
Arola scarcely saw him. Her eyes followed
her hands upon the keys, while his fervent
words fell upon her ears and burned through
into her mind. It was like a torrent of flame
that swept over her in all its impetuosity. A
strange lassitude began to creep over her; the
slender fingers began to resist her will, and
she arose from the piano, and, escaping from
this new influence that was fast gaining as-
cendency over her, endeavored to throw it off
by shutting herself away in the retirement of
her own apartment.
After dinner Arola went out onto the balcony








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


to enjoy the refreshing night air and the soft
moonlight. Immediately the arrogant one
was at her side, and, scanning her carefully
from head to foot, remarked:
"What means all this blue?" noticing the
soft folds of her white dress and broad blue
scarf that encircled her waist, falling to the
bottom of her skirt, and the bows of same
shade that looped up the sleeves, and even the
circlets of blue sapphires around her throat
and wrists, and the blue fan which, with
almost Spanish grace, she had learned to sway
languidly back and forth.
"What does all this signify?" taking the fan
from her hand and looking seriously down
upon her, after a few vigorous movements
handing it back to her with the partly open,
sidewise presentation which signifies "love."
"You cannot be jealous; yet blue is jeal-
ousy."
"Oh! I did not know that."
"You could not be jealous of me, for I have
but one thought. I desire but you. I find all
my happiness here between these four walls.
To me you are like the Virgin upon the high
altar, to be worshiped, idolized. You fill








BEFORE TIIE WAR.


me with illusions. To be thus near you, so
near I might almost touch you, fills me with
happiness, with emotions impossible for any
other woman to inspire. For me there is
naught else in the world."
"I will see the general and get permission
to leave the Regiment de Espagna, which will
soon leave here, and get a commission in the
regiment that is stationed here. He will say:
'I know why you wish to stay here; it is on
account of the little American girl.' "
"Why will he think that?"
"Because Sandoval has told him so. San-
doval knows I love you."
He took from her hand the small blue fan,
and pressing it to his lips, hid it away against
his breast, giving her in exchange his own that
he had brought from Santo Domingo.
Quiet, sagacious, alert Sandoval of the eagle
eye, was closely watching the rapidly develop-
ing chapters in this incipient romance.
Arola was conscious of his intense watch-
fulness that took expression in varying revela-
tions of his passing thoughts, as he shot forth
a glance of disapproval or surprise or regret
at what he evidently could not alter or prevent.








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


From those dark, speaking eyes he would
hurl forth a whole volume of emotion that
needed no spoken words to convey his mean-
ing, and Arola was conscious that she was being
read like an open book by one who, with pro-
phetic eye, looked farther and saw more than
she could even imagine.
There was a peculiar tenderness and solici-
tude evinced in his watchfulness that drew her
toward him with a feeling of undoubting con-
fidence, and when in speaking of the "Aragon-
ese" he called him "The Lion," it amused her
and at the same time pleased her, so that she
fell into the habit also of speaking of him as
"The Lion;" for it seemed a fitting name for
that dominating, strong, almost savage nature,
that at the same time showed such moments of
gentleness and humility in his approaches to-
ward her, so much so that he seemed possessed
of two natures, so subdued and almost reverent
was he under the influence of her gentle nature.
Sandoval was always hovering near when
"The Lion" was away; but the moment he ap-
peared in view with a smile and a gesture
which seemed to say : "Discretion is the better
part of valor," he would serenely yield his
place and flee for safety.







BEFORE THE WAR.


The two men were of the same regiment, and
Sandoval the superior officer, but of a refined
nature, and courtly bearing characteristic of
one whose family were all in the diplomatic
ranks, one brother being minister to Austria,
another to Mexico, but who, owing to unhappy
domestic relations of his own, preferred to
absent himself altogether from Spain, and for
years had led a life devoid of family ties rather
than live in disharmony at home.
Though in their military career Sandoval
and "The Lion" were thrown into somewhat
intimate relations, yet the difference in their
natures was such that an invisible wall separ-
ated them, hedging them about with an im-
penetrable armor.
Arola was under the magnetism of two op-
posite natures, each of which swayed her and
influenced her in different ways.
Although some of the on-lookers at this
drama began to prophesy, half jokingly, half
seriously, outbreaks and difficulties or dis-
agreements among militaires, the dramatic
personae kept on, all unconscious of the inter-
est and curiosity they were awakening.
One evening several officers from an Ameri-








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


can man-of-war presented themselves, and
Arola and her father were about going to the
Plaza with them, when "The Lion," just com-
ing in, was confronted with a new incident.
A stifled roar of displeasure, half smothered
under his mustache, for a moment disconcerted
her, betraying his evident belief in his owner-
ship of her, and unwillingness to allow others
any participation in her society. She gently
explained the situation and the necessity of
hcr action, and to all appearances appeased
his ruffled equanimity.
Returning at a late hour, there seemed an
unusual stir and assemblige of people around
the apartment of "The Lion;" and on inquiry,
she learned that soon after she went out, he
was seized with a severe heart attack, and had
to be carried to his room, medical help sum-
moned, aid after remedies had been applied,
he was restored to consciousness, and was
being closely watched by his attendants-in
short that he was still critically ill.
Some days after she learned that the excite-
ment occasioned by her going out with her
American friends, with the effort at self-control
and suppression of his violent emotions, had








BEFORE THE WAR.


brought on this severe attack that had nearly
cost him his life.
Sandoval, ever watchful, was kept in con-
stant anxiety, and was continually saying:
"Ah! Arola, you make me very unhappy. I
am filled with solicitude about you. 'The
Lion' will roar one day!"
But Arola seemed only to see his beautiful
tawny mane and majestic proportions, and to
enjoy the dominion she possessed over his
savage nature with feminine perversity.
One day he remarked that she no longer car-
ried the little Santo Domingo fan he had ex-
changed for her own, and on inquiring why
she was not using it she frankly said that San-
doval took it up one day to fan himself and
had unwittingly kept possession of it, and
probably had carried it with him to his room.
At once the fire flashed from his eyes, and
an expression of fierce displeasure broke upon
his face. She tried to soothe him by saying:
"Sandoval did not mean anything; it was
purely accidental, his taking it;" but he would
not be pacified.
"Sandoval is as capable of folly, as mad as
any of us."







SANTIAGO DE CUBA


A great fear seized upon her. "Would he
dare to harm him?" The thought almost
paralyzed her; but the arrow had sped, the
harm was done, the unforeseen had happened.
Arola lost no time in skillfully persuading
SaLdoval to give her back the unfortunate fan,
carefully concealing from him the reason of her
great anxiety to regain possession of it once
more. His oft repeated "Ah! Arola, you make
me very uneasy about you, "seemed to have little
or no effect upon her. She did not understand
his solicitude.
Sometimes, passing along the corridor, she
heard a footstep behind her and felt the breath
of "The Lion" close to her ear, with ill sup-
pressed-ardor saying: "Now, I could give you
twenty-five thousand kisses with that little
bolero on. Que divina!"
Sandoval, whose all-observing eye nothing
escaped, would say: "To-day the wind is
from the north," or, "Now we have a south
wind."
"Arola is expressive even in the clothes she
wears. If I could see the dress she has laid
out to put on I could tell what humor she is in
before she comes to dinner."








BEFORE THE WAR.


"The Lion," after having been to the bull-
fight, would bring her the banderillos he had
secured from the picadores as trophies. Even
in the savage enjoyment of this cruel sport, her
image was always before him.
After a "Fourth of July" dinner, when the
champagne flowed freely in remembrance of
her native land, he improvised for her enter-
tainment with some of his Spanish friends, in
a moment of exhilaration and expansion, the
"Jota Aragonese," one of the dances of his
native province, to the accompaniment of its
taking melody; going through its many
changes and taking a leap, skip and a bound
that carried him up onto and completely over
the table to her great amusement and delight.
Bursts of merriment followed, and thus,
another link was forged in the chain that
bound her to the strange character that had so
suddenly swooped down into her life; each new
development proving an additional attrac-
tion.
One day an imperative order arrived from
the captain-general for the regiment to embark
immediately for Havana. There was no use
in resistance, no time for dallying. A soldier








SANTIAGO DE CUBA


is a machine, and has only to obey his superior.
Quickly the news spread: all was hurry and
bustle; preparations for departure were imper-
ative; the steamer was to leave in a few hours.
Arola had not seen "The Lion" since he
went away early in the morning to attend to
his regimental duties, so she was in ignorance
of this new order. She was greatly amazed
when he came running upstairs in the early
afternoon, and, in his impetuous way, took her
in his arms exclaiming: "Arola! We are
ordered to Havana! I am on the point of em-
barking. The troops are all on board. I have
only a minute to say adieu to you and your
father. This separation is inevitable, but it
will be 'hort, for as soon as I can see the cap-
tain-general at Havana I shall ask for a fur-
lough, and in fifteen days you will see me in
New York, or you will hear of my death, for
I am going to challenge Sandoval; one of us
must die."
Arola tried to dissuade him. She was hor-
rified, but in vain. She was a mere straw
tossed on the torrent. He did not heed nor
hear her.
"You will present me to your mamma as




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