<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Notice
 Main
 Back Cover














The Uganda journal
External Link ( Journal issues, 1999-2002 )
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080855/00004
 Material Information
Title: The Uganda journal
Abbreviated Title: Uganda j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Uganda Society
Publisher: Uganda Society etc.
Uganda Society etc.
Place of Publication: Kampala etc
Publication Date: 1935
Frequency: irregular[1976-<1995>]
semiannual[ former 1934-]
annual[ former <1948>-1973]
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Uganda   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Uganda
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- 1934-
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended May 1942-Mar. 1946; replaced by the Society's Bulletin.
Numbering Peculiarities: One issue published every few years, v. 38 (1976)-<v. 42 (1995)>
Issuing Body: Vols. 11-13 published in London.
General Note: Journal of The Uganda Society (formerly The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ABS8002
oclc - 01644239
alephbibnum - 000301510
issn - 0041-574X
lccn - 52026895
System ID: UF00080855:00004
 Related Items
Related Items: Uganda journal

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Notice
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Main
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 202-1
        Page 202-2
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 208-1
        Page 208-2
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 214-1
        Page 214-2
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 216-1
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 224-1
        Page 224-2
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 230-1
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




THE


Uganda


Journal


THE ORGAN OF THE UGANDA LITERARY
AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY


Vol. II. JANUARY, 1935. No. 3


Contents
Pre-History and Uganda. ... .. ......... T. P. O'Brien.
Early Explorers in Ankole. ... ... ... ... F. Lukyn Williams.
Uganda Medals and Decorations ... ... ... ... E. F. Twining.
The Riddle of Biggo. .. ... ... ... ... .. J. M. Gray.
Mankind at War with the Insects. ..... G. H. E. Hopkins.



NOTES AND OORRESPONDENCE.


I














The Uganda Journal

THE ORGAN OF THE UGANDA LITERARY
AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY


Vol. II. JANUARY, 1935. No. 3.


CONTENTS


EDITORIAL


Pre-History and Uganda. ...
Early Explorers in Ankole ..
Uganda Medals and Decorations.
The Riddle of Biggo.
Mankind at War with the Insects.


... ... ... ... by T. P. O'BRIEN.
... ... ... by F. LUKYN WILLIAMS.
... ... ... by E. F. TWINING, M.B.E.
.. ...... by J. M. GRAY.
... ... ... by G. H. E. HOPKINS.


NOTES


The Story of the Entry of the Alur into the West Nile. by
A Federal Capital for Eastern Africa:
Some Early Proposals ... ......
Ruwenzori and Elgon-Footnotes ... ... ...
A Native Crocodile Trap ...... ...


MAJOR N.C.L. LOWTH, M.C.

by H. B. THOMAS, O. B. E.
by H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.
... by J. CARMICHAEL.


CORRESPONDENCE:-


Blood-brotherhood in Ankole.
The Bakama of Bunyoro...
The Uses of the Banana. ...
Ensenene. ... ...
Basoga Death and Burial Rites.


... ... by F. LUKYN WILLIAMS.
... ... ... by DR. J. M. DERSCHEID.
... by DR. G. AP GRIFFITH.
... ... ... ... by D. R. BUXTON.
... ... ... by REV. A. WILLIAMS.











THE UGANDA LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC

SOCIETY.

'-4---

NOTICE.

There are no restrictions as to membership of the Uganda Literary and
Scientific Society. Membership is open to all races and to Institutions and
Clubs. No entrance fee is imposed. The annual subscription, which is payable
in advance on Ist July of each year, is Shs. io for single membership and Shs. 15
for double members. The double membership is introduced for the convenience
of families and entitles two members of a family to all the rights and privileges
of a full member except that they receive only one copy of each number of the
Journal.
Additional copies of the Journal may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary
and Treasurer, price Shs. 2/50 per copy. A limited number of bound copies of
Volume i and a few single copies of each of the first two numbers can be obtained,
either from the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer or the Uganda Bookshop, price
Shs. io for the bound Volume i and Shs. 3 for single copies. Arrangements have
been made with the Uganda Printing and Publishing Company, Ltd., Kampala, to
bind the volumes of the Journal at a cost of Shs. 2/50 per volume. All subscriptions
and contributions to the Journal should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary and
Treasurer, P.O., Kampala. No guarantee is given to return any MSS. submitted.
Articles should be typed on one side of the sheet only and should not contain
matter likely to cause political or religious controversy.Those submitted by
Government Officials must comply with Colonial Office Regulations; they should
either be submitted u.f. s. the Head of'Department concerned or they should
be addressed to the Editor, with a request that he will obtain the necessary
permission for publication.












THE UGANDA LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC

SOCIETY:



Patron :
HIs EXCELLENCY SIR B. H. BOURDILLON, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.

President :
E. J. WAYLAND, ESQ.

Vice-President :
P. L. FENTON, ESQ.

Committee :
MRS. H. H. HUNTER.
MRS. C. G. MOODY.
MARK WILSON, ESQ.
R. A. SNOXALL, ESQ.
DR. A. T. SCHOFIELD.
OMW. E. S. W. KIRONDE.

Honorary Secretary, Treasurer, and Editor:
E. F. TWINING, ESQ., M.B.E.

Representative in Great Britait :
E. B. HADDON, ESQ., 3 Cranmer Road, Cambridge.



N. B.-The Society's Postal Address is P. 0., Kampala; and
its Bankers the National Bank of India, Ltd., Kampala.












EDITORIAL

Exactly a year ago when the first number of this Journal was issued the
membership of the Society stood at the figure of 172. By Christmas it had exceed-
ed 490 and confident that the desired figure of 500 will soon be reached and
exceeded we have embarked upon a number of improvements, notably the introduc-
tion of some coloured plates in this number of the Journal. The interest and value
of certain contributions can obviously be enhanced by illustrations in colour and it
is hoped that with the continuation of the support which the Journal is now receiv-
ing the publication from time to time of such illustrations will be financially possible.
The final result of the ballot upon the proposal to change the name of the
Society was thirty two in favour of the change and seven against. It is not pos-
sible however to give effect to the change immediately. A new constitution and
rules have been drafted and will shortly be submitted to the Committee. When
they have been approved copies will be sent to members on application. A
Special General Meeting will then be convened, probably towards the end of Feb-
ruary, which will be asked to adopt the new constitution. Those who are opposed
to the change of name (which will be embodied in the new constitution) will there-
fore have a further opportunity of placing their views before a General Meeting of
the Society.
During the quarter just ended two lectures have been delivered in Kampala,
the first in October by Mr. T. P. O'Brien who is in charge of the British Museum
Archaeological Expedition to Uganda. Archaeology is a subject which has been
rather neglected in this country and it is anticipated that the expedition will achieve
results of not merely local interest and importance which may even have a valuable
bearing on the absorbing problem of the origin and early home of mankind. Mr.
O'Brien's lecture is printed in this number of the Journal. It is hoped that he will
be able to give further lectures on the progress of his work and the final results
achieved. The second lecture was delivered in November by Dr A. T. Schofield,
on "Photography in Uganda". This valuable paper which should be of interest to
the many keen photographers in the Protectorate will be published in a subsequent
issue.
The Arts and Crafts Exhibition under the aegis of the Society was opened by
His Excellency the Governor on loth November and closed on 12th November by
the Chief Secretary. The Exhibition was a complete success, both in regard to the
quality and quantity of the entries and to the number of persons who visited it.
The accounts have not yet been finally closed but it is not anticipated that the
Society will be called upon to implement its financial guarantee. It is more than
probable in fact that there will be a small profit which will be paid into the Society's
funds. The Exhibition proved that the Society can do useful work besides holding
meetings and publishing a Journal and it is hoped that the Arts and Crafts Exhibi-
tion will become an annual event.








I82

During the quarter we have been approached by the University of Witwaters-
rand to exchange the Journal with their publication, Bantu Studies, and by the
Stoneham Museum, Kitale, to exchange the Journal for its publication, Bateleur.
The latter is devoted entirely to African ornithology. We have gladly acceded to
both these requests and any members who so desire may obtain these publications
on loan from the Honorary Secretary. It is hoped to come to similar arrangements
with other learned organizations whose publications may be of interest to members.
Since the stock of last year's issues of the Journal is rapidly dwindling those
who require either bound volumes or single numbers should apply to the Honorary
Secretary without delay. The former can be supplied at Shs. io/- per volume and
the latter at Shs. 3/-per copy, post free in each case. A small number of "separates"
of each article appearing in the Journal are also printed and these may be obtained
from the Honorary Secretary at fifty cents each. Arrangements have been made
with the Uganda Printing and Publishing Company, Kampala, to bind volumes in
a uniform cover at a cost of Shs. 2/50 each. Once the present stock of back
numbers is exhausted it is unlikely that they will ever be reprinted.













Prehistory and Uganda.

By T. P. O'BRIEN,
Leader of the African Prehistoric Research E.pedition.


Prehistory is usually defined as the story of Man before written records were
made, but the word itself is misleading since the world is full of the records of past
humanity, written indelibly upon the surface, or preserved in the sub-surface of the
Earth. It is the work of the prehistorian to search for these records, and, when he
has found them, to decipher them without over-inventing as he goes along. It is true
that trom the records of prehistoric man it is not always possible to read directly
what his thoughts and ideas were; but it can be done to a certain extent by
deduction and inference. For instance, the Magdalenian cave paintings in the south
of France and the north of Spain were certainly prompted by the custom of sympa-
thetic magic-huge and beautiful animals being portrayed by the artists whose fellow-
tribesmen hoped for good hunting.
Prehistory is by no means an isolated science. If one could state its relation-
ship to other sciences genealogically, it might be said to be the son of geology and
brother of palaeontology and ethnology The relationship between father and son
is a very close one, and sometimes the father must seek advice from the son, and
sometimes the son lays his problems before the father. Known geological deposits
will help correctly to place in time the stone implements or skeletal remains found
in them, while familiar forms of stone tools may help to date an uncertain geological
deposit in which they occur.
Palaeontology comes forward when fossil bones are found, and helps to decide
the dating of the deposits by identifying the remains.

Further discoveries of Early Man, his variations in type and his migrations,
help to bridge the gaps in our knowledge of the origins of the peoples of to-day
and how they attained their present distribution.
If you set out to study a period in English history in an intelligent and
thorough fashion, you soon find that your results will be rather sterile and de-
finitely incomplete if you establish no connections with other countries at the same
epoch. In the same way, the study of Prehistory in Uganda would be fragmentary and
stultified without reference to the discoveries that have already been made elsewhere,
for these form an unfinished picture in which all fresh discoveries in Uganda and
everywhere else will have their place and help to complete the whole.









The earliest known case of the recognition of stone tools was in 1690, when a
flint hand axe was discovered near Gray's Inn Lane, London. In 1797 John Frere
found flint implements at Hoxne, Suffolk. He was the first real prehistorian, for he
was careful to note their exact position in a geological stratum, the evidence of
which led him to make the then astounding assertion that they belonged to "a very
remote period indeed, even beyond that of the present world."
Many isolated finds from 'this time on showed to all but the most bigoted that
Man was certainly a contemporary of extinct animals of the Pleistocene period.
Many brilliant men were ridiculed for holding the view that Man could be older
than the date of the Creation, which was fixed so certainly by Bishop Usher as
4004 B.C.
The first authenticated discovery of fossil man was made in 1857 at Neander-
thal, in Prussia. It was so different from modern skulls that all sorts of ideas were
put forward to account for it-that it was the skull of an idiot, and so forth. Thirty
years later, the Spy skeletons were found in Belgium in a cave* associated
with flint implements of the Mousterian culture. This settled the controversy over
the Neanderthal skull, as the Spy specimens were undoubtedly of the same species.
Any other members of this branch of the human family discovered subsequently
(and very many were) were stated to belong to the Neanderthal group.
In 1891 Dubois found a human skull in Java. This was so ape-like and so
ancient that Dubois realized that it could not belong to the genus Homo, and so
created the generic name Pithecanthropus erectus, the erect ape-man. He thought he
had found the so-called "missing link" between the anthropoid apes and man. This
discovery led to a terrific controversy, the thunder of which is still faintly
rumbling in the distance. It centred round the question of whether the
skull was that of an ape or a human being. The skull-cap was not the only human
relic found by Dubois, for he also recovered a human femur from close by. This,
strangely enough, is strikingly modern in appearance, straight and shapely,
so that its owner must have walked upright instead of with the slouching
gait of the anthropoid. Hence Dubois' name.
Another remarkable human relic of immense antiquity is the Mauer jaw. This
was found near the base of an 80 foot. sand-pit at Mauer, near Heidelberg, in 1907.
For a long time geologists had interested themselves in the working of this pit be-
cause of the very fine section of Pleistocene strata exposed there. In the lower
part of these, corresponding to the Lower Pleistocene in age, many fossil remains of
extinct animals were found, providing excellent dating material. Then one day
came the discovery of the jaw. It is difficult to describe the extremely massive
appearance of this mandible without slides or diagrams; in size it far exceeds any
other fossil human jaw discovered before or since.
Probably the Mauer discovery was one which fired the enthusiasm of many
other searchers, and so we soon hear of the finding of another of Man's forerunners
This time England was favoured, for at Piltdown, in Sussex, Mr. Charles Dawson
had the good fortune to come across the first fragments of the Piltdown
skull. Several more fragments and the lower jaw came to light in the course of









further work at Piltdown. When the remains were properly assembled and studied
by leading anatomists, several very striking anomalies were observed, as in the case
of the Java Man. This time, a skull almost modern in appearance was associated
with a very simian lower jaw. So irreconcilable did these at first appear that many
people refused to believe that they belonged to the same individual, despite the fact
that the jaw fitted the skull. Very few people now hold that view, because the chance
of finding the upper part of an extremely ancient human skull without the lower
jaw, close to the lower jaw of an unknown kind of anthropoid ape, is an extremely
remote one. Furthermore, detailed study of the brain-case showed that it had dis-
tinctly simian characters in keeping with the jaw, notably in the compressed region
of the parietal. Study of the jaw itself revealed the fact that despite its superficial
simian resemblances, the teeth were definitely human. So that on the whole, the
appearance ot the Piltdown skull was so different from that of Pithecanthropus,
though roughly of the same age (Early Pleistocene) that a new genus was created
for its reception and it was christened Eoanthropus, or Dawn Man.
Probably the most valuable discovery of fossil humans is that of Pekin Man,
because it was made under conditions of the utmost scientific care. Several
members of this ancient human family have rewarded the labours of the late Pro-
fessor Davidson Black and his colleagues. The finds extended over a period of
years, and began with the discovery, not of a fossil, but of a single piece of a
certain type of stone foreign to the locality. This led Dr. Andersson, who was
co-operating with the Chinese Geological Survey, to remark to his assistants "This
is primitive man". In 1922 two human teeth were found, and more in 1926. These
were regarded by Davidson Black as of the greatest importance, for the deposits
at Chou Kou Tien, near Pekin, where the finds were made, were of early Pleistocene
date. Another human lower molar was found in 1927, and shortly afterwards,
Professor Davidson Black, after careful examination of all the teeth, courageously
created a new genus, giving it the name Sinanthropus pekinensis. Although he was
able clearly to show that the teeth where quite different from any previously dis-
covered, his action did not meet with much support. But in 1928 fragments of
two jaws came to light, and their anatomy completely justified his action.

The greatest discovery of all at Chou Kou Tien was made in 1929 when the
brain-case of Sinanthropus, almost complete and uncrushed, was excavated It was
embedded in a very hard travertine, that is, hardened cave-earth. Many months
of careful chipping were necessary before the skull was finally removed from this
material and could be properly studied. As this progressed it became increasingly
apparent that Sinanthropus was akin to Pithecanthropus. But the brain-case showed
a curious mixture of features, for as well as suggesting Pithecanthropus, there were
also surprising resemblances to the Piltdown skull. Sinanthropus had the same
massive brow-ridges as were distinctive of Pithecanthropus, but the expansion of
ihe frontal area and the posterior region of the cranium presented likenesses to
Eoanthropus. Moreover, the jaws found in 1928 were also suggestive of the Dawn
Man. These facts led to the important conclusion that here at last was a real and
unexpected link, not the missing-link, so-called, but one connecting the early men
of Java and England, and at the same time giving us some idea of what the common
ancestor of all three genera was like.








Another brain-case was found in this wonderful cave in 1930, and, as it
belonged to an adult, while the first was that of a boy of about sixteen, it afforded
exceedingly valuable comparative material.
In the case of Pithecanthropus no trace was ever found of stone tools
in the same deposits, and, despite Dr. Andersson's find of a piece of quartz which led
to the search for Sinanthropits, it was at first thought that there was a similar lack
of cultural remains at Chou Kou Tien. Detailed search in these cave deposits,
however, revealed many quartz and bone tools, and the fact that Pekin Man knew
the use of fire.
Africa had its share in producing ancient types of men. I need only mention
the famous Rhodesian skull, discovered during mining operations at Broken
Hill, in 1921. But unfortunately, no proper observations were made at the time of
the discovery, in fact, the skull was only just saved from going into the furnace with
the rest of the mineralized bones of animals found in the same deposit. For
this reason, therefore, we do not know with any exactitude the date of this
very well-preserved skull. In appearance it is most primitive and is more akin to
the Neanderthal branch of the human family than any other. It is with the Neander-
thaloid peoples that tools of the Mousterian and Levalloisian cultures are found
associated. In Europe very many more or less complete skeletons of this genus have
been discovered in caves. In spite of their very primitive appearance, these people
certainly practised some form of religion, for in several instances, individuals have
been found buried with offerings of food and stone tools for use in the next
world.
One of the most recent discoveries of Neanderthaloid remains was made in
193 1 at Athlit in Palestine, in a cave on the edge of the Mount Carmel range. Al-
together, the remains of about nine people were found, two of which were almost
complete. They were buried in a more or less crouched position with the legs drawn
up and with them were offerings of food. In fact, one of them was fondly clasping
part of a boar's head. A very interesting feature of these Palestine people was that
instead of the usual lack of a chin which hitherto had been a recognized mark of
Neanderthaloids, these peoples had very decided chins. Also, while all previous
Mousterian people had been low-brows, these had well-developed foreheads. The
cave-earth in which these skeletons were buried had hardened to such an extent
since their inhumation that they could only be even partly revealed by chipping with
hammers and chisels, and they had to be sent Home still largely embedded in blocks
detached from the cave floor with crowbars.
Skeletal remains of the people who followed the Neanderthals are of a totally
different type. These people, the Aurignacians, and all those who followed them,
were very much the same as all living races of to-day, belonging to the Homo sapiens
branch. They had well-shaped heads with good, high foreheads and no heavy brow-
ridges or prognathism.
Having sketched, I am afraid, very briefly, some of the most important
discoveries of fossil men, I will now attempt to give an outline of the cultures and
industries and their position in the Pleistocene period. This is not an easy task
because of the variety and number of Stone Age cultures. Moreover, the whole









problem of dating the culture stages is intimately connected with geology, and,
whereas in Europe one has more or less convenient glacial and interglacial periods
separating the various Stone Age cultures, in other parts of the world matters are
not so simple.
In Europe there were four glaciations of varying intensity, when the ice.sheets
of the North invaded many parts which to-day enjoy a mild climate. These lasted
for many thousands of years, each one being succeeded by an interglacial during
which the ice-sheets retreated. This slow see-sawing of the climate naturally had its'
effect upon flora and fauna, so that to-day it is possible by means of their fossils to
say whether they flourished during cold, or temperate or warm periods. Naturally;
too, the climate also affected early man; at times the excessive cold forcing him to
seek shelter in caves or even driving him right out of the country.
Table of Geological and Cultural Phases in Western Europe.

Glacials Core Tool
and and Flake Cultures
Interglacials Hand Axe Cultures


Gunz-Mindel

II Mindel


Mindel-Riss


III Riss



Riss-Wurm



IV Wurm I


Eoliths
and
Pebble Tools

Pre-Chellean


Pre-Chellean
Chellean


Acheulean I IV


Acheulean V VI


Cromerian

Clactonian I


Clactonian II


Clactonian III
Levalloisian I II


Acheulean VII Levallois III IV
(Micoquian)
Micoque-Levallois
Old Mousterian

Levallois V VI
Mousterian


I


Gunz


-









Glacials Core Tool
and and Flake Cultures
Intetglacials Hand Axe Cultures

Levalloisian VII
Final Mousterian
Leqp..cold. phase Lower Aurignacian
Middle Aurignacian
Upper Aurignacian

Solutrian
IVa Wurm II Lower Magdalenian

Upper Magdalenian
Post-Wurm Azilian
Tardenoisian

Very conveniently for geologists and prehistorians, the first cold period
coincided with the beginning of the Pleistocene in Europe. Man had long been in
existence; in fact, several distinct cultures are known belonging to the pre-
viqus period, the Late Pliocene. But from the point of view of relating the
European sequence with that of Africa, it is more convenient to start with the Chel-
lean, which belongs to the warm period which followed the first cold phase.
I should perhaps explain that each Stone Age culture has received the name of
the place where it was first recognized, and which is then known as the type
station. Thus the name Chellean is derived from the type station, Chelles-sur-
Marne, in the north of France.
The Chellean is a culture of fairly large implements known as hand axes. The
usual forms are roughly pear-shaped and were produced by chipping a block
of flint with another stone. The edges of these tools are rough and present a wavy
outline. At Abbeville, a very fine Chellean station, the tools are found in the
gravels of the first interglacial period on the-.top terrace of the Somme. These,
gravels were laid by the waters derived from the melting of the ice after the
first glaciation, the Gunz. The climate was warm and probably rather wet.
England and Ireland were joined to the Continent; the Thames and the Rhine met
and flowed together northwards into a reduced North Sea; the Seine and the
Somme d wn the English Channel, and the Severn joined some nameless river
draining the basin of the Irish Sea. In these days Man hunted the elephant, hippo-
potamus and rhinoceros. Chellean tools are not so plentiful in Europe as those of
the following period, the Acheulean. They do, however, occur in widely separated
places such as India and most parts of Africa. The forms are quite typical
and there is every reason for supposing that the Chellean people formed a
homogeneous group. In Europe this culture lasted until the oncoming of the second
glaciation which was the severest of any.









SWith the amelioration of the climate as the second interglacial came oi
Man and animals returned, so we find in the water-laid gravels of the second terrace
of the Somme many beautifully-made hand axes of the Acheulean culture which was
the development of the Chellean. These tools are much more finely made, the
edges are straight and the clipping is smaller and neater.
The Mindel-Riss interglacial was a very long affair and before it came to an
end the Acheulean had developed through several successive stages, the hand axe
still remaining the dominant tool. But instead of always being made from blocks
or cores of flint, chipped all over, many of the later hand axes were made of large,
thick flakes struck off some larger block.
SI recent years it has become apparent that, as well as the hand axe or core-
tool culture of the Chelleo-Acheulean, there also existed a distinct flake culture
called Clactonian from its type station of Clacton-on-Sea. The earliest Clactonian
is about:the same age as the Chellean, both in Europe and elsewhere. With the
arrival of the Acheulean, when the weather improved, the Clactonian returned and
the two cultures flourished side by side. The Acheulean went on improving while
the Clactonian seems to have changed very little, though it appears to have given
rise indirectly and much later to the Mousterian.
In the third glacial, the Riss, another important flake culture appears, the
Levalloisian. It brought with it a new and interesting technique for the detach-
ment of flakes. The method of producing these was to take a lump of flint or core
and knock off small flakes all round one side to produce a flattish surface. Then
a place was chosen at one end of the flat area to serve as a platform to receive the
blow which was to detach the prepared surface. This striking platform was then
flaked as well so as to produce a slight eminence at right angles to the flaked sur-
face. It was then given a sharp blow with another stone which removed the flaked
part of the core or the larger portion of it. The striking platforms or butts, pre-
pared in this way are called facetted and the cores are known as tortoise cores
from their shape, The Levallois flake was then put to various uses, for skinning
animals, cutting up meat and scraping the skins for clothing.
The Levalloisian and the Acheulean now continue to exist side by side and to
develop.
The Riss glaciation in France and doubtless also in other parts of Europe was
responsible for the laying down of two very different geological deposits. The first
part, the period of maximum cold, deposited thick sheets of soliflucted gravels, that
is, half-frozen sludge whose constituents were often much scratched and contorted
by pressure as they flowed sluggishly down the hillsides and valleys. The second
part, which was dry but still cold, was a period of high winds blowing off the ice-
sheets. These winds were laden with fine dust, the result of grinding up of rocks
and stones by the ice. This dust settled everywhere but particularly in valleys. It
is known as loess, and to-day is being deposited in parts of North China.
The animals of the Riss include the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros and the
reindeer, but we know nothing certain of the men of those days.
After the Riss came the third interglacial, the Riss-Wurm, which was warmer
than to-day. The Acheulean had reached the stage known as Micoquian, from the
type station at La Micoque. The hand axes of this period are small, often made on
flakes and generally sharply pointed.









Lower Palaeolithic times now close as the Wurm glaciation comes on, bringing
back the mammoth, woolly rhinoceros and the reindeer. During this glaciation there
were several climatic oscillations. Wurm I, as the first part is called, was very
cold, and was followed by a warmer period and then by Wurm II, again cold and
probably wetter. The Levalloisian had reached its final stage by Wurm I, but a
new culture appears, somewhat similar to the Levalloisian, but almost certainly
containing elements from its tar-off ancestor, the Clactonian. This is the Mousterian.
At last we find skeletons of the makers as well as the tools, for, as you will remem-
ber, the Mousterian is the culture of the Neanderthals. There seems little doubt
also, that the Levalloisian people were racially connected with the Neanderthals
and were living in Europe at the same time as the early Mousterians. Further, there
appears to have been borrowing by the Mousterians of certain features of the Late
Levalloisian culture such as the facetted butt and tortoise core technique. In fact,
it is not always easy to distinguish between Late Levalloisian and Early Mousterian
and, until recently, facetted butts were thought to be characteristic of the Vouster-
ian. The true Mousterian with no Levallois influence has no facetted platforms
however, and many of the tools are made on small angular pieces of flint or flakes
struck off more or less haphazard from a core. As Dr. Leakey has pointed out,
several of the Neanderthaloid skulls which used to be regarded as Mousterian, may
really have belonged to Late Levalloisian people.
Another contact which the Levalloisians made was with the final Acheulean.
Both these cultures borrowed from each other, so that at some stations in Europe
and elsewhere you find small handaxes in the Levalloisian, and in the final Acheul-
ean evidences of Levalloisian technique, notably in the character of the retouch or
secondary chipping on some tools. I want you to remember this culture contact
because I shall refer to it again when we come to Uganda.
Middle Palaeolithic days came to an end and the Upper Palaeolithic began
when, in the less cold phase dividing Wurm I and Wurm II, there appeared a new
culture called the Aurignacian. This was essentially a blade industry, many of the
tools being long thin flakes with one sharp knife edge and the opposite side blunted
by chipping so as to produce a comfortable finger-rest. There is not space here to
go into the origins of the Aurignacian, but Dr. Leakey thinks that it was the deri-
vative of the Acheulean which had borrowed the Levalloisian technique of retouch-
ing the edges of flakes. However that may be, the Aurignacian people, definitely
belong to the same type as ourselves and all modern peoples, that is, Homosapiens.
Very soon after their arrival in Europe the Neanderthals vanish.
For the first time in the history of Stone Age man, Art begins to play a large
part in his daily life. The walls of the caves and rock-shelters which these people
inhabited were decorated with engravings and paintings of animals and sometimes
of men, while many small objects of bone and ivory were engraved with beautiful
designs. By the end of the Aurignacian period Art had reached a very high
standard.
In Wurm II there appears, rather suddenly, another new culture-the Solutrian
The most characteristic implements arc known as laurel leaves from their shape.
These were most beautifully made by pressure flaking, This was done by a sort of








squeezing action of the fabricating stone or bone against the edge of the tool, in-
stead of striking the edge. It resulted in much more even and controlled flaking, so
that the whole surface of the blade was covered with fine flakes resembling ripple-
marks in sand.
Wherever the Solutrians came into contact with the Aurignacians they seem
to have dominated them. Where they did not meet, the Aurignacian culture con-
tinued to develop into the stage known as the Magdalenian. The tools were now
quite small and much use was made of bone and ivory. Needles, awls, points and
harpoons were employed. Art had reached its Golden Age and many very beautiful
polychrome paintings of this period are preserved in the caves of France and the
North of Spain. The Solutrians also were artists. In a number of their cave-homes
they left sculptured friezes depicting animals of the chase. These people appear to
have vanished as suddenly as they came and the Magdalenians, who had been
quietly developing in the South of France, pushed further north.
We now came to the end of our sketch of prehistory in Europe. The period
which followed the Magdalenian artists does not concern us now, for it had little
connection with affairs in Africa. After the end of the Upper Palaeolithic there
were a series of Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures and industries which succeeded
one another or else flourished contemporaneously in parts of Europe. They lasted
down to a few thousand years ago.
II. Africa.
I said at the beginning of this paper that before one could hope to understand
anything of the Prehistory of Africa, it was essential to have a background of
European Prehistory for comparison. But it must not be thought that African
Prehistory is like a tracing of its European fellow. It is true that some of the
African cultures are strikingly similar to those found in the northern hemisphere,
particularly the early ones such as the Chellean and Acheulean, and possibly also,
the Levalloisian. But even if a culture in Africa is identical with one in Europe,
there is no reason for supposing them to be necessarily contemporaneous. It is,
however, true that for the early cultures which lasted for many thousands of years
in each area, a few thousand years difference means.very little, and one is quite
right in regarding them as more or less coterminous.
Another important fact is that whereas in Europe the successive well-marked
climatic oscillations have helped tremendously in dating the different cultures, it
is not such an easy matter in Africa. This is not because there have not been
great changes of climate in Africa or because the evidence is not well-marked; far
from it. The reason is that before we can equate the Stone Age cultures of Africa
with those of Europe, the climatic oscillations in both regions must first be exactly
correlated with one another.
A great deal of research on this question has been carried out by Mr. Wayland
in Uganda, with far-reaching conclusions. But the problem is not by any means
solved yet, for, despite the fact that he has worked out the climatic fluctuations
here in great detail, so that little doubt exists as to their number and intensity, the
problem of equating them with those of Europe is still largely unsolved. The
difficulties are very great and are largely due to the uncertainty of our knowledge
of the causes which led to the world-wide climatic changes.









From Early Pleistocene times in East Africa there has been a series ofpluvia
and interpluvial phases. These almost certainly were connected with the glacial
activity of high African mountains. That is to say, in a period of heavy rainfall
existing glaciers were fed by heavy snowfall, and so enlarged their limits, creeping
far down the mountain slopes.
It is almost equally certainthat the pluvials were themselves related to the glacial
periods of Europe; but which corresponded to which we cannot yet say for certain.
As the rainfall grew heavier in a pluvial, so the rivers and lakes rose, widening their
valleys and producing terraces and high beaches. In some places thiserosional activity
was helped by tilting movements of the earth which rejuvenated the streams by
giving them greater inclines down which to flow. This combination of increased rain-
fall and land tilting has, especially in Uganda, made things very difficult for the pre-
historian because he would like to equate his cultures with the river and lake terraces
on the assumption that these are solely due to pluvial periods, which he hopes one
day to equate with the glacial sequence in Europe. The difficulty lies in distinguish-
ing to which of various causes beaches and terraces are due. For instance, suppose
a beach were found ico feet or more above the present lake level. At least four
possible alternatives might have to be considered to account for this beach: (a) that
the lake had risen duringapluvial period, (b) that an outlet to the lake was established,
causing its level to fall, (c) that an existing outlet was blocked by lava flows, caus-
ing the water to rise until a higher outlet was reached, and, (d) that the floor of the
lake basin had subsided. None of these, except the first, obviously, need have had
any connection with a change of climate.
I have only space to deal very briefly with the Palaeolithic cultures in the rest
of Africa.
The Chellean and Acheulean are found in nearly all parts and Dr. Leakey has
as no doubt you know, discovered part of a human jaw associated with Chellean
tools. Moreover, this interesting and important mandible has been found to be
very close to Homo sapiens in character.
The Levalloisian also occurs very generally but the Mousterian has so far been
noted only in North Africa, where it is rather distinctive and goes by the name of
Aterian. For the rest, the Levalloisian appears to take its place. In fact, the
Levalloisian goes on for a very long time-right into the Upper Palaeolithic. In
various parts of Africa it borrows elements from the final Acheulean, also probably
a late survival, producing a curious hybrid industry comprising small hand axes
and more or less typical Levallois flakes. Later still, it seems to have made contact
with certain Aurignacian-like industries and becomes known as the Still-Bay.
The Clactonian is also represented, particularly in Egypt.
In South Africa the final Levalloisian at various times borrowed technical
features from Upper Palaeolithic industries, producing variations which are bewilder-
ing in their complexity. In Upper Palaeolithic times, only in the northern and
east central part of Africa do we find anything approaching, for instance, the
Aurignacian. Dr. Leakey has found this well developed in Kenya, and in North
Africa there is a widely-found culture more or less corresponding to it, called the









Capsian. These people were artists of no mean ability and drew hunting or domestic
scenes on the walls of their homes and decorated small objects just as their European
Aurignacian relations did. Although the older Capsian was probably contemporary
with the Upper Aurignacian of Western Europe, the Upper Capsian makes use of
very many small tools which, in Europe, are typically represented in Mesolithic
industries. For this reason, the Upper Capsian is most probably post-Aurignacian.
My readers are doubtless familiar with the archaeological work of our President.
During his geological investigations he has had exceptional opportunities for collect-
ing archaeological data from all over Uganda, and he has made full use of them, as
anyone who has seen his collections must have realized. The amount of material of
all phases of the Stone Age here is amply reassuring to anyone who wonders
whether or not Uganda has played her part in ancient history.
Anyone who follows the work of the Geological Survey must be familiar with
the excellent Annual Reports. These nearly always contain references to pre-
history in Uganda which afford one extremely interesting reading. For anyone
who may not have read these accounts, however, I will try to give an idea of
the climatic changes involving the rivers and lakes, as worked out by Mr. Wayland,
and with the help of his own archaeological data and what we ourselves have
recognized therefrom, indicate how the culture phases fit in. But my conclusions
are only tentative, and future work will almost certainly modify them.
Towards the beginning of Pleistocene times there took place earth movements
which produced the Victoria Basin and the Albert Rift, not as we know
them to-day, but on a much shallower scale.
About the same time the first great pluvial period began, causing the rivers
and lakes to rise, so as to produce high-level beaches and terraces. This was the
time of the people who made the pebble tools of the Kafuan culture. They far ante-
date the Chellean which appears much later. So far as we know they represent the
earliest traces of Man in Africa, and if we are lucky enough to find human remains
of this period, it is quite possible that they would turn out to be of the ancestral
type from which we are descended. There appears to have been two maxima in the
ist Pluvial, divided by a drier time when the rivers and lakes dwindled. The
climate was probably like that of to-day. By this time the Kafuan has assumed some
almost Chellean forms, and Mr. Wayland may be right in thinking that the Chellean
is derived from it
After the close of the oscillation pluvial conditions again established them-
selves. Earth movements and tilting took place about this time so affecting the
country that several of the rivers reversed their flows. This period was the time of
the Uganda pre-Chelleans, for in several parts of Uganda their characteristic proto-
hand axes are to be found in terrace gravels or lake beaches belonging to this second
half of the Ist Pluvial.
Then follows a long, comparatively dry period when the rivers diminished
considerably and the lakes were probably no more than a series of shallow
pools. During this interpluvial Man seems to have deserted large parts of Uganda.
Personally, I think is it possible that pre-Chellean Man moved away from the semi-









arid lands ot Central Africa, going north and south to follow the rain belts.
The northern emigrants eventually reached Europe where they appear as the
Chelleans; while the southward-moving group gave rise eventually to the Stel-
lenbosch, or South African Chellean. However, that is purely theory.
Towards the end of this interpluvial there were again earth movements which
caused some tilting. They also helped to lower the lake basins. Now came the
second major pluvial. Rivers, whose potential base levels had been lowered by the
earth movements just mentioned, again cut and widened their valleys, while the
lakes filled up, deeper than ever by reason of their lowered basins.
This was the Golden Age of Chellean and Acheulean Man in Central Africa. It
was very long and the rainfall must have made the land a paradise for the hunter
and even for the hunted. In Kenya and Tanganyika the famous Kamasian sedi-
ments of the Rift Valley and the Oldoway gorge belong to this period. At Oldoway
Dr. Leakey found and examined a simply wonderful series of Kamasian deposits,
containing the whole development of the Chellean and Acheulean cultures from
beginning to end, in a series of archaeological levels.
In Uganda, no less, Mr. Wayland's work in various localities, particularly in
Ankole, has revealed a very fine sequence of Chellean and Acheulean. He has also
recognized the presence of a sort of Clactonian, and, from what I have seen so far,
the Levalloisian is also present in many districts. Just as in Europe and other parts
of Africa, it lasted for a long time. You will remember that just now I particularly
drew your attention to the Levalloisian-Acheulean contact in Europe. In Uganda
too, some Levalloisians seem to have borrowed the idea of making hand axes from
the late Acheuleans, or else the latter borrowed the idea of making flakes with
facetted striking platforms from the Levalloisians. At any rate, this interesting
blend of techniques is present at a number of places in Uganda, notably in the
Eastern Province, where we hope to give it particular study shortly.
From Mr. Wayland's evidence there was an oscillation to dryer conditions
during Pluvial II, and lake and river sediments were exposed and eroded. Then
followed the second part of Pluvial II, towards the end of which occurred more tilt-
ing movements associated with volcanicity. As this pluvial finally declined, a
relatively dry period set in and man may have retreated to the higher land round
Elgon and Ruwenzori, where it is possible that the Levalloisians and late Acheu-
leans came into contact with each other and began their borrowings.
After this dry period there were two short periods of moister climate than to-
day. Neither of these seem to have been of sufficient magnitude to be called a
pluvial, yet in Kenya there is evidence that following the dry period which came
after the Kamasian, or znd Pluvial, as it is called in Uganda, there was a very
marked wet phase to which Dr. Leakey has given the name of the Gamblian Plu-
vial. The Kenya Rift lakes rose considerably, and in the beach gravels and lake
sediments Dr. Leakey discovered tools of Aurignacian type in a more or less rolled
condition. When he dug in Gamble's Cave, near Elmenteita, he found later phases
of the same culture in great quantities. He was also fortunate enough to find the
makers of these tools. I hese people proved to be of modern type, like their Capsian
relations.










In Ikenya also, the Levalloisian lasted a long while and, by the time of the
Upper Kenya Aurignacian, had developed into a stage sufficiently like the South
African Still Bay to be called the Kenya Still Bay. The tools still show signs of
facetted striking platforms, but instead of having a niggling retouch along the edges,
are finely flaked over a good deal of the surface.
Returning to Uganda, at first sight one would expect to find the same cultures
after the end of the dry period following the 2nd Pluvial. In other words, the
Aurignacian and the Still Bay. I am bound to admit, however, that so far I have
come across very little which could be considered as either. But by way of compen-
sation, a very interesting culture indeed seems to take the place of both. Here
again I must first speak of another part of Africa, this time the Congo. A culture
called the Tumbian has been known for some time from the French and Belgian
Congo. The typical tools are rather like the laurel leaves of the Solutrian, and
exhibit the same sort of flaking. There appear to be two series-an older, and a
younger which may be fairly recent. The oldest series is thought to be derived
from the final Acheulean, because some of the larger tools are very like long hand-
axes.
Now, in examining Mr. Wayland's material, I was at once struck by the appear-
ance of a number of long, well-made, oval hand-axes which looked Acheulean and
yet weren't quite. From the same site came a number of flat, broad, pointed blades,
flaked on one side, while the other side which was attached to the core before
it was struck off, was hardly retouched at all. Further hunting in the collection
brought to light several perfect Tumbian laurel-leaves. I must say that in Uganda
we seem to have all the gradations from the hand. axes of the early or proto-
Tumbian down to the small, very thin blades worked all over of the late Tumbian.
But I should like to add that at present this must remain a tentative conclusion
only, and that future work alone will settle the point.
In Uganda also, there appear to be several stages following the Palaeolithic of
Mesolithic and finally Neolithic civilizations which will receive further attention
in due course.
Not the least part of our work will be the search for cave and rock-shelter
paintings which may help to link the Capsian paintings of the North with the
'Rhodesian and South African art groups.
What we hope above all to find are the human remains of these Stone Age
pioneers of Uganda, for without such material we cannot hope to know what sort
of people they were. The finding of a single jaw-bone may not be the means of
slaying a host of Philistines, but may still serve to lay low some of the host of
problems which await solution.












Early Explorers in Ankole.
WITH A FEW NOTES ON THE ROUTES TRAVERSED. (1)
By F. LUKYN WILLIAMS.

The three journeys of historical interest outlined in these notes are those made
over a period of two years only, between 1889 and 1891, by (Sir) H. M. Stanley,
Emin Pasha and Captain F. D. (Lord) Lugard.
The ruling Mugabe in Ankole at the time was Ntare who had his royal kraal
situated in Southern Kashari. The Kingdom of Ankole at this time included Kabula
and stretched towards Kyazanga hill in Buddu, with no very well defined bound-
ary. Raids were constantly made into Buddu and Koki for the purpose of replenish-
ing stock, while the Baganda in their turn would counter-raid into Ntare's domains.
Bwera in North West Buddu would appear to have been more or less a buffer area,
whose inhabitants helped the raiders of either side. We know that during Stanley's
first visit in 1876 roving Bahima were in Bwera. An interesting account of a raid by
Baganda into Ankole in Suna's time is given in chapter XIV of Stanley's Through
the Dark Continent. Reference is also made to Mutesa invading Ankole in 1873 in
chapter XII of the same work. It was to raids such as this that Stanley refers when
he says that Suna "conquered Ankori".
In the west Igara and Buhwezhu were semi-independent, having their own
Bakama, who however sent presents to Ntare to keep him from raiding their coun-
tries. Mpororo, which had amalgamated with Ankole years before, was used by Ntare
chiefly as a useful area for raiding and replenishing stock as required. In the
north the boundary would seem to have been to the north of the Katonga on an
ill-defined line which is now in Toro. Kitagwenda, now incorporated with Kibale,
as the southern-most county of Toro on the east of Lake George, had been invaded
and conquered by Ntare, and if not considered part of Ankole was certainly tributary
to the Mugabe.
I will here only very briefly touch on the first visit of Stanley in 1876 to the high
ground to the west of Lake George, chiefly because so very little of the route, if any,
went through the present Ankole. It is not very clear from Stanley's description in
Through the Dark Continent or from either his or Lugard's maps the exact route
followed. From the fact that one of his camping places has been definitely identified
as being at the present Gombolola of Kazinga in the south of Kyaka County (Toro)
it would seem that the north west corner of the present Mitoma was entered after
crossing the Katonga river and that he followed along the Mpanga river into Kita-
gwenda, or Uzimba as he called it. After halting on the escarpment above Lake
(1) In this article the accepted spelling of geographical names has so far as possible
been retained even though sometimes not pronounced locally as spelt. Owing to there
being two orthographies in Ankole at present zh andj both represent the soft as in French.









George in the country of Unyampaka (Kitagwenda) and viewing the lake below he
was.forced to return because his Baganda escort refused to proceed. The return
route was a little further south, as a camp was made on the Rusango river which
flows north through Mitoma into the Mpanga. It is interesting to note that on this
trip when the Katonga was first crossed Stanley states "We obtained a faint view
of an enormous blue mass afar off, which we were told was the great Mountain in
the country of Gambaragara." This was none other than the first glimpse of'
Ruwenzori, which Stanley only claims to have discovered in(2) 1888-12 years later.
The blue mass can be seen from the north and west of Ankole to-day in all but the
dry seasons. Stanley was fortunate in seeing anything as he did in January, when
the mountain is usually blotted out by haze. The name Gambaragara is used to this
day by the people in Western Ankole to denote Toro and the land in the neighbour-
hood of Ruwenzori.
I.
Accounts of Stanley's second visit to Ankole can be found in several books-the
best being Stanley's own account (3).
It will be remembered that in 1887 Stanley led an expedition for the relief of
Emin Pasha who had been cut off in the Equatorial Province of the Sudan by the
revolt of the Madhi in 1883. After exceptional hardships in making its way up the
Congo and penetrating the forest this expedition got into touch with Emin Pasha
on the west of Lake Albert. After several delays Emin Pasha with the Italian
explorer Major Casati and a certain number of Sudanese soldiers and their families
left with Stanley to return to the East Coast.
Stanley's European staff at this time consisted of Surgeon Parke, Captain Nelson,
Lieut. Stairs and Messrs. Jephson and Bonny, so that the caravan consisted of about
1,500 soldiers, porters, women and children and eight Europeans. After passing
down the west side of Ruwenzori, when Stairs made the first attempted ascent,
Stanley led his expedition round the south of the mountain discovering Lake
Albert Edward (4) (now known as Lake Edward) and the Katwe Salt Lake. He then
proceeded up the plains of Busongora to the head of Lake George (5) and crossed
over into Kitagwenda and the east side of Lake George. Following down this side
of the lake (which Stanley still calls Lake Albert Edward) the expedition arrived at
Katari, said by Stanley to be in Ankole (Ankori), but undoubtedly in Kitagwenda.
Here it is that Stanley places before his officers the three possible routes to
follow in order to reach the coast successfully: (a) The route through Buganda
(Uganda), where Mwanga was still assumed to hold sway, and the prospect was
either to fight or give up their arms. (b) Southerly, through Ankole, where Ntare
(Antari) was computed to have 200,000 spears, and said to be tributary to the King
of Uganda and therefore would have Baganda to help him. Thence to the Kagera
(Alexandra Nile) and south of Lake Victoria. (c) South to Ruanda, avoiding Ankole,
and so to Lake Tanganyika, thence to Zanzibar or via Lake Nyasa to the sea. This
(2) Actually Surgeon Parke records having seen it a month before Stanley, but was not
believed by Stanley.
(3) In Darkest Africa.
(4) Called by the Banyankole Ruitanzige, "the place that kills the locusts."
(5) Called by the Banyankole Masioro, but thought by Stanley now, as in 1870, to be an
arm of Albert Edward and called by him Beatrice Gulf.










Ruanda route was the longest and an unknown quantity. As the officers were
unable to decide, Stanley tells us, which route to follow, he decided for them that
it should be the Ankole route. Messengers were quickly sent to Ntare informing
him of the expedition and seeking his friendship. News of the white man's exploits,
however, against Kabarega's troops ensured a warm welcome in Ankole to the
expedition. Katari is now in a sleeping sickness area and the march from there to
Kitete in the hills of Buhwezhu would take more than the few hours that Stanley
took if done to-day, owing to the entanglements of forest growth now existent in
this uninhabited area. When Kitete was reached on the 4th July 1889 the arrival
of the visitors was expected and arrangements were made for feeding and housing
them by the local chief pending further orders from the Mugabe. These were received
in due course from the Queen Mother of Ntare, whose name was Kibaga (6) and
who had her residence at Byanamega, a spot situated not far from the Kashongyi
turning on the Ibanda road.
In the meantime the prowess of the white man's arms in defeating several
times the bands and armies of Kabarega brought joy to the hearts of the neigh-
bouring peoples who had suffered at his hands, and a wholesome respect for these
white men. Expressions of gratitude which Stanley quotes were "Ankori is your
country in future. No subject of Antari (Ntare) will refuse the right hand of
fellowship, for you proved yourselves to be true Wanyavingi." (7) And again, "We
greet you gladly. We see to-day, for the first time, what our fathers never saw,
the real Wachwezi, (8) and the true Wanyavingi. Look on them, Oh people! they
are those who made Kabarega run." The Queen Mother's envoy met Stanley at
Kibwiga. He was Kanyabuzana, (0) who, until he died as a very old man in 1933,
of late years has been looking after Ntare's tomb at Kaigoshora.
(6) She died a year or two later and was among the last to be buried at Kabaigarire
on lake Nakivali, where the princesses were buried. Her tomb is the only one that
can be identified to-day.
(7) Wanyavingi-Banyabingyi. Nyabingyi is a cult practised in Mpororo and the neigh-
bouring countries. It is a spirit which can bring great evil, including sickness and
death, and is personified in thunder and earthquakes. Its exponent on earth is a
woman, a priestess, with her female helpers. The original Nyabingyi would appear
to have been a woman. The expression Banyabingyi would refer to the divine beings
in attendance on Nyabingyi herself.
(8) Wachwezi-Bachwezi. These are traditional and almost mythical beings about
which there are many stories in Bunyoro, Toro and Ankole. They differ in detail.
In Ankole they are considered the early kings of the nation, and would appear to
have been Bahima. They have now been apotheosized and are worshipped by the
Bahima. Wamnara and his sons are all worshipped with different rites and dances.
In Toro there is a tradition that the Bachwezi came from the west and later dis-
appeared into the crater lakes. (In Ankole they went to Lake Victoria). They were to
return again. Stanley and his friends are here considered to be Bachwezi returned.
(9) Kanyabuzana was celebrated in other ways in Ankole. When the Baganda Christian
fugitives from Mohammedan persecutions in Buganda sought refuge with Ntare he
allowed them to settle in Bukanga. One of their number, Kausi (Kahusi), became
leader, and gradually claimed the leadership of all the Banyankole in that area also.
Kanyabuzana was the chief of the Banyankole. Matters came to a head after the
British Administration had taken control of Ankole, when Kanyabuzana fought
against Kausi and killed him. He then fled to German territory with his followers
where lie stayed till after the Great War when lie was allowed to return. This fight
was termed a "rebellion" by the British, hut by the Banyankole lie was considered
a hero and still is.









It is clear from the message he brought from his mistress, and subsequent events,
that the Banyankole were as much afraid of Stanley and his followers, as a result of
reports already received, as Stanley had been of Ntare and his estimated 200,000
spears. Stanley implies that he recognizes this fear behind the Queen Mother's words:
"Masakuma will furnish you with guides to shew you the road to Karagwe. Food
will be given you at every camp so long as you are in Ankori. Goats and cattle will
be freely given to you. Travel in peace. The King's mother is ill now, but she
hopes she will be well enough to receive you when you again revisit the land. For
from to-day the land is yours, and all that is in it. Antari the King is absent on a
war, and as the King's mother is ill and confined to her bed, there is none worthy
to receive you."
The route followed from Kibwiga is the only possible one with such a large
safari, up the valley between the high ground of Kitagwenda with Ntsinda and
Kinyamugara on the one hand and that of Buhwezhu on the other. The Denny
range mentioned by Stanley is evidently Marangara which rises to an elevation of
7,000 feet.
The fertile plain of Buzimba was reached and camp was made at the village
of the same name, which is situated on the slopes of the hills bounding Buhwezhu.
A gentle climb was then made up a pass near the present Rukiri and down into the
Katara valley. The little village of Kitega is still ensconced at the end of a deep
re-entrant at the top of the pass. Here Stanley again camped. One (10) of the two
men now alive in Ankole who came in contact with Stanley's expedition lives here.
He was detailed to shew the way down the river Katara, which the moment it
debouches from Buhwezhu takes on the name of Koga. The old man told me that
he only saw one white man, who slept in a tent. There were many other people
with guns, but he and his companions were much afraid. It was at Kitega that a
deputation of Christian Baganda who had taken refuge in Ankole, met Stanley
and related the events taking place in Uganda, the persecutions of Kalema and
the subsequent fighting.
The expedition slept in the Rwamuganga forest on the Shema border, the
place being called Katara by Stanley. The Katara was then crossed and the
line of march led them down the west of the Koga river, called by Stanley Rwizi (11)
which it is in reality, though not in name. The Shema plains were full of cattle.
The River Koga was crossed after struggling for two hours through a mile of
papyrus in which 24 head of cattle were lost. Casati (12) calls this the Mpogo
swamp and says they came to a village called Mpogo on the eastern side, where
"Igomero, the King's son" had his residence. This would be Igumira, brother of
Ntare, who on the latter's death caused the Government so much trouble that he
was finally deported to Entebbe, where he died. He was brought back to Ankole
to be buried at Kaigoshora near his royal brother.

(10) Bislhaho of Kitega.
(11) The Rwizi shewnn on maps as Ruizi) receives the waters of the Koga 15 miles
west of Mbarara. Orivizi in Lunyankole means a river.
(12) Ten Years in Equatoria and the Rcturn with Enmin Pasha by Major G. Casati.









It was near the Koga that Stanley was met by presents of 4 head of cattle
from the Queen Mother, and 3 head cf cattle and a tusk of ivory from the Mugabe,
whose kraal at this time was only a day's march to the east, at Nykakoni, (18)
about 12 miles north of the present Government Station at Mbarara. Stanley
states that it was here that Ntare expressed the hope that blood-brotherhood
should be effected. This appears rather to have been an agreement to Stanley's
earlier suggestion. Both parties were suspicious of each other and were anxious
to form some bond of non-aggression.
Camp was made at Kashari. This is the same as the present Kasaka, which
is known as Kashari Kasaka. The Ruizi River was crossed at Kyampene, a few
miles west of the present Government Stock Farm.
Camp was next made at Nyamatojo (14), the Nyamatoso of Stanley, at the
entrance of a valley leading up into the Ruampara hills. Ibari, the Ivari shewn
on Stanley's map, is close by.
Kasussu (Rusussu) appears to be Kashozwa. Camp was made nearby at
Nyamabale.
The fertile valley of Namianja was reached and the stream of that name
followed. (15)
The people of Ruampara came out to fight, but the sound of the guns fired at
them quickly dispersed them. Soon afterwards a party from Ntare arrived and met
Stanley at Bitenga, within a day's march of Namianja.
The party consisted of a man called Rweshaza with 20 men, who brought
Buchunku (Uchunku) a boy of the Royal clan (Muhinda), not a son of Ntare as
Stanley states- who afterwards was a signatory of the Ankole Agreement of 1901.
He was to make blood-brotherhood with Stanley on behalf of Ntare.
The only member of this party who is alive today is an old man called Byeziga.
of Kahenda, who was a Mutabazi (16) looking after Kabumbiri, a son of Ntare, at
the time.
Muhigi was Nganzi(17) at the time. Mbaguta, the present Nganzi, was at Ntare's
court.
The ceremony of blood-brctherhood, described in a previous Journal, was
carried out at Byaruha (Varuha). The usual exchange of presents on these
occasions was made. Stanley says Buchunku gave him 2 steers. Byeziga appar-

(13) Not far from Rubaya.
(11) The actual site of the camp is called Kagasha.
(15) The War Office Map, "Mbarara" sheet (1:250,000) is certainly wrong in shewingthe
Rugaga stream where it does, whereas it really lies to the east. The Namianja
stream is that marked as Rugaga. The three saline springs mentioned by Stanley
are to-day as saline as in Stanley's day.
(16) Mutabazi is one who serves his chief at Court, usually for several months at a time.
(17) .igarnzi is the equivalent of Katikiro in Buganda, the first minister of the Mugabe.
The word is used in reference to the brightest star that is closest to a full moon.









ently saw little of the ceremony, but stood afar off because they "feared the Bazu-
ngu like lions"! He says, however, that "it was performed in the entrance of a tent."
The party returned well pleased at making blood-brotherhood and at their presents.
Ntare was pleased at the result, even though the ceremony wa- not performed in
the normal manner. Buchunku returned from Byaruha n while the expedition went
on to Mabona (Mavona), on the Nsongezi Road, within a mile of where until
recently a smoke house has been standing (18).
Following down the Nshenyi (19) valley Nsongezi was reached. It took
two days to ferry the expedition across the Alexandra Nile, or Kagera River
as we know it to-day, for a continuation of his journey through Karagwe.
II.
It will be remembered that after Stanley had taken Emin Pasha to the
Coast he left him at Bagamoyo in the hands of his German compatriots who were
intent on his enlisting under the German tlag. This he quickly did and proceeded
north-west in order to advance the claims of Germany in the undefined areas
to the west of the British Sphere. He founded the station of Bukoba to begin with,
remaining there between three and four months.
In November 1890 he sent messengers into Karagwe and Ankole inform-
ing the respective rulers that he proposed to pass through their countries. On
January Ist 1891 the messengers returned from Karagwe inviting him to come, On
January 2oth 40 men came from the King of Ankole (Ntare) with a message invit-
ing him to come and help him against his enemies. He added that cattle plague
(rinderpest) was decimating his stock,
On 22nd January a present arrived from Ntare of 2 tusks of ivory and
some Busongora (Isongoro) salt. These would be a present from a blood-
brother, as all the white men in Stanley's party were now blood-brothers of Ntare.
A dwarf girl was also sent who had been left in Ankole by Stanley's expedition i8
months before, presumably the Akka pygmy woman-servant of whom Surgeon
Parke (of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition) speaks so well.
After marching through Karagwe Emin arrived at Kabingo (Kavingo) on
the banks of the Kagera river, which he states (20) was the ferry for Mpororo, on
April 2nd 1891. (This is one of the ferries between Uganda and Tanganyika lately
closed as a precaution against sleeping sickness entering Uganda).
Emin's description of the place might have been written to-day with the excep-
tion that there are a few small trees on the Karagwe side now.

(18) i.e. the building erected by Government in which all travellers on the road have
to be fumigated as a precaution against the carrying of the tsetse fly into fly
free zones.
(19) Here again the "Mbarara" sheet shews this valley as occupied by a stream,
Orichinga. This name is only applied to the swampy area in the north, the
rest of the valley to the Kagera being known as Nshonyi.
(20) See Lif andt Work of Emin, Pasha by George Schweitzer.








"At 1 1-37 a.m. we found ourselves on a terrace, completely destitute of trees,
about 20 yards above the river Kagera, which was rolling its red flood below,
between the banks lined with reeds and papyrus".
It is the red mud from the upper reaches that makes the river often look
red after rains.
He camped on the Kagera side. On the 4th he states:
"I had to negotiate with people of Mpororo, who are absolute savages and
never before came in contact with strangers, besides being in perpetual
blood feud with the men of Karagwe".
He says these negotiations were more protracted than usual, but he was
successful in gaining their friendship at last, adding:
"You must always deal with these savages as you would with shy birds".
Emin fondly imagined that Mpororo was governed by a Queen at this time, be-
cause he heard the Bahororo refer to her wishes. It is obvious however that he
is describing the cult of Nyabingyi.
"The Queen of Mpororo (who however appears to be acknowledged by part
of her subjects only) has never been seen by anyone, not even her own
subjects. All that they ever know of her is a voice heard behind a curtain of
bark-cloth. Such theatrical practices have gained for her throughout Karagwe
and Nkole, etc, the reputation of a great sorceress, capable of bewitching
people and also of benefiting them".
He is wrong about Ankole. Nyabingyi is essentially an Mpororo cult originat-
ing in Ruzumbura. It has spread to a certain extent over Western Ankole. Again
later we read:
"I called Mpororo a 'no man's land', but must add, by way of rectifying
my statement, that the present ruler is said to be a woman named
Njavingi. Consequently I did not at all care about seeing the Queen . .
would have cost me useless presents; but I required guides and messengers".
The description he gives of the country on this side of the ferry is very similar
to-day-a broad open plain reaching to the foot of the Ruampara hills.
"I found that wood is almost as scarce over there as on this side, but there
are some trees and the people seem willing; they had not even hidden their
wives and children as I expected they would."
There are only makindu palms along the river side at the present day (21). The
plain has no cultivation on it, but game roam over it.

(21) These are now used by the few inhabitants of the plains to supplement their diet of
fish from the river and poached game. A tree is punched in its side and a small cala-
bash attached, After a period of anything up to 3 days the calabash is removed and
the sap of the tree which it contains is allowed to ferment for a further 3 days. When
it is ready for drinking it is called hbigmeni. In tlhe course of three months the tree
withers.























































Kanyabuzana taken in 1933 outside Ntare's
Tomb. He was sent to meet Stanley on his
entrance into Ankole.


Bweziga of Kahenda who was present when
Stanley made blood brotherhood.




































Namianja Valley, looking north.


Lake Kabarugi, Western Ankole.









"The country still looks far from promising, but I am told that it is better
further on, where food especially is more abundant .. We saw indications
that Mpororo is a good hunting ground. Antelopes of all kinds and gazelles are
abundant; there are also very many zebras (I saw several to-day), wild boars,
some buffaloes and elephants. There are no ostriches, giraffes or rhinoceros".
Elephant are never seen in these parts to-day, while rhinoceros always seem
to have found the Kagera too swift a river to cross from Karagwe (22).
While here Emin was told to return to the coast by the German authorities,
with whom he had not been seeing 'eye to eye'. "I am politely given my conge," he
says. He, however, decided to continue as a German expedition, even though not
under the auspices of the German Government.
"April i th 1891. Camp at Kivere just below Igorore hill" (Igorora). He calls
it the residence of Njavingi. Presumably a priestess of Nyabingi practised here.
Emin hears that his former men from the Equatorial Province are only 4 or 5 days
away at Butakka in Ankole. It is not known where this place is; possibly north of
Lake Albert.
Men were sent back from here to fetch Dr. Stuhlmann who was following in
Karagwe. Messengers (23) had been sent previously ahead to buy and procure canoes
on Lake Edward to cross the party to the west. News of these was expected in a few
days.
His picture of the country as he passed through these Ruampara hills gives a
good idea of how Mpororo suffered at this time:
"Mpororo is a country completely depopulated through the constant filibus-
tering raids of the people from Uganda, Nkole and Ruhanda (Ruanda). Every-
where there are traces of former villages and cultivation, or a scanty banana
plantation, or low huts, but no flocks, and above all a complete lack of wood;
one can scarely find a few dry sticks to boil a cup of tea"- this latter very
different from to-day.
Again,
"From what I have seen of Mpororo (we are the first Europeans to have
entered it) it appears to be of a thoroughly Alpine character, with mountains and
hills, precipices and mountain pastures; now and then in the recesses of the
mountains a small village, surrounded by bean, pea and durrah fields, and occa-
sionally a plantation of bananas clothed in beautiful green. A pasture land par
excellence but unfortunately laid waste and pillaged by its neighbours to such an
extent that it is difficult to obtain any food."

(22) Unless the theory propounded by Capt. Pitinun in the Uganda Journal (July 1934) is
the correct one.
(23) These apparently reached Kailiura, the chief in Bunyaruguru, whose place was on
the shore of Lake Edward. He had originally lived on the other side of the Kazinga
channel in Busongora, but had been persuaded to come over and be under Ntare's
protection. Kaihura later was one of the signatories of the Ankole Agreement of 1901.
Kaihura refused to let Emin have any canoes as le had had no orders from Ntare.
Emin thereupon decided to pass round the south of the lake.









"April 14th: Nere or Ningambe"-unidentified . possibly the same natf
as that of the swamp Nyeri. Emin was told he might pillage wherever he liked,
seize people and confiscate cattle and set the country in order, "so that Njavingi
might rule again." He declined with thanks, asking only for guides.

"April 15th: Ruhanga"- about 35 miles on the Mbarara-Kabale Road-said
to be the "residence of Msoke who is subject of the King of Ankole." After again
describing how the herds of Mpororo have been "stolen by rapacious neighbours"
Emin tells us of the excitement of the inhabitants at seeing his donkey, but "though
armed with spears they hastily scattered" when it made a sideways movement;
adding, "The men of Mpororo do not seem to be exactly heroes; this is probably the
reason why they are constantly robbed and plundered by their neighbours."

On April i6th Emin talks of hot springs as being at a place called Nyaka-
sanga, two or three days west of where he was. These would appear to be the
Rubabu springs in Kigezi.
On April i9th Emin had 20 sheep sent him from "King Ntare of Nkole", who
was near, and a message saying that his subjects were to help him in every way.

On 2oth April he reached Karo, after passing Kako, a village on a ridge. He
describes the area as a plateau surrounded by hills. He cannot account for the
papyrus in the swamps at this height except "by assuming that the seed has been
conveyed here by birds". He mentions that his guides insisted on taking him to
Njavingi's village Njererambi (area now called Nyarurambi). If he got there it
appears to be out of his way. "Tomorrow" he says "I shall go on to the hot
springs" (Kitagata).
After crossing the Ruamanaba swamp he camped at Njavagaruka, presumably
on one of the spurs running towards Lake Karenge, which was known as Nyabi-
hoka on the northern side-this after "a dreary march through a very hilly country,
broken by wide trough-like plains, intersected by swampy water courses." Emin
then informs us of the discovery of Lake Karenge.

"Of course I have been cheated out of a visit to the hot springs. First I was
told that one group was quite near at hand," (probably Kitagata is referred
to, though there are some at Ntagata, west of Karenge) "while the other was
situated near Rudjumbira", (Ruzumbura-at Rubabu) "where there was
absolutely no food to be had, as King Ntare had devastated the country.
But as Rudjumbira lay too far out of my route, I gave up the idea of going
there. Then I was told that if I wished to see the other group I should
have to camp on the Ruamanaba; that would have made me lose two days so
I decided to dispense with a visit to the hot springs and go on. But to make
up for this disappointment I have discovered a fairly large new lake with a
pretty island; I do not know how far it extends south. It is called Ruaki-
tenge, and belongs to the Ruhanda country, from which I have been the
first to lift the veil. On the mountain sides I again came across some white
quartz and saw good sized mica flakes glittering everywhere."








Lake Karenge which is here described has as a matter of fact, ten appreciable
sized islands covered with grass and wild growth, and is most attractive to the
eye. It is three miles long and up to a mile wide. Emin's failure to see the
extent to the south may have been due to his excessively bad eyesight. As there
are mountains on the south side it is possible the day was misty as well.
Rwakatenge swamp is to the west ot the Lake. This is a remarkable water-
parting divide. A rejuvenated stream flows from this swamp to the west, while
to the east the stream runs into Karenge and out into the Rufua-Kagera. The
latter is one of the reversed rivers of Uganda, brought about by the subsidence of
the Lake Victoria dome. (24)
III.
Captain Lugard arrived in Kampala on December i8th 1890. Then followed
six months of difficulties in adjusting the affairs of Buganda by negotiation, treaty
and fighting. In May 1891 he proceeded to Buddu to establish a station. While
there he decided to push on into Ankole.
He summarises his reasons for going to Ankole in his despatches to the
Directors of the Imperial British East Africa Company. (25) They were as follows:
(1) He was instructed by the Directors to make a treaty with Ntare an'd
bring Ankole under the Company's protection.
(2) He hoped that on the western boundaries, towards Lake Albert, he might
hear news of Selim Bey and his Sudanese, who though they had failed to join
Stanley before his departure with Emin in 1889 were thought to be loyally disposed;
and might thus provide recruits to replace his own Swahilis.
(3) The acquisition of Ankole and the building of a station was consider-',
ed extremely important to divert the trade of the surrounding country, and:
Unyoro and the southern Sudan from passing to the German Protectorate.
(4) It was considered that the first step after securing Uganda should be the
opening-up of a connexion between Lakes Victoria and Albert. The road would pro-
bably run through Ankole and so avoid the swamps of Central Unyoro arid
that hostile country itself.
(5) By occupying a line parallel to the border of the German sphere of..
influence, the import of powder and arms from the south into Uganda and Unyoro
could be checked.
(6) The Company could gain access to the salt district (i.e. Katwe) near
Albert Edward Lake, which would be a source of wealth.
(7) It was desired to ascertain if the rivers were quick-sands of papyrus
as they were further north, and impossible for transport, or whether the route afford-
ed better facilities for caravans passing from Lake to Lake.

(24) See Geology of South VWest Ankole by A.D. Combe.
(25) Blue Book, Africa No. 4 (1892).
See also Lugard's The Rise of Our East African Empire.









(8) Ankole and the district to the south of Unyoro would form a valu-
able base for operations against Unyoro in the future.
Preparations were made in Buddu for the supply of dry food for his men as it
was heard that there was a difficulty about food in Ankole. Owing to the rinderpest
of 1890-91 all cattle in Ankole and the neighboring countries and all susceptible game
had died, so the prospects of meat were scarce. It is recalled that the cattle plague
of 1888 only killed part of the cattle.
From Marongo, near Kyazanga hill in Buddu, the expedition crossed over into
Ankole (Kabula). Messengers were at once sent to Ntare announcing their approach,
"but I only met with delay and excuses that though welcome to his country
he would rather I visited him at some other time, since he was unable to receive us
now that his cattle were dead." He was really in terror of seeing a white man and
perhaps he feared the strength of the expedition.
Zekariah Kagolo, one of the Christians who had fled from Mwanga's persecu-
tions in Ankole and who knew Ntare well, was now sent to Ntare to explain to him
that Ankole was now under the protection of the Company, and that he must either
receive the Company's protection or decline it and deny its rule. Hewas to add that
the expedition was unlike Stanley's which just passed through the country. This one
was come on purpose to make a treaty with Ntare. This Zekariah is none other
than Zakaria Kizito (Kisingiri), one of the three regents of Buganda who signed the
Uganda Agreement I900.
After passing through Nsikisi (Sikisi)... an area on the borders of Nshara
and Kashari, which is much used now for cattle grazing, Captain Lugard reached
Nyabushozi (Nabusosi) where a great event took place. Bireri, the uncle of
Ntare (26), with "two trusty counsellors" was sent to make blood-brotherhood with
the European on behalf of Ntare, and to make a Treaty. His headquarter kraal (of
Ruremba) was at this time near Kakika, (3 miles north of the present station ofMba-
rara). His messengers said he would be pleased if the white man would visit him on his
return and that he was glad he was coming under British rule and not under Ger-
man. The ceremony of blood-brotherhood was carried out on 1st July, when pleasure
was expressed that the full ceremony was gone through and not as Stanley had done
it (27). On the strength of this bond Captain Lugard made a treaty with Ntare which
was carefully explained to the envoys. The main provisions of this were that Ankole
came under the protection of the Company, and in return Ntare should prevent guns
and powder from passing through his country to the Banyoro and Mahommedans in
the north (28), and that the passage of the Company's caravans should be free and no
tribute (okunogora) was to be levied on them. A copy of the treaty together wih
a Company's large flag and a suitable present were sent to Ntare. Guides were
received to conduct the party through Ankole and procure what was wanted.

(26) Called Birinzi by Captain Lugard, who wrongly says he was Ntare's son and that
Ntare himself was too fat to walk. This was not a fact, for though of immense stature
Ntare was extremely active. Hunting game was a favourite pastime.
(27) Blood-Brotherhood in Ai kole, by the present writer; Uglada Jouirial, July 1934.
(28) Ntare carried out his side of the contract well by destroying a large Arab caravan
soon after which was coming from the south with powder.









After crossing the Rusango river Nyabusekye (Nabuseche) was reached,
after which the route lay more or less along the line of the present Kanoni
Kitwe road. Romohoro lies to the south of this road, as also does a ford over the
Ruibu river, by which the expedition probably crossed. The route was taken
between the hills marked Nsassi on the War Office map, but south of Bukuto hill
and then round the north of Ibanda hill to a village situated on the border of
Mitoma and Kitagwenda (29).
Mention is made of passing to the north of Mount Kibanga (so). This is
what is now known as Isingiro Hill (sl).
The people of Kitagwenda were prepared to fight at first, but later became
friendly. Turning south the river Kyanutanga (Chanatanga) was forded and
the track of Stanley was crossed in the pass dividing the present Districts of
Toro and Ankole. The expedition stopped at Chankaranka, which to-day is
the last inhabited area before descending into the closed sleeping sickness area.
Kichwamba was reached, where the people shewed fight. Ntare had wanted
Captain Lugard to punish these people as they were hostile to him and his deputy
Kaihura (as). He, however, contented himself with having a talk with both sides and
then passed to the foot of the escarpment and camped "on the borders of the
big lacustrine plain" where he remained collecting food, "of which there are great
quantities grown in this district (and largely exchanged for salt, which in turn is
carried to Ankole (s3) and Uganda and exchanged for other commodities.)" Captain
Lugard was the first European to see and comment on the crater lakes of Bunyaru-
guru.
The channel was crossed at Kazinga (34), which had always been used as a
ferry until closed on account of sleeping sickness in 1913. Katwe(35) salt lake
was then taken possession of and Fort George was built. Kasagama the young
son of Nyika, late King of Toro, whom Captain Lugard had found in Buddu and
brought with him was shewn to the Batoro and later left in Toro.
After examining the south-western slopes of Ruwenzori, Lugard moved
up the east side into Toro and on to Kavalli's, where he recruited Selim Bey
and his Soudanese. He returned by crossing the river Mpanga and after
establishing a line of forts, joined his outward route at Ibanda. In December
he tells us, he found the insignificant streams Romohoro (3s), Nyabusekye, and
Rusango swollen torrents, the second too deep to ford.

(29) Kitagwenda at this time, though not in Ankole proper, was tributary to Ntare who
had conquered it.
(30) Named apparently from the Lunyankole word Ibanga, meaning a mountain.
(31) Incorrectly called Singiro on the War Office map, "Mbarara" sheet.
(32) The people of the hills round Kichwamba were never properly conquered by Ntare.
(33) Ankole proper, i.e. the Eastern areas of the present District.
(34) The general native name for the Kazinga channel is dweru, a name applied also
to Lake George. It is suggested by Sir Harry Johnston that the word refers to the
whiteness of the surface of the water.
(35) Katwe salt lake had changed hands several times. Ntare had taken it from the
Basongora. Later Kabarega took possession.
(36) There is no stream of this name. Presumably he is referring to the Ruibu close by.









208

Zakariah Kagolo brought news from Ntare that the King had very effectually
closed most of the routes by which powder and arms came up from the south, "in
accordance with my Treaty." Amongst the other results which Lugard succeeded
in achieving on the trip through Ankole to the west, as given by him, is that
"Ankole, a country as large as Uganda, has been annexed by treaty to the
Company's territory". (87)

(37) It must be remembered that the boundaries of neither Baganda nor Ankole were
then what they are now.

























i~j~H-~.-17


Photo reproduced by Messrs. A. H. Wardle & Co., (Uganda) Ltd. by kind permission of the 0. C. 4th K. A. R.
Group of Native Officers, 4th Kings African Rifles, taken during the visit of
H. R. H. the Duke of York in 1925.


.,L'" \..". ".* ""


.:
















O
WCo
/ i.,


O 0




K Iwe

F(r o -e)



KA.INGa


M i



.CM,
0






Rwakafengi

SRubabu
Ho" springs


V O L/"



\ i /
Lr I E G <




SLAKE GEORGE


o \ KiFee
-L AMAMMA bwi a
\o'o X. Vo;uz'mba
Z''chankaaneka u4r smWb
r (ichwamba Rukir
{ Iz^0.,P) .Ma~amb~ o, S) SINGIRO
0 Magambo S IKBANGA

IALuto o ,. "\\\%

AS o .o 1 ^ -' -/uT

ING Rua,





Kashenyi
(tom Ribango

UMU /,

Kitagata
Hot spring
a ra ;Ndeisha 7


arurmbr Karo A
j reamb) Ruha ng

"e L Lwasm aaire "%
Rwsmanaba sR. I rora
wca a Kiyas Nngam 0 re
Njavagaruka (. ore
b cAR ^" (K i v e r e)

O R Uage.T R U A
SMwirasandu
O


.^ L Nakaliro



', `


'- M / T o M A

lusheshe
Kazo
BUKOTO Kanoni
0 omohor
S -.,- ;.busekye
Itwe N\SS 3 N*o a useche)



-^ \
\ ] w*a Nyabushozi
\_/ Nabusosi)
% t N shi
yanaa honyi
SA Nsikisi *
( (sikisi)


nuga nga
Li--aoBwiz ibwera NNk SHARA

Rubaya
0KaiAoshora San a


saka
Shari) Kakika


Kyempen

inoni
Kagashaor Na a'oj '
(Nyamaloso) -
I C'
Eugamb, Kahenda.
SKashzwa na Gayaza
Nyamabale Viaruha' S ,VNAK

1 ugaIgat

J B U KA
-e Mabona -
(Mavona) /Q
I
/ Ngarama
PA RA /
Suboro o Nso'nez
a^ Ruborofoho


S-:


MAWOGOLA


J


-/ \^ K A B U L A
I






eri \
wer) c









C
"-'*"*.,g Maronfo
\ _^? "*-**40 KYAZANGA

,- asak-

.c


V

K 0 K



I '
r. '\ -







b GA

ANKLE DISTRICT
UGANDAN
Sta-ue MiLes :


s5 zy o


.1


S o 10 I


Lubale 1 I KikagaH i N
ma \C CGustorris ,/arr /'e)/ S6'ketch, Macp idUlsturcni Rouates of
O Lu alKavingo) E re ........................ ...
Vol 0 o(Kavin 0)B nr ----------------
Lug E rdi........................... -*-- --
Kayona K A R A G W E Note :- Place names given in Explolrers
y i account are shown in Brackela thus (Viaruha)
Kabezi 30 31
30"0 o" 30' 31" o'


1 1 ---i = 0 7 -1 7 0 0 i i -- wt- '-


I-


-r


-r


"' "" ~ -' '- I '"`


Ir


o'0


0%


Ot 0


-- -


.i-n'













Uganda Medals and Decorations

By E. F. TWINING, M.B.E.

Only a few years ago, on ceremonial occasions, Uganda residents used to receive
a reminder of how near they were to those stirring events which marked the early
history of the Uganda Protectorate, by the presence of a group of much be-medalled
veterans. Alas! their ranks have now become thinned, but the photograph on the
opposite page, taken in 1925 during the visit of H.R.H. the Duke of York, shows
His Royal Highness among some of the then surviving Native Officers of the 4th
Battalilion of the King's African Rifles, who between them display a magnificent
collection of medals and decorations (i). On the rare occasions on which these
medals are now seen they usually evoke considerable interest and they are
frequently wrongly identified. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief
survey of those medals and decorations, both civil and military, which have
been awarded to Africans in the service of the Uganda Protectorate.
The practice of striking medals to commemorate notable events is one of great
antiquity, but in England it was not until 1588-89 that medals were bestowed
for military services rendered, and in those years two medals were struck to
commemorate the Great Armada. At first such medals were not issued to all who took
part in the operation but to a selected few, except in twelve cases where a
general medal was issued through the generosity of private individuals or by a
Chartered Company, and even in these cases the medals were different for

(1) This group is of very great interest, as almost every medal and decoration that
could be awarded to these men is represented. The names are:-
BACK ROW-Mulazim Tani (2nd Lieut.) Abdul Ferag Effendi Bakhit.
M. T. Sakhair Effendi Ali. D.C.M.
Mulazim Awal (Lieut.) Ashe Effendi Mukasa, M.S.M.
M.A. Fadlmulla Effendi Kheiralla, D.C.M.
M.A. Mohamad Effendi Fadalla, D.C.M.
M.T. Mulah Effondi Sadalla.
Yuzbasha (Captain) Ali Effendi Owari, D.C.M.
FRONT ROW-M,T. Salim Effendi Mustapha, D.C.M., M.S.M.
Yuz. Murjan Effendi Bakl)it, D.C.M.
Bimbashi (Major) Ali Effendi Mombur, D.C.M.
H.R.H. The Duke of York.
Yuz. Suar Effendi Karar, M.S.M.
M.A. Said Effendi Jubara.
M.A. Sabun Effendi Ibrahim.
The initials M.S.M. are not an authorised addition but are used above to indicate
the recipients of the Meritorious Service Medal.
In the re-organisation of the King's African Rifles of 1931 no provision is made for
the appointment of further native officers.









each rank. Waterloo was the first military operation in British history for which a
uniform medal was issued by the Sovereign to all who took part in the cam-
paign. Since then this practice has been continued in the case of all campaigns or
operations of importance down to the present day and Uganda has received her
share. In addition to war medals, other medals and decorations have been given to
civilians and members of the fighting forces, both for long and meritorious service
and for special individual service. For convenience, the medals and decorations which
have been awarded to Africans of the Protectorate may be divided into two classes:-
(i) War Medals issued to all who participated in, and in certain cases to
those who were in the theatre of, the operations which they com-
memorate, regardless of individual bravery, conduct or distinction.
(2) Other Medals andDecorations, civil and military, the award of which is
individual and made for gallantry or special merit, or for long service
and good conduct, or to commemorate some special occasion for which
no war medal has been issued.
WAR MEDALS.
Before dealing in detail with local examples, a few observations regarding war
medals in general may not be out of place. Since Waterloo nearly sixty different
war medals have been issued. It is often asked what conditions are necessary
for the granting of a medal for any particular campaign. All awards are now made
by the King on the advice of the Army Council (in the case of land forces) and in
the case of colonies or protectorates upon the recommendation of the Secretary of
State for the Colonies. There are no hard and fast rules governing the award of
medals for a campaign, but consideration is given to such factors as the importance
of the results achieved, the number of troops employed and the proportion ofcasual-
ties to the number of troops in action. There are several amusing stories regarding
the desire to obtain the coveted African General Service Medal. In certain quarters
it was commonly believed that if the force employed were commanded by
a Field Officer the medal would be awarded, and on one occasion, when a company
was ordered to undertake a minor expedition and the Officer Command-
ing was made a local major, spirits ran high; but in spite of the successful
conclusion of the expedition and the fact that the force suffered several casualties
among the native ranks, the participants were doomed to disappointment. Shortly
afterwards our local forces took part in another small expedition and this time it
was thought that if there was a casualty among the British personnel the
medal would be issued, but no amount of gallantry could attract the necessary
wound. But those responsible for the award of medals would seem to work in a way
which is puzzling to the uninitiated, for a year or two ago a medal was
suddenly granted for a small campaign in South Africa which had been fought more
than thirty years previously. So even yet our gallant local troops may be able to
wear the coveted medal on their pride-puffed chests !
While the medal itself then is awarded for general service a clasp is given for
particular and individual service and the possession of clasps naturally greatly
.enchances the value of a medal. Frequently, presumably for the sake of economy,
the same die is used for more than one medal; for example the reverseofthe King's









South African Medal is the same as that of the Queen's South African Medal and
the obverse of the King's South African Medal is the same as that which was
originally cast for the Ashanti 1900 Medal. Among our local medals will be found
several similar instances. Another peculiarity is the issue of the same medal with
a different ribbon, which constitutes a separate award; for instance the Ashantee
Medal of 1874 was later re-issued with a different ribbon as the West African
Medal, making it permissible for recipients to be awarded the same medal twice.
We also find the converse of this-the issue of two different medals with the same
ribbon, thus debarring any individual from receiving more than one of them. We
have local examples of each of these, but only the latter need be mentioned here.
The African General Service Medal was first issued during King Edward's reign
and bears an effigy of that sovereign. On his death, the ribbon and the reverse of
this medal were retained and the effigy of King George substituted for that of King
Edward on the obverse. The recipients of the King Edward Medal are not eligible
to receive the King George Medal but add to the earlier any clasps which- they
earn subsequently. Should the ribbon ever be changed the King George Medal
would, according to precedent, then become an entirely separate decoration. Lastly
there is the peculiarity of the same medal being issued in two different metals.
The earliest occasion of such an award was in the Burma 1885-1887 canipaign when
the second Indian General Service Medal was issued in silver to the troops andin
bronze to "all authorised followers", While this was accepted as a precedent in
India and was followed in all subsequent issues, I have been unable to trace
any such differentiation in Africa until the Somaliland Operations 1908-1o,
when the African General Service Medal in bronze was issued to porters and
carriers.

Although it is hardly possible that it can ever have been awarded to any troops
in Uganda, the forerunner of all Uganda medals was the Ashantee Medal awarded
by Queen Victoria in 1874 to "all of Her Majesty's forces who were employ-
ed on the Gold Coast during Her operations against the King of Ashantee" (2).
Eighteen years later, there being no medal suitable for award to those tak-
ing part in the numerous campaigns in East and West Africa, this medal-but
with a different ribbon-was re-issued as a "general service medal" for operations
on the East and West Coasts and in Central Africa, and it continued to be so
awarded until 900o (3). It was officially described as the West African Medal,
-which title was a misnomer as it was also granted for operations in Nyasaland and
in East Africa (4).

(2) Army Order 43, dated 1st June 1874.
(3) But not in East and Central Africa after the introduction of the East and Central
Africa 1891-99 Medal, except to personnel of the Royal Navy.
(4) The Operations for which this medal was awarded to personnel other than the
Royal Navy in East and Central Africa were covered by the date clasps "1887-8",
"1891-92" and "1892", and by the clasps "Juba River 1893" and "Lake Nyassa'1893".
The medal was only issued to forces of the Crown and not to the Chartered Com-
pany's troops. But in fact awards for these operations were almost entirely confined
to the Royal Navy, although some Zanzibari troops seem to have received the medal.









the medal is silver and on the observe is the head of the Queen (wearing a dia-
dam with a veil behind) with the legend "Victoria Regina"; the designer was L.C.
Lyon. On the reverse is a picture by Sir E.J. Poynter of British soldiers fighting
savages in thick bush. In the case of the Ashantee Medal the ribbon was yellow with
black borders, while that ot the West African Medal was half yellow and half black.
It is thirty-nine years since a military operation in Uganda was first commemo-
rdted: with a medal and, as there have been no medals or clasps conferred since the
close of the Great War, the period covered by the seven medals which are about to
be-described is one of only twenty-three years. When one considers that the first
four medals bear more than twelve clasps for operations in Uganda one realises how
stirring were the times that the country experienced before the era of peace which
we are now enjoying.
The medals properly connected with Uganda may best be described in chro-
nological order.
1. East and Central Africa Medal 1891-98
This medal was issued in 1895 by Queen Victoria and, as frequently happened,
retrospective awards were made. The medal was awarded for operations in East and
Central Africa from 1891 to 1898. There were two clasps, "Central Africa
1-894-96" and "Central Africa t899," no issues of the medal being made after 1898;
the latter clasp was issued only to those already in possession of the medal. This
medal is exactly the same as the Ashantee and West African Medals described
above. It was constituted a separate decoration by having a different ribbon, the
colours being terra-cotta, white and black. These colours are derived from the
arms that had a short time before been granted to the British Central Africa
Protectorate (s). Sir Harry Johnston was instrumental in obtaining these arms,
which are blazoned on page 129 of his book, British Central Africa. Johnston
writes, "This coat of arms was designed by me with the assistance and advice of
Sir Albert Woods. It may be described as a shield sable with a pile or and over all
a fimbriated cross argent bearing an inescutcheon gules on which is emblazoned the
royal arms in or....In plain language the shield is intended to illustrate our
three colours, black, yellow and white with a touch of the English red. Into the
sable mass of Africa I have driven a pile (wedge) of Indian yellow. Over all is the
white cross, representing in its best significations the all-embracing white
man. The inescutcheon of English red shows the arms of the protecting power" (6).
It may reasonably be surmised that the colours of the ribbon were intended to
display the same symbolism as the British Central Africa Protectorate arms. Why
then has terra-cotta been substituted for yellow? In the absence of any explana-
tion it may perhaps be assumed that, having an heraldic origin, the laws of
heraldry were followed. To have placed or (represented by yellow) upon argent

(5) Now Nyasaland.
(6) Johnston brought his yellow, white and black idea to Uganda. His made his per-
sonal staff appear in canary waistcoats, the black and white being represented by
black coats and white starched shirts. Instead of red tape official documents
were bound with yellow, black and white tape and Johnston wrote his despatches
on stationery edged with the same colours.









(white) would have been an abomination; the two metals must not touch and there-
fore terra-cotta was introduced as a suitable substitute for yellow. These colours
have been familiarised to all in Uganda owing to their having been adopted in 1927
as the colours of the well known local sporting body, the "Uganda Kobs" (7).
The origin of the issue of this medal in Uganda is well authenticated. On
2oth March 1894 Colonel Colvile, the Acting Commissioner (8), writes to Mr.
Cracknell at Zanzibar for transmission to the Foreign Office (9):-
. .. In my opinion the loyalty of the Sudanese troops in Uganda
would be greatly strengthened by the issue of a medal for the Unyoro Expedi-
tion, 1893-94. This is the first occasion on which these troops have served under
the British flag (io) . .. The issue of a medal to the Waganda Chiefs
would also undoubtedly have a good effect in the country . .. Should
my proposition be approved of, I would suggest that the Abyssinian medal
would be a suitable one for this and other East and Central African campaigns
in the same manner as the Ashantee medal has been utilized for operations on
the West Coast of Africa."
With a gesture of confidence that his proposal will be accepted he submits a
nominal roll. Colvile's recommendations however did not at first meet with any en-
couragement from the War Office. On the i ith August, 1894 the War Office inform-
ed the Foreign Office that hitherto no medal had been given for such operations, a
war medal being regarded as a distinctly military reward given only under certain
special circumstances to Her Majesty's troops. What was now proposed would be
issued to commemorate the services of irregulars who, in what they had done, had
not been subjected to the military authorities of the War Office, although it was
admitted that they had to a certain extent been under the command of military of-
ficers. The Secretary of State for War did not consider that a.war medal should be
issued in such a case and suggested that any political advantages it was hoped would
be derived from such an issue of medals might be equally obtained by some other
means such -as a payment of gratuities. In July 1894 Colvile had written again from
Port Alice (n) recommending that the medal should also be issued to participants in

(7) Why the "Kobs" adopted these colours is obscure. Being a purely European club
the symbolism is not appropriate. The medal has no specially prominent connec-
tion with Uganda as had the East and Central Africa 1899 Medal. The Club's
former colours were black, beige and old rose and possibly the change was dibta-
ted by sartorial considerations. There was however a legend extant long before
the "Kobs" came into being of a cricket team visiting Bombo and raiding the
Quarter Master's Store in search of suitable colours. They are said to have taken
the field with their hats festooned with the ribbon of the E. and C.A. Medal.
(8) This would be soon after his return from the Unyoro Campaign.
(9) Blue Book, Africa No. 7 (1895), page 64.
(10) These Sudanese troops had hitherto been in the service of the Imperial BritishEast
Africa Company and would not then have been eligible for medals issued by the
Crown.
(11) Ibid, page 110.









Captain .Gibb.'s Mruli expedition which operated from April i6th to June 7th, 1894.
Early in-1895 he arrived home himself and possibly was instrumental in persuading
the War Office to overcome these departmental objections, for the proposal, with some
modifications, was accepted. On April 7th, 1895 the War Office informed the Fo-
reign Office that the Deputy Master of the Royal Mint had been requested to dis-
patch 700 medals for distribution to the forces employed under Col. Colvile (12) in
East Africa who were entitled to receive them under Army Order 66 of 1895. Only
such officers as had official permission to be present at these operations were to be
awarded this medal.
On 24th April, 1895 a Foreign Office despatch to Mr. Jackson (Acting Com-
missioner of Uganda) states:-
"The Queen has been graciously pleased to approve of a medal being grant-
ed to the forces employed in the Unyoro and Mruli expeditions 1893-94. Seven
.hundred medals have been received from the Royal Mint for distribution under
your direction accordingly. Col. Colvile has suggested that the names of the
Waganda Chiefs should be engraved on their medals (18) before they are pre-
sented to them and these medals together with those for the European officers
Sand interpreters, making a total of35,areconsequentlyretainedin this office."
Later, on 29th April 1895 the War Office advised the Foreign Office that no,
officers' or men employed under the naval authorities were to be awarded this
medal. Actually none were so employed, but the reason for this injunction is that the
Royal Navy were at this date being awarded the West African Medal for
operations on the East Coast.
'" These medals reached Uganda some six months later, for Vandeleur, in his
Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger, relates that on Friday, i1 th October
1895, when troops were being concentrated in Kampala for the first Nandi Expedi-
tion, a parade of Sudanese was held at which Mr. Berkeley, who had recently
assumed the Commissionership, presented the medals for the first Unyoro
campaign of 1893. Also Trevor Ternan, in Some Experiences of an Old Bromsgro-
vian, states that in January 1896 he toured the posts ofHoima, Kitwana and Kibiro
distributing the medals for Col. Colvile's campaign.
Other operations against Kabarega had meanwhile been carried out under the
command of Major Cunningham, On March 2nd, 1895 an attack on Kabarega from
Kajumbera Island was repulsed and Captain During was mortally wounded. The
campaign was resumed from Mruli on 22nd April, 1895 and was brought to
a successful conclusion in about two or three weeks. Mr. Jackson, in a despatch
to the Foreign Office, dated July ist 1895, concludes, "I venture to hope that your
Lordship will be good enough to have Major Cunningham's report inserted in the
"London Gazette" (14) and that the medal and clasp which has been issued for the
service in the field in the Central Africa Protectorate may also be granted to officers
who were serving in this Unyoro Campaign."

S(12) This can only refer to the Unyoro Expedition from, say, December 1893 to February
1894 and to the Mruli Expedition.
(13) Actually one name and the title of each chief was so engraved. No clasps were
issued in Uganda, and the medal is suspended by a ring. When clasps are issued it
is always suspended by a bar.
































































Photo by Spink & Son,
2. Above. Reverse and obverse of East and Central Africa 1891-98 medal.
Below. Reverse and obverse of East and Central Africa 1899 medal.






































Photo by Spink & Son
African General Service Medal
Left. King George (obverse).
Right. King Edward (obverse).


Fhoto by Messrs. A. H. Wardle & Co., (Uganda) Ltd.
The Uganda Mutiny Star.









II. East and Central Africa Medal 1899
What may be called the second series of military operations in Uganda
provided an event of sufficient importance to call for more special recognition. The
event was the Uganda Mutiny, the history of which is probably familiar to most cf
the readers of the Uganda Journal.
Any real danger from the mutineers having been overcome by the capture of
the stockade at Kabagumbe, Major Macdonald, who was in military command of
the Protectorate, wrote to the Foreign Office on 15th March, 1898, suggesting the
issue of a special war medal. There were good grounds for his advocacy of a
special award, for the campaign had been no small "local show" but had developed
into a grim threat to the maintenance of British power in the Upper Nile Basin, and
the remarkable steadfastness of the Baganda as well as of the loyal Govern-
ment troops called for some special recognition. Moreover a further issue of the
Central African (Unyoro) medal was inappropriate, since it was, so far as Uganda
was concerned, regarded as a claspless medal and thus participants in the Mutiny
operations to whom the Unyoro medal had been issued would receive no
further award. Macdonald proposed a minimum of two clasps, "Uganda 1897-98"
and "Lubwas", and these were eventually issued; his two further proposals
"Lubwas Hill, i9th October, 1897"and "Kabagambe, 24thFebruary, 1898" were not
acted upon.

The proposals on this occasion seem to have been accepted without demur,
even My Lords of the Treasury concurring, with the familiar proviso that the
cost should fall on Protectorate funds. The War Office recommendation was that
the medal, wi h clasp "Lubwas", should be granted to all Government troops
and allies who took part in the operations against the Sudanese mutineers
from 23rd September, 1897 to 24th February, 1898; and the medal, with clasp
"Uganda 1897-98" to all Government troops and allies who took part in operations
in Uganda, other than those against the Sudanese mutineers from 2oth July,
1897 to 19th March, 1898 inclusive, or who reached Uganda within those
dates. The latter clasp would thus cover operations against Mwanga in Buddu in
July 1898 and the movements against Mwanga and Kabarega subsequent to
the former's return to Uganda in December 1898. At a later date it was proposed
that the Mutiny medal roll should be extended to terminate with the date of
the death of the mutineer leader, Bilal Amin, 5th December, 1898.
All the formalities regarding the approval of this special medal had been com-
pleted before the end of the year, for on 27th December, 1898 the Foreign Office was
able to inform Mr. Berkeley that the Queen had been graciously pleased to approve
a medal with two clasps "Uganda 1897-98" and '"Lubwas" and the medal was be-
ing designed and would be sent to Uganda as soon as ready.

(14) It was at that time assumed that unless despatches appeared in the London
Gazette the coveted "Mention in Despatches" was not recorded by the War Office,
but it was later laid down that a departmental recommendation by the Foreign
Office to the War Office would be equally recognised.-









This medal, although officially called the East and Central Africa Medal, 1899,
is usually known as the Uganda Medal and is frequently referred to locally as the
Mutiny Medal. Officers and men of the local forces and of the Indian Army were
eligible for the award. It is still to be seen worn by many Baganda as well as by old
Sudanese soldiers on ceremonial occasions. Two additional clasps were given,
"Uganda 1899" and "Uganda 190o"; these include all military operations to the close
of Queen Victoria's reign. Actually it was never given for operations outside the
boundaries of Uganda, which of course at that time included a large part of what is
now Kenya Colony.
The medal is silver and of a fine design by the most noted British medallist
of last century, G. W. de Saulles of the Royal Mint. The obverse shows a half
length figure of Queen Victoria and the reverse Britannia, with a lion, gazing over
a desert towards the rising sun. The ribbon is half red and half yellow.
Ill. & IV. The King Edward and the King George Africa General Service Medals.
As has been explained already, these two medals although having different
obverse sides, constitute one decoration and since no person can be awarded both
it is convenient to treat them together.
At the time of Queen Victoria's death several medals were being awarded for
the numerous operations which were constantly undertaken in different parts of
Africa. According to long established custom the effigy of the reigning sovereign
must appear on all medals awarded during his reign. In 1902 the necessity for a
new medal bearing King Edward's effigy arose. Opportunity was taken to replace
the several medals formerly awardable in Africa by the issue of a single African
General Service Medal.
This medal was in silver, the obverse bearing the head and bust of King
Edward in the uniform of a Field Marshal, by De Saulles. This was the same as
the obverse of the Ashantee Medal 1900, which had been issued in i90o shortly
after the king's accession. For the reverse side the same die as the reverse of the
Uganda Medal was used. The colour of the ribbon is yellow with black edges and
two narrow green stripes. After King Edward's death King George's effigy
replaced that of King Edward on the obverse, but the reverse and the ribbon
remained unchanged.
This medal commemorates an almost incessant warfare of a minor but exacting
nature. In the first eighteen months no fewer than eleven clasps were awarded and
to date the total is forty-seven. Some of the earlier clasps were for operations
which had taken place during the closing years of Queen Victoria's reign but since
they were awarded by King Edward they were given with his medal. There is
some difficulty in giving a full list of clasps which have been awarded to
Uganda natives, as battalions 'other than the 4th (Uganda) Battalion K.A.R.
have recruited in Uganda. But the following list contains all clasps awarded
for operations in Uganda and those which are borne on the medals in the
fine collection in the Officers' Mess of the 4th K.A.R. at Bombo, all of which I be-
lieve were won by Uganda soldiers--"Ogaden 1898", "Uganda 1900", "Lango























THE EAST AND
CENTRAL AFRICA
MEDAL










THE AFRICAN GENERAL
SERVICE MEDAL


THE K.AR.
L.5. & G.C. MEDAL


THE UGANDA MEDAL


THE K.A.R. D.C.M.


THE AFRICAN
POLICE MEDAL









190i", "Lango 1902", "Jidballi", "Somaliland 1902-04", "East Africa 1905",
"East Africa 1905-06", "East Africa 1906", "Somaliland 1908-10", "East Africa
1913-14", "Giriama 1914", "Nyasaland 1915", "East Africa 1918", "Somaliland
1920". None of these 1914-1918 clasps were for operations which were officially
regarded as being connected with the Great War, though it is generally
understood that the issue of the medal with clasps "East Africa 1913-14",
and "Giriama 1914" had the objective of stimulating recruiting for the war.
Since the Somaliland operations of 1908-91 o the medal in bronze has from time.
to time been issued to authorised carriers and followers.
The medal has been awarded to the personnel of the Royal Navy, the Royal Air
Force, the Regular Army, the Indian Army, and to local forces in East and West
Africa, both military and police. So far as Uganda is concerned, the award has been
confined entirely to officers and men of the Uganda Rifles, the K. A. R. and the
Police (15). It is one of three which can still be issued for military operations, the
others being the Indian General Service Medal and the General Service Medal
which is awarded for operations outside India or Africa.
V. 1914-15 Star
As the Great War progressed a feeling grew that those troops who had
borne the heat and burden of the day whilst the rest of the nation was being mobil-
ised and trained should receive some special recognition, and it was decided to
issue a star to those who had served in France in 1914. (16) Later it was decided
that those who had been in a theatre of war in 1914 or 1915 should also receive it
and the official title was changed to 1914-1915 Star. The star is bronze and
the ribbon red, white and blue. In so far as Uganda was concerned, it was awarded
to those who were doing whole time service in an authorised unit or appointment in
the East African theatre of war between 2oth August, 1914 and 3 st December, 1915.
This East African theatre of war was defined as British East Africa, German East
Africa, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland and Uganda. The star carries with it the
British War and Victory Medals and was not awarded for operations undertaken
against native tribes or rebels.
The issue of this star during the war created a precedent, as it was the first oc-
casion on which a medal was issued prior to the conclusion of the campaign or war
it was to commemorate.
VI. British War Medal
This medal was issued in 1919 to all those who rendered approved service,
either in a theatre of war or who left their places of residence to render such ser-
vice overseas between 5th August, 1914 and I th November, 1918. The medal was
issued in silver except to native carriers, who received it in bronze. The ribbon was
orange in the centre, watered, with stripes of white and black on each side and with
borders of royal blue. Owing to the enormous number of engagements on the various
fronts during the war it was found impracticable to give any clasps.

(15) A detachment of Uganda Police took part in the Turkana operations towards the end
of the Great War and were awarded the King George Medal with clasp "East Africa
1918".
(16)Commonly called the "Mons Star" and carries a bar on the ribbon to differentiate
it from the 1914-15 Star.









VIl. The Victory Medal
It was the common practice previously for allies to exchange commemorative
medals at the end of a war. Owing to the large number of allies in the Great War
(there were at least twelve with fighting forces in Europe) it was obviously undesir-
able that there should be a general exchange of medals and it was therefore decided
that each country should issue a medal of identical design to its own troops.
Actually the designs have not been identical, although the main features have been
followed.
The medal is bronze and was issued to those who were serving in some
approved capacity in a defined theatre of war between various dates. In East
Africa the theatre of war was British, German and Portuguese East Africa, Nyasa-
land and Northern Rhodesia and the dates were midnight 19/20 August, 1914 and
midnight 25/26, November 1918. The ribbon is red in the centre with green and
violet on each side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows. The medal carries
with it the British War Medal.

DECORATIONS.
The most highly prized decoration which can be won by the British fighting
forces is the Victoria Cross. There is a popular belief that Africans are not eligible
for this decoration and the Royal Warrant was so read until in 1916 H.M. the King
personally expanded the interpretation to include Africans. This new ruling was not
widely known until after the War, which perhaps accounts for the absence of any
awards to the local forces. The Royal Warrant clearly defines that the Victoria
Cross was instituted to reward "the merit of conspicuous bravery" by "some signal
act of valour or devotion to th-ir country" performed "in the presence of the
enemy", and it is now established that every grade and rank of all ranks of His
Majesty's Forces, British and Colonial, are eligible. It is well known that the V.C.
is one of the most sparingly given decorations in the world. From the date of its
institution, 1856, up to 1914 only some 520 awards were made although during this
period there were three major military campaigns-the Crimean War, the Indian
Mutiny and the South African War, apart from innumerable small wars and minor
operations. During the Great War about 570 were awarded, which represented
about one in ten thousand of those who received war medals.
By far the most interesting decoration that has been awarded to natives
in Uganda is the "Mutiny Star". Few Europeans now in Uganda are aware of its
existence, much less of its history and among natives its significance has been lost
save to the remaining recipients or their immediate relatives. It is not surprising
that the decoration is literally unknown to numismatists. The suggestion that a small
silver star, to be worn like a medal, should be given to native chiefs emanated
from Major Macdonald in May 1898 and was complementary to his proposal for
a special war medal. It was to be awarded to those chiefs who had
especially distinguished themselves during the military operations kn wn as
the Uganda Mutiny, not by actually taking part in the fighting but by render-
ing valuable service in assisting to check the Mutiny The Commissioner,
Mr. E.J.L. Berkeley, supported the suggestion on the grounds that the









Uganda Chiefs had behaved throughout a critical time with so much courage
and loyalty. Two lists were forwarded to the Foreign Office, one drawn up. by.
Macdonald and a supplementary one by Mr. George Wilson, who had been
acting Commissioner during the most critical months of the Mutiny. Macdonald's
list included the names of 13 Baganda and two Basoga chiefs and 8 Sudanese
officers, while that of Wilson contained the names of Mbogo, uncle of the King of
Uganda, Kasagama, the King of Toro and Namswaga, the ruler of Koki, to-
gether with 9 Baganda and 3 Banyoro chiefs. The principle that the Star should
be given for services other than in the actual fighting does not appear to have
been strictly followed, for all but two of the Baganda on Macdonald's list were also
"mentioned" in Macdonald's despaches on the military operations and thus
qualified for the Mutiny Medal, while two of the Sudanese were specially recom-
mended for conduct during specific fights and one (Ferag Effendi) for saving the
lives of Captain Molony and Mr. Malek at Jinja in October 1897. In February 1899
Her Majesty the Queen sanctioned the proposal and the Stars were made by
Messrs. Carrington and despatched to Uganda in time to be presented to the officers
on parade and the chiefs in baraza on the Queen's birthday (17). Unfortunately the
names of six other Sudanese (one of whom was Yuz. Rehan Rashid, Capt. Sitwell's
native officer in Toro) were somehow not included in the despatch that went home
and it is not clear whether the error was ever rectified (18).
The Star is of silver, eight-pointed, and in the form of a brooch. On the
obverse is Queen Victoria's head (wearing a veil and diadem) surrounded by a
scroll with the dates 1897 above and 1898 below the Queen's head. The name of
the recipient is engraved on the back.
The full list of recipients is:-
Macdonald's List.
Apolo, Katikiro Kyramia (Msoga,
Mugwanya, Katikiro Lubwa, (Msoga)
Kakunguru Jumba Gahunga (Roman Catholic).
Zakariah, Kangao Mujasi (Protestant)
The Pokino (Alekisi Sebowa) Mujasi (Roman Catholic)
The Sekibobo Joshua Mugema
The Kago (Yakobo Musajalumbwa) Kisibika
Andrea Mukubira

(17) Ofiicially celebrated in June. This probably only refers to the Sudanese officers and
Baganda chiefs. Omw. Kosiya Labwoni, son of Rujumba, son of Ruyonga (Samuel
Baker's Rionga), informed me that his father also was given a scarlet tunic of the
King's Liverpool Regiment at the same time as the Star was presented. At that
time Rujumba was the Bunyoro Chief, Mugema, and was in charge of the Nile about.
Foweira opposite the mouth of the Toshi River, It is said that the Bunyoro stars
were distributed by Mr. George Wilson, "Bwana Tayari", in 1900 when as sub-
commissioner lie undertook the re-organisation of Bunyoro.
(18) Since going to press I have ascertained that Rehan Rashid was awarded the star
but that the other five were not.









Sudanese Native Officers
Hussan Effendi Surur Effendi
Mahommed Ratib Effendi Idrus Effendi
Juma Effendi Ali Momboa Effendi
Abdalla Effendi Ferag Effendi
Wilson's List.
Mbogo, uncle of King of Uganda
Kasagama, King of Toro
Kamuswaga, Ruler of Koki
Uganda Chiefs
Paulo Mukwenda Mesisala Mukabya
Luwekula Gideon Mtanda
Alenni Bugala Ishmael Mlemna
Edward Mlinda Mzigo Henry Wright Duta
Teofiro Musalosalo
Unyoro Chiefs
Abaswezi Kiza
Rejumba
The highest decoration for bravery yet awarded to Africans in Uganda is the
King's African Rifles Distinguished Conduct Medal (19). In 1894 a Colonial D.C.M.
was instituted for "individual acts of distinguished conduct in the field." It was laid
down that the obverse should be the same as the Imperial D.C.M.. namely a military
trophy with the Royal Arms in the centre. The reverse too is similar to the Imperial
Medal, being inscribed "For distinguished conduct in the field" but with the addition
of the name of the territory or the inter-territorial military formation to which the
recipient belongs above the inscription. In the case of Uganda it is "The King's African
Rifles". The ribbon is red with two blue stripes and one green. The recipient is
entitled to the initials D.C.M. after his name. The medal has been very sparingly
given and has come to be regarded locally with the same veneration as is the V.C.
by British troops. One was awarded to a sergeant of the Uganda Police.
In 1916 a new decoration, known as the Military Medal, was instituted for
"Bravery in the Field". This medal is awardable to British and native personnel be-
low commissioned rank. This silver medal bears the effigy of the Sovereign on the
observe and on the reverse, "For Bravery in the Field" encircled by a wreath sur-
mounted by the Royal Cypher and a Crown. The ribbon is blue with three white and
two red stripes set alternately. Recipients are entitled to the initials M.M. after their
names.
A very much older medal, but junior in order of precedence to the M.M. is the Me-
ritorious Service Medal. This decoration was instituted in 1845 for Non-Commissioned
Officers and Warrant Officers of or above the rank of Sergeant for long, efficient

(19) Though precedence should perhaps be given to the Imperial D.C.M. which inat least
one exceptional case (M.A.Fadlmulla Effendi Kheiralla) has been awarded locally.
This unusual award was doubtless intended to be a higher decoration than the K.A.R.,
D.C.M., and at the time it was not generally known that Africans were eligible for
the V,C.






221


and meritorious service and need not include, although in many cases it did, any
special display of personal gallantry in action. Originally the medal was only given to
those who were granted the Meritorious Service Annuity for which a sum of2,00ooo
was set aside annually, and all candidates had to be in the Regular Army. Various
changes have been made from time to time in the conditions of award and in 1916
the award was extended to all ranks of the Military Forces of the Crown below the
rank of Sergeant for valuable and meritorious service and the receipt of the
annuity was not made contingent on the award of the medal. A bar to the medal
for additional acis of gallantry was also introduced. In 1931 a new Royal Warrant
governing the decoration was issued. A fixed sum of 7,500 is voted every year
for Meritorious Service Annuities of not more than o1 in any one case. Those
receiving the annuity also receive the medal. The annuity and the medal may only be
awarded to Warrant or Non-Commissioned Officers of or above the rank of Sergeant
with 21 years service, of exemplary character and who have been awarded the Long
Service and Good Conduct Medal. Since it is stipulated however, that all recipients
must be serving in the Regular Army, members of colonial units are now precluded
from receiving this decoration. All those won by local soldiers were awarded during
the period from 1916 to 1931 when the conditions of award extended to all Military
Forces of the Crown. Very few have been awarded in Uganda; in the group of
native officers are three recipients. Its award has been regarded as a rare distinction.
The obverse of the medal bears the effigy of the Sovereign and the reverse "For
Meritorious Service" within a laurel weath surmounted by an Imperial Crown
The ribbon is crimson with three narrow white stripes.
The Imperial Long Service and Good Conduct Medal was instituted in 1833,
but African personnel are not eligible for it, there being a King's African Rifles
Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. The qualifications for recommendation are
"Long service and irreproachable character and conduct for not less than sixteen
years" (20). The obverse bears the effigy of the King in military uniform and the
reverse he inscription "For Long Service and Good Conduct". The ribbon is crimson
with a green stripe. Since 1914 one hundred and thirty seven have been
issued to native personnel of the 4th K.A.R., which is an unusually high percentage
for one battalion, and is all the more creditable because since the war the 4th
K A.R. has never had the establishment of a full battalion. It is a strikingindication
that our local soldiery are not only men of high character but make their service a
life-long profession.
In 1915 an African Police Medal for Meritorious Service was instituted. The
decoration is awarded to N.C.O's and men (other than of European descent) of the
Police Forces of East and West Africa who shall specially distinguish themselves
on any occasion or who may have rendered long and meritorious service. Except in
cases of conspicuous zeal and gallantry the medal may be granted only after fifteen
years' service marked byexceptional ability and merit. The medal is silver, the
obverse bearing the King's effigy and the reverse a Tudor Crown surmounted by a
lion in the centre encircled by palm branches, with the circumscription "For Meri-
torious Service in Police, Africa". The ribbon is yellow with two red stripes. Fifty
have been awarded in Uganda, several for conspicuous gallantry but the majority
for meritorious service.
(20) Reduced from eighteen years in 1933.







222


There are two decorations which have been awarded within the last twelve
months to Uganda natives for the first time. The Imperial Service Medal and the
Medal of the Order of the British Empire. The former, which was bestowed upon
a member of the Uganda Police, is awarded to members of Civil Services in the
-United Kingdom, India and the Colonies in other than administrative and clerical
capacities for services warranting recognition but which do not qualify for any other
existing decoration. The colour of the ribbon is crimson with ablue centre. The latter
'is awarded for gallantry or for meritorious service. The ribbon is purple and
in the case of the Military Division of the Order has a narrow vertical red centre
stripe. It was recently bestowed upon a native of Uganda serving as a Sergeant in
the Supply and Transport Section of the K. A. R. for meritorious service (in the
Military Division of the Order) and upon an Acholi for gallantry (in the Civil Divi-
sion). Both medals are adjuncts of the parent orders but do not confer either the
rank or the privileges of the orders upon the recipients.

Uganda sent small parties of civil and military native representatives to attend
King Edward's coronation and the leader of the civil representatives, Apolo Kagwa,
Katikiro of Buganda, and three military representatives received the King Edward
VII Coronation Medal. No native representatives attended King George's coronation.

The valuable and loyal services rendered by native chiefs during the Great
War led to consideration being given to the bestowal of a special decoration for
African chiefs. The King's Medal for Native Chiefs in East and West Africa was
.instituted by Royal Warrant, dated 24th June 1920. The medal is silver and in
exceptional cases silver gilt and is suspended from the neck by a silver or silver
gilt chain. The obverse bears an effigy of the sovereign and the reverse a merchant
vessel plying under the protection of the ship of war outside a harbour, illuminated
by a tropical sun. Although in the initial awards consideration was given to war
service, the medal has been bestowed for outstanding zeal in administrative work,
loyalty, and devotion to duty. Awards have been made each year since the medal
was instituted and to date ten have been given in silver gilt and fifty-one in silver.
Recipients of the medal in silver may subsequently be granted the medal in silver
*gilt, in which case the silver medal is surrendered.

At about the same time it was considered desirable to institute another form of
recognition of loyal and valuable service rendered by native chiefs and other per-
..sons in prominent and responsible positions but not of European descent. This took
the form of a Certificate of Honour (instituted in 1923), with which the recipient is
given a bronze badge bearing on ihe obverse an effigy of the Sovereign and on the
.reverse the badge of the African Colony or Protectorate concerned. The badge is
suspended from the neck by a yellow watered ribbon. An initial issue of fifty was
made to Africans in Uganda for valuable services rendered during the War. No
further issues were made until 1929 when a Gombolola Chief in Buganda received
the Certificate and Badge for his gallant action in saving the life a European official
who was savagely attacked. This year awards were made to fourteen Africans for
services of a civil nature. The above two decorations have been sparingly given
and are much prized by those who have been so honoured.









Although not properly belonging to the subject of medals and decorations, Orders
are so frequently associated with them that something must be said regarding those
which have already been conferred. Natives of Uganda are British Protected Sub-
jects and, technically, as they do not possess the full status of British subjects they
are not entitled to receive British Orders, except in an honorary capacity, save for
one special Order-the Imperial Service Order. The Imperial Service Order was
founded in 1902 and is restricted to administrative and clerical branches of the Civil
Service. It consists of the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales and companions (not ex-
clusively male) to a number not exceeding 700oo, of whom 250 may belong to the
Home Service, 200 to the Indian Service and 250 to the services of the Dominions,
Colonies and Protectorates. None have yet been bestowed however upon Africans
in Uganda.
The first African recipient of a British Order in Uganda was Apolo Kagwa, the
celebrated Katikiro of Btiganda, who received a K.C.M.G. (20) on the occasion of
King Edward's coronation. H.H. the Kabaka of Buganda in 1918 received the
C. M. G. and in 1925 was promoted to K. C. M. G., receiving the insignia from the
hands of H.R.H. the Duke of York, on behalf of H.M. the King, during his visit
to the Protectorate. At the close of the Great War, Omulangira Joseph Musanje
Walugembe, who had served as a lieutenant in the African Native Medical Corps,
received the M.B.E. (21). The Honorary M.B.E., was also awanded in 1915 to Sir
Apolo Kagwa, Katikiro of Buganda, Edward Kahaya, Mugabe of Ankole, Anderea
Duhaga, Mukama of Bunyoro, and Daudi Kasagama, Mukama of Toro, and Nuwa
Baguta, Katikiro of Ankole. On the recent occasion of the signing of the Bunyoro
Agreement 1933 Tito Winyi II, the Mukama of Bunyoro, was made a C.B.E.
There is in Uganda one local Order-the Order of the Shield and Spears. The
first suggestion that the Kabaka of Buganda should have his own Order of Merit
appears to have been made by Colonel Colvile in December 1893. Colvile was of the
opinion that some such decoration would be appreciated and that it would strengthen
the ties of loyalty of the Baganda chiefs. He went so far as to write to His Britannic
Majesty's Diplomatic Agent at Zanzibar, for transmission to the Foreign Office,
regarding the matter and submitted sketches of the proposed insignia. He suggested
that the Order should have three classes, the first limited to twenty and
the second and third to 150. His sketch of the design of the proposed star for
the second and third classes is shown overleaf and it will be seen that there are

(20) The "most distinguished" Order of St. Michael and St. George ranks seventh among
British Orders. Originally founded in 1818 to commemorate the British Protectorate
of the Ionian Islands, it was reconstituted in 1863 (after the repudiation of the British
Protectorate over these islands) and expanded in 1877. It has always been regarded
as essentially an Order for services to the Crown overseas. Membership in all classes
is limited by Letters Patent.
(21) The need for a further decoration for services rendered to the Empire had long been
felt, but it was not until the Great War that "The Most Excellent Order of the
British Empire" was founded. There are two divisions, civil and military, and it
may be conferred upon women. Although at first it was generously awarded, since
the close of the Great War awards have been restricted to a maximum number each
year. It ranks ninth among British Orders, there beingseven junior to it.


























three spears. The design was stated to be based on the flag of Kabaka Mutesa. No
suggestion was made as to the colour of the ribbon. The proposal, however, did not
find favour with the home authorities and nothing more is heard of a local Order
until 1926. The 1926 proposal had no connection with Colvile's and was made by
H. H. the Kabaka himself. It was not until 1931, however, that the Order was of-
ficially instituted. This Order is bestowed for meritoriousand distinguished services
and loyalty rendered by native subjects of H. H. the Kabaka of Buganda to his
person and his country in their official or private capacities. The Order is divided
into two classes, the members of Class I being styled "The Officers of the Shield and
Spears"; they may not exceed forty in number. Those awarded the Second Class
Order are styled "The Members of the Shield and Spears" and may not exceed 330
in number. The insignia of Officers of the Order consist of a cross and star. The
cross is of silver gilt and consists of an eight-pointed cross of Malta enamelled white
edge gold in front of a wreath of laurel enamelled proper tied with a blue riband;
in the centre of the cross a gold shield with a silver boss edged with red enamel
surmounting two spears in saltire with head and butts gold; below the shield a lion
couchant gold. The whole suspended through a ring attached to a miniature shield
and spears in saltire and worn pendant from the neck by a ribbon of a width of two
inches and of a length of not less than two feet six inches consisting of three stripes
of equal width, yellow, blue and yellow, there being also a narrow stripe of blue
on each of the yellow portions. The star is of silver of eight points with, in the
centre, a gold shield with a silver boss edged with red enamel surmounting two
spears in saltire with heads and butts gold and below the shield a lion couchant
gold. The Star is worn on the right breast. The insignia of Members of the Order
is the Star alone.
Appointments to the Order are made by H. H. the Kabaka with the advice of
his Ministers. The Order has a Chancellor and a Secretary. Officers and Members
are granted special precedence in Buganda. This Order is one of the few existing

































































Photo by Messrs. A. H. Wardle & Co. (Uganda) Ltd.,

The Star of the Order of the Shield and Spears.




































































Photo by Messrs. A. H. Wardle & Co. (Uganda) Ltd.

The Cross of the Order of the Shield and Spears.









African Orders. Apart from those in Abyssinia, Egypt and Liberia (the three in-
dependent African states) there is only the Order of the Brilliant Star of Zanzibar.
It must also be one of the most exclusive in the world, for apart from H. H. the
Kabaka (the Sovereign of the Order) the only recipient has been Omw. Stanislas
Mugwania.
During the Great War H. H. the Kabaka was made an Officer of the Order
of the Crown of Belgium and seventeen natives of the Protectorate were awarded
the bronze medal of the Belgian Order of the Lion for services rendered in the
Congo Carrier Section of the East African Transport Corps. One of the latter re-
cipients was the Saza Chief, Kiimba.
On one occasion only, apparently, has the Order of the Brilliant Star of Zanzi-
bar been received by a native of Uganda, when it was bestowed upon Prince Nuhum-
bogo as a mark of the Sultan's appreciation of his services in inducing the princi-
pal Muhammadan chiefs to remain loyal during the Mutiny. The insignia was
presented to him at Kampala by Mr. Berkeley in November 1898.
Many of the old Sudanese soldiers recruited by Lugard had formerly been
in the service of the Khedive and some had received Egyptian medals. At a later
"date it was not uncommon for members of the Nilotic tribes of the Protecto-
rate to serve in the military focres of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and some
have received Sudan medals and decorations, but space forbids more than this pass-
ing reference. It should also be mentioned that several natives of the Protectorate
have been recipients of various Papal Orders.
Finally it must be stated in what order of precedence medals and decorations
here described should be worn in accordance with official regulations. I have
omitted Orders, as they have special regulations.
Victoria Cross (which takes precedence even over Orders)
Distinguished Conduct Medal
Military Medal
Medal of the Order of the British Empire (for gallantry)
War Medals (in the order of date)
King Edward's Coronation Medal
Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Meritorious Service Medal
Imperial Service Medal
Medal of the Order of the British Empire (for meritorious service)
Foreign Orders, decorations and medals (in order of date).
The Mutiny Star, which does not appear in official lists, is worn above the
medals on the left breast and the native officer on the right hand side of H. R. H.
the Duke of York in the group may be seen so wearing one.
(The writer is much indebted to Mr. H. B. Thomas, O.B.E.,
and Mr. A. W. Place for their advice and assistance).












The Riddle of Biggo.

By J. M. GRAY.


Mr. Wayland's notes (1) on the subject of the ancient earthworks in Mawogola
tempt me to put in writing a few notes, which I myself have made from time to time
on the same subject. I cannot claim to have examined the earthworks in the same
detailed and exhaustive manner as Messrs. Wayland and Combe have done and I lay
no claim to any special qualifications to write on the subject. If, however, any con-
tribution of mine can evoke criticism from some person more competent than my-
self, I feel that I may possibly be rendering some service to Uganda archaeology.
The Object of The Forts.
The plans of the three trench systems at Kagago, Biggo and Kasonko (2) suggest
that they all formed part of one defensive scheme. Kagago and Kasonko were evid-
ently designed for all-round defence. From this it may perhaps be inferred that they
were intended as strong points on the two flanks of the line of defence.
I venture to think that these fortifications have no connection with the remains
at Ntusi. They are all on the south bank of the Katonga. No attempt was made at
Biggo to entrench along the river bank. It seems reasonable to infer from this fact
that the defenders did not expect to be attacked from the opposite bank of the river.
Furthermore, both in ancient and modern warfare it has always been an axiom of
military strategy that a river crossing should be defended from the far bank. I
therefore venture to think that the constructors of Biggo and its two flanking strong
points designed those fortifications for the purpose of defending the country on the
north bank of the Katonga from invasion.
The fact that at Kagago and Kasonko there are trenches facing the Katonga
does not necessarily upset this theory. It is also an axiom ot military strategy in
both ancient and modern warfare that the flanks should be designed for all-round
defence. If therefore these two fortifications were intended as flanking strong points
the existence of trenches facing the river bank is satisfactorily explained. A glance
at the plan of Kasonko shows an additional reason for a river bank trench at this
spot. The fortifications have been made at the confluence of the Nabakazi and the
Katonga. The Nabakazi separates the modern counties of Buwekula and Gomba.
At the actual point of junction of the two rivers Gomba projects like an arrow head,
well behind the Kasonko trench system. If Buwekula was held by one tribe and
Gomba was in' the hands of a hostile tribe, it was obviously necessary to construct
a trench along the river bank.

(1) Ugania Journal : Vol. II, No. 1, p. 21.
(2) Ibid: (facing) pp. 21,23 and 24 respectively.









As Mr., Combe has said, the fortifications were in all probability barely'com-
pleted. That at Kasonko is the most perfect. It may in fact hate actually been cbm-
pleted. At the present time the only imperfect trench is that along the-river- bank.
As that trench lies near the bottom of a steep slope down to the river, it may well be
that in course of years it has been filled up by earth washed down from the higher
ground. Kasonko was obviously a weak spot in the general schemee of defence and
the defenders in all probability took special steps to strengthen this point.
Kagago is the least perfect of the fortifications. It was apparently the intention
of its constructors to make at this spot an elliptical trench along the same lines as
the strong points at Biggo and Kasonko. Possibly they intended to add an outer
trench at a later date, but they made very little headway, with their first
task. I write subject to correction, but a cursory examination of the site at Kagago
suggested to me that the defenders were digging theie in more difficult
ground than at Biggo and Kasonko.
The plan of Biggo suggests to -me that the original defences were twice
enlarged. The original scheme appears to me to have been confined to the elliptical
trench system, which contained the two mounds. In passing, mention should be
made of the very striking resemblance, which this inner fortification bears to those
at Inyanga and Dhlo-Dhlo in Rhodesia. At the same time it must be remembered
that the Rhodesian remains are of masonry, whereas those at Biggo are
earthworks. It must also be borne in mind that the perimeter of each of the
two Rhodesian remains is barely one thousand feet, whereas the elliptical strong-
hold at Biggo has a perimeter of about nine thousand feet.,
The first enlargement of Biggo appears to have been the excavation of
trenches A and B on Mr. Combe's plan. The second enlargement was made by
throwing out another trench to the east from trench B so as to take.in the higher
ground lying immediately outside trench B. The small trench, of which traces can
still be seen on Kinoni hill, was probably constructed at about the same time so
as to protect the area of land at the junction of the Katonga and Kakinga rivers.
When I speak of two enlargements, I must not be understood to mean that
these enlargements were necessarily afterthoughts. It may well be that the defenders
deemed it advisable in the first instance to concentrate their energies on making the
elliptical stronghold and to wait to extend their operations until after this work had
been thoroughly completed. In this connection it is not out of place to mention that
the actual extent of the trenches comprised in (a) the elliptical stronghold and trench
C, (b) trenches A and B, and (c) the outer trench, respectively, is in each case more
or less the same. If therefore approximately the same number of men were
employed on each of these systems, the time taken in completing the work would
in each case have been approximately the same.
One can think of a number of reasons for the defenders wishing to construct
San advance line of defence. Amongst other things' trench A protects a. small water-
course which runs from east to west into the Kakinga. The head of this watercourse
is just outside the central stronghold. Trench B in a similar manner protects a
watercourse, which runs from south to north into the Katonga;









The present state of the remains does not suggest to me there was ever any
very extensive settlement within these outer lines of defence. What I believe to be
more probable is that this area was used by the defenders as a grazing ground and
thab theoutertrenches were intended as a protection against a surprise by cattle
raiders. As many an administrative officer in Africa and elsewhere has learnt to his
eoatsin the case of pastoral peoples a river is not always a good tribal boundary. At
various seasons of the year the herdsmen find it necessary to take their flocks from
one bank to the other so as to obtain better herbage. I am disposed to think that
certain of the gaps in the outer trenches at Biggo may have been left designedly
for the purpose of allowing egress and ingress to cattle in times of relative peace. In
times of danger these gaps could be barricaded.
I am inclined to doubt the statement made in the Uganda Gazette of the 15th
May, 1909, to the effect that the work "must have involved the employment of some
thousands of labourers over a considerable period." I venture to think that my doubts
will be shared by those, who some years ago had to excavate Flanders mud or
Picardy chalk with the same object as that of the defenders of Biggo. If an ordinary
battalion of infantry with no special aptitude for the work had been set the task of
making as extensive a trench system as that of Biggo, I think the job would have
been completed within a very few weeks. If one makes allowance for different cli-
matic conditions, for the fact that possibly the labour was corvde and therefore per-
haps not very energetic, and that the tools employed were probably made of a soft
local iron, an estimate of from two to three months for the completion of Biggo by
a thousand men would appear to be an exceedingly liberal estimate.
Whoever designed Biggo must have realized that his trenches would be use-
less without the requisite garrison to man them. The outer trench system covers
closeon three miles and would have required over a thousand men to defend it from
an attack all along the line. A garrison of over a thousand men pre-supposes a
labour supply of at least the same number as the garrison itself.
If, however, a garrison of over a thousand men with their inevitable accompani-
ment of camp followers and other non-combatants had occupied Biggo for any length
of time, one would have expected to have seen or heard of more relics of human
occupation. One thing which struck me, at the time of my own very cursory
examination of the site, was the apparent absence of midden heaps such as those
which have yielded so much valuable information to the archaeologist in Rhodesia
and elsewhere. I gather that Mr. Combe did not find any very extensive traces of
such heaps. It may be that rank tropical vegetation is hiding a number of them and
that a photograph taken from the air would disclose some of them, but, in so far as
our present information goes, the traces of human occupation appear to be very
small indeed.
It is, however, more than probable that the designer of Biggo did not con-
template a permanent garrison ready to man the whole of the outer lines at a mo-
ment's notice. Analogies from other countries may not always be safe, but one is
tempted to look at certain earthworks in the British Isles and to examine such
evidence as there is as to the mode in which they were defended. The successive
lines of earthworks in East Anglia, of which the Devil's Dyke on Newmarket Heath








is perhaps the most familiar, could only have been manned in any strength by a levy
en masse of all the able-bodied males. There is no evidence that the country, in
which these particular earthworks stand, was ever thickly populated. Some of the
earthworks are tar longer than the outer trenches at Biggo. It was clearly never
contemplated that any of the East Anglian earthworks were to be fully manned
from end to end at one time. The most that ever could have been done was togar-
rison in strength any part of the line which was threatened with attack, and to leave
the rest of the line thinly manned or else not manned at all. If it is safe to draw an
analogy, I would hazard the suggestion that the idea of the designer of Biggo was
merely to patrol the outer defences and to rush a larger body of men, either from
the central stronghold or else from the far bank of the Katonga, to any threatened
part of the line, whenever occasion required.
The Mounds at Biggo
Inside the central stronghold at Biggo there is a conical mound about eight feet
high. Close to it there is an elongated heap, suggesting a barrow, of about the same
height. There is another conical mound about ten feet high just outside the
western trench of the central stronghold. There is also another conical mound
about eight feet high inside the central works at Kasonko. There is no similar
mound at Kagago, but as already said, the work there was clearly abandoned long
before it had neared completion.
The existence of the conical mounds inside the strongholds, at both Biggo and
Kasonko, suggests that they were intended as watch towers. The few extra feet,
which they stand above the general level of the ground, afford a very commanding
view of the whole of the surrounding country.
The elongated barrow at Biggo may have been intended for the same purpose
or it may be a burial place. In connection with the latter theory it is to be observed
that one of the many traditions regarding the earthworks is that their constructor,
Mugenyi, was buried there. On the other hand, it has also to be remembered that
this mode of burial is not usual amongst the African tribes who at the present time
inhabit the Lake Regions.
The ten foot mound outside the stronghold at Biggo is not easy to explain. It
may have been a lookout post, but, if it was, one wonders why it was deemed
necessary to have such a post just outside as well as inside the stronghold.
The fifteen-foot hole just outside trench B is near the head of a watercourse and
may be a waterhole, but it is more than probable that it is of a much later date than
the fortifications themselves. It may be very modem.
Traditions connected with Biggo
I give below a few traditions, which I have from time to time collected from
various sources regarding the origin of Biggo. But I must preface them by saying
that, when I have mentioned the existence of any variant of a tradition to an in-
formant, who has given me his version of another tradition, I have almost invari-
ably been informed that the alternative tradition is utterly unreliable and has been
invented for the most corrupt of motives None the less there is always the pos-
sibility that each of these traditions contains a grain or two of truth. I therefore
give them for what they are worth.








Zimbo
I hope Mr. Wayland has successfully laid the ghost of this Abyssinian prince.
If it should be necessary to drive another nail into his coffin so as to prevent him
walking; may I be allowed to state that the Zimbas travelled in precisely the oppo-
sitedirection to that mentioned in the Uganda Gazette of the 15th April, 19io, as
having been travelled by Zimbo. The Zimbas were first heard of about 1580 on
the banks of the Zambesi, where they ate a Portuguese missionary and numerous
other-people. They travelled thence to Kilwa in Tanganyika Territory, where it is
alleged that, they devoured the whole of the inhabitants. From Kilwa they went to
Mombasa, where they again showed their predilection for cannibalism. They were
finally brought to a standstill and, according to contemporary historians, virtually
annihilated outside Malindi by a combined force of Portuguese and Wa-Segeju.

I once spent a week at the British Museum vainly searching Portuguese and
French records for Prince Zimbo and therefore should be glad to think that his
ghost no longer walks. In justice, however, to the French Father, who is alleged
to have started this story, I would venture to suggest that he may have been mis-
reported by the recipients of' his information. May he not have referred to Isim-
bwa, the father of all the Bacwezi, of whom more anon?

Chwa Nabaka, Second King of Buganda

In his Basekabaka be Buganda p. 6 the late Sir Apolo Kagwa recorded the tra-
dition that Chwa Nabaka, the second king of Buganda, constructed Biggo and lived
there until his own final disappearance from human ken. It must however be re-
mrembered that Buddu was not annexed to Buganda .until about the end of the
eighteenth century.
Mukama of the Heart Clan

The Basagi sept (siga).of the Heart Clan allege that Biggo was constructed by
Chwa Nabaka!s grandfather. According to them Mukama of the Heart Clan was the
father of Kintu, who was the father of Chwa. The clan say Mukama lived at Buddu,
but was driven thence by Bemba, the snake. Mukama fled to Bivera and constructed
the forts at Biggo; Bemba followed him and drove him out of Biggo. Mukama then
took refuge in Bunyoro and Bemba returned to Buddu, where he was subsequently
attacked and killed by Kintu. (Munno, 1921, p. 63)
r
'It'must be nientioned that the Basagi base their claim to be a princely clan on
the strength of this alleged tradition and that those pretensions are not admitted by
the Balangira (princes) of Buganda. I am naturally unable to say how long this par-
ticular tradition has existed. It is conceivable that it is a comparatively modern one,
circulated for:an ulterior motive.. On the other hand, it should be observed that even
those'who dispute the pretensions of the Basagi admit that this sept came, from
:Kawanga, the district lying on the north bank of the Katonga, immediately opposite
to Biggo.









B E K U L


NKONGE I
AKABENDI
geg 4 41



T\ re/nches py
kAKouA \ \ y\0
KINON\ '

B nche



M \ A O O (^'\ 0


ALWEMIRAMA


oLweirmyagc \
a\ 1

SLUZIGATIHILL
*Q)
SITES KOF,
Ancien E.arkhworks in,,
Bigo Arer / \ Ancient
MASAKA DISTRICT \/ R/rr nhon Works
StcacteMiles a --*'ct' Nfuse,
0 I a S 4 3.MEs / \\ 4 M









Muleguza
According to another tradition a Muziba prince, name Muleguza, migrated
from Kiziba to Buddu at the time when that county still formed part of Bunyoro.
Kyebambe Namutukula, the sixth of the seventeen rulers of the present Babito
dynasty of Bunyoro, was living in Buddu at the time. He had a herdsman, named
Kayumbu, who stole the royal cattle. Muleguza was sent by Kyebambe to recover
the animals. He overtook Kayumbu at Kagago, attacked and killed him, and
brought the cattle back to Kyebambe. (Munno, 1923 p. 87). I have received several
versions of this tradition, but curiously enough not a single one of the narrators
ever mentioned the existence of entrenchments at Kagago. One would have expected
at least one person to allege that Kayumbu constructed them. This sil nce in regard
to the entrenchments seems to me to be a piece of negative evidence of some value.
It suggests to me that Kagago was constructed long before Kyebambe Namutukula
ruled in Bunyoro.
Nabulungoya
In the Uganda Gazette of the i5th May, 1909, Mr. D.L. Baines, who was then
District Commisioner at Masaka and to whom we owe the discovery of Biggo,
mentioned the tradition that a certain Munyoro prince, named Nabulungoya, had
constructed the entrenchments. I have never had this tradition related to myself, but
that does not mean that it is without historical foundation.
I have been unable to identify Nabulungoya. He may be the same person as
Kabungoza, a Munyoro prince, who lies buried at Kigemere in the gombolola of Mu-
tuba I of Buyaga. Or he may be Dubungoya, a Munyoro prince, who led an expedi-
tion against the Baganda during the reign of Kamanya(fl. c. 1814-32) (Kaga a op. cit.
p. 92).
Mugenyi
We also owe to Mr. Baines the first information that the entrenchments were
known locally as Biggo bya Mugenyi. This has been consistently translated as
meaning "the forts of the stranger," but Monseigneur Gorju (Entre le Victoria,
I'Albert, et I'Edouard, p.53) suggests that Mugenyi is a proper name and not an or-
dinary noun and that the correct translation is "the forts of Mugenyi'. Petero
Bikunya in his Ky'Abakama be Bunyoro p. 25 makes the same suggestion.
I venture to agree with this theory. The translation "forts of the stranger" is
a literal translation of the modern Luganda, but it has to be remembered that the
name is a place name and therefore in all probability a very old one. The district in
which Biggo stands was not annexed to Buganda until the time of Mwanga's rebel-
lion in 1898. Luganda has only come to be spoken of very recent years in the vici-
nity of Biggo. Even at the present time a very large percentage of the herdsmen,
who live in Mawogola, the county in which Biggo is, do not speak Luganda. If in
the past the local inhabitants had wished to call the entrenchments "the forts of
the stranger', they would not have employed the word "mugenyi", but possibly
the Lunyoro word "munya-ihanga" or possibly "musekegu". "Amabare ga base-
kegu" is the Lukoki name given to the cairns on the Koki hills, which were also
first discovered by Mr. Baines.









If the word Mugenyi is a proper name, one is tempted to hold that the Mu-
genyi in question is one of those mysterious Bacwezi, who figure so largely in the
historical traditions of Bunyoro. These Bacwezi were a light skinned race, who
invaded Bunyoro from the north and ousted the ruling dynasty. According to
legend they were a marvellous people.
"They made strange things which had not been made since first man came
to this land. They wandered without let or hindrance to places where no man
had ever been before. They did not keep to the paths, but roamed whither they
would. They even passed over lakes with ease. At night they climbed hills,
which were hard for other men to climb. They went with ease to places to which
other men thought that no man could go."
"Whenever a man had a thing, which was bent and which he could not stra-
ighten, the Bacwezi would straighten it. They could also make a barren woman
bring forth children.' Wherever they went, their footprints could be seen, even
though they had passed over rocks. If they went hunting, they did not fail to kill
the wild beasts, for hunting was their calling and they were mighty men therein.
They were also traders and wandered about in a wondrous manner. Within a few
days they could tell people the news which came from afar off." (1)
Mugenyi was one of these Bacwezi, but, apart from his name, tradition does
not associate him with the regions of Biggo and does not picture him as a
fighting man. Mwenge in Toro District is commonly assigned as the portion
of the country over which he ruled. The stories concerning the Bacwezi do not
describe Mugenyi as in any sense a warrior. They picture him as the typical
Muhima imbued with so strong an affection for his cattle that he was even ready to
kill himself, when he heard of the loss of a favourite ox. (Bikunya op. cit. pp. 28-29).
The warrior amongst the Bacwezi was Kagoro, who was the son or nephew
of Mugenyi and who ruled the district of Kawanga lying on the north bank of the
Katonga opposite to Biggo. The Bacwezi dynasty was a short-lived one. The
original inhabitants, or according to other accounts some of their own number, rose
in rebellion and they were finally supplanted in Bunyoro by the present Babito
dynasty. (2). At the time of the outbreak of the rebellion raiders proceeded to carry
off the cattle of some of the leading Bacwezi. Different versions of the story give
different accounts as to who these raiders were. Some say they were Baganda;
others name Mugasha or Mukasa, who ruled in the Sesse Islands and ultimately
became deified; others give the raider's name as Misango. Similarly, different ver-
sions give different names for the owners of the raided cattle. The majority assert
that some of the cattle belonged to Kagoro, but further state that he was not the
owner of all the stolen cattle. Several of the Bacwezi are named as the owners of
the residue of the cattle. A number of the versions, which have come to my notice,
state that the owner was Mugenyi. The raiders carried off the cattle to Ankole

(1) A literal translation of a statement made by an aged Munyoro, who lived in 1922 at
Bukumi R.C.M., Bugangaizi.
(2) It must be remembered that the modern counties of Mawogola and Buddu formed
part of the kingdom of Bunyoro until a comparatively recent date.










or, according to some versions, to Buganda. Kagoro was sent in pursuit. When he
overtook the cattle, the raiders speared him twice, but Kagoro, whose prowess with
the spear ultimately earned for him the title of god of lightning, thrust his own spear
well home and slaughtered his opponents. He then brought the cattle back to the
Bacwezi. (Gorju op. cit. pp. 48-49; Bikunya op. cit. pp. 27-28; Rehse Kiziba-Land
und Leute pp. 327-33 ; Fisher Twilight Tales of the Black Baganda pp. 104-105).
One is strongly disposed to think that this story provides the answer to the
riddle of Biggo. The negative evidence, which is furnished by the story of Muleguza,
suggests that the entrenchments are older than the present Babito dynasty of Bun-
yoro. The story suggests that the short lived Bacwezi dynasty were the last wave
of a Hamitic invasion. They doubtless overran the country with comparative ease,
but, like other conquerors, soon found it difficult to hold what they had won. The
outlying districts would be particularly exposed to raids by either the earlier inha-
bitants, or by tribes which had made their way inland from the shores of Lake Vict-
oria, or even by earlier Hamitic invaders who had made their way further west or
south. These raids would at length become so persistent that the Bacwezi would
be forced to take organised measures for the protection of themselves and their
cattle. One is reminded of the wall of turf, which Antoninus built from Forth to Clyde.
That wall was the confession of a failure. Moreover, it never really stemmed the tide
of invasion. The same seems to be true of the fortifications at Biggo. Their cons-
truction was an acknowledgement that the makers had undertaken a larger task than
they could manage. The incompleteness of the remains and the apparent absence of
any trace of extensive human occupation seems to point to the fact that the defences
never effectually served the purpose for which they were intended. Alone of all the
traditional rulers of the land, the Bacwezi, of whom Mugenyi was one, seem to fit in
with the evidence afforded by the earthworks themselves.
I therefore offer the legend ot the cattle of Kagoro and Mugenyi as a possible
solution of the riddle of Biggo But if by any chance this solution is correct, I have
merely solved one riddle by propounding another. Who were the Bacwezi ? And
whence did they come ?













Mankind at War with the Insects.
By G. H. E. HOPKINS, M.A., F.R.E.S.


The Enemy
Probably few of us realise the enormous importance of the part played by insects
in the affairs of the world, especially in such tropical and humid countries as Uganda.
There is perpetual warfare between man and insects, and it is by success in this
war, which the insects wage both directly against man himself and indirectly against
his crops and livestock, that the human race continues to exist.
Their numbers alone mark the insects off as an exceedingly successful group
of animals. They enormously outnumber all the other groups of animals combined.
Considerably over half a million species have already been described and it is
estimated that at least twice as many more species await discovery and description.
They occur in an extremely wide range of surroundings but though many species
inhabit fresh water, very few indeed have become adapted for life at sea.
The forms which live in fresh water throughout their life are of very little
economic importance, consequently only the land forms, and some which spend their
early life in water but later forsake this element for the air, are dealt with in this
paper.
The Attack
Let us first take the damage done by insects to crops. In Britain there is no
really spectacular pest, but even there the damage done has been estimated at
thirty-three million pounds per year; in other countries the financial loss is enormous.
Howard, writing of the ravages of Phylloxera in the French vineyards, estimates that
up to 1884 this pest had cost the country a loss (direct and indirect) of ten billion
francs (four hundred million pounds). The insect was accidentally introduced into
France either in 1863 or 1867, so that the whole of this almost incredible amount of
damage was performed by one species of insect in a period of at most 21 years. The
damage caused by this insect is, as will be further mentioned, now almost a thing of
the past. Even an approximate estimate of the annual loss to Uganda is out of the
question, but it will suffice to say that the average world-figure for insect-damage
to cotton is given by Howard as 25% and on this basis the loss to Uganda cotton
would be about three-quarters of a million pounds per year; it is improbable that
any coffee-planter would suggest that the losses caused by insects to this crop are
proportionately less. The losses caused to East Africa by locusts are too fresh in our
memories to require description. The indirect financial losses are incalculable but
must be immense: in addition to money-loss due to incapacity or death caused by
malaria and plague (both insect-borne) enormous areas of land, some of them among







35

the most fertile in the country, are rendered uninhabitable to man or to his cattle by
the presence of different species of tsetse. Though deaths from sleeping-sickness
(carried by tsetse) are no longer common, the appalling loss of life which took place
when this disease first reached Uganda has not yet been retrieved. Its financial
repercussions must have been great and they are still felt today, since much land not
then infested with tsetse was abandoned owing to lack of population and has now
been occupied by forest and the fly. In other areas the presence of Simulium ("mbwa-
fly") either causes labour to demand higher wages or the land to be abandoned, as
a whole or in part.
The attack is by no means confined to crops, as has been shown above. In
Uganda trypanosomiasis (tsetse-borne) causes the death of many cattle each year
and very much heavier losses are only avoided by abandonment of good grazing-
grounds to the insect-enemy. Ticks, though not truly insects, may be included as
insects in such an account as this, and the losses of cattle from tick-borne diseases
are familiar to all of us.
Even a comparatively minor pest may cause great damage: the warble-fly lays
its eggs on the skins of cattle, whence the larva (or maggot) eats its way through the
tissues and finally takes up a position just under the skin of the back, where it re-
mains and feeds, causing large sores. As may easily be realized, this causes a
serious falling-off in the condition of the animal, reducing the milk supply, and often
rendering the flesh unfit for consumption. Even this is not the end of the trouble:
when full-fed the maggot eats its way out of the skin, making a large hole and
seriously reducing the value of the hide. The German Agricultural Journal
reckoned the annual loss caused by these flies in Germany at four and a half million
pounds and in England at six million. And this by one of the less important of our
insect foes!
The Casualties
Unfortunately our losses are not only financial, as is only too well-known to
us dwellers in the tropics.
In England there is only one serious foe which attacks man himself; this is the
common housefly. This is dealt with here before many better-known enemies of
man, not only because of its importance, but because its deadly work, not being
direct, is often allowed to pass unnoticed. In America the disease-carrying role of
the housefly is better-recognised than in many other countries, and its common name
there is the typhoid-fly. But its danger to man is not confined to typhoid nor to
the temperate regions; many other diseases are caused by this loathsome insect
and its activities are world-wide. The fact that disease is spread by flies was sus-
pected for many years before it was proved-it was suspected by Mercurialis in
1577 that flies carried the virus of plague from those ill or dead of plague to the food
of the healthy. Though he happened to be wrong in this particular instance, the
general principle is correct. The way in which flies spread disease was not well
understood until comparatively recently, but we now know that, feeding on all sorts
of filth and garbage, they carry enormous numbers of disease-organisms, not only on
the hairs of their legs and bodies, but also in their alimentary canal. Their next
resting-place is not uncommonly our food or persons, and here they clean their feet









and regurgitate the food they have taken in, thus causing the "fly-spots" which
are so well known but which we seldom realise are all too often living cultures of
virulent disease-organisms.
When man goes to war against his own kind, disease is the cause of far more
casualties than any other factor. Most of this disease is caused by flies, though lice
also play their part. During the Spanish-American war more than eighty per cent
of the deaths were due to typhoid, a disease almost entirely carried by the agency
of flies.
Infantile diarrhoea is another disease only too well-known in this country, as
in Europe and other parts of the world. "In London during the year 190o there
died of this disease one thousand eight hundred and eleven infants under two years
of age; and during 1911, which had a hot summer, the infantile death-rate rose to
even greater proportions. But in Bombay during 1910, two thousand two hundred
and sixty-three died, and in Paris this disease killed one thousand one hundred and
fifty-two infants, in New York five thousand six hundred and forty-nine; Chicago
three thousand three hundred and eighty-four; Rio de Janeiro two thousand six
hundred and ninety-two. During the hot weather at Cairo in 1909 it killed three
thousand children in less than two months." Almost every one of this appalling tale
of death can be laid at the door of the housefly.
Amongst the other diseases which are spread mainly by this deadly insect are
dysentery, cholera, tropical ulcer and yaws.
Of the other insects which levy an indirect but heavy toll on human life and
health mosquitos are among the most familiar. The part which they play in the
carriage of malaria does not need explanation to dwellers in tropical Africa. In a
recent issue of this journal the writer gave estimates which put the annual loss of
mankind due to this disease at two million deaths per year and the direct financial
loss to the British Empire alone as fifty or sixty million pounds per year. Probably
next in importance of the mosquito-borne diseases is yellow fever, the ravages of
which are known to all of us through reading, though luckily unfamiliar to most of
us from practical experience.
It is well known that the chief difficulty in building the Panama Canal
arose from the appalling loss of life from various fevers and that the first at-
tempt was abandoned. This uncompleted work still exists, a memorial to the
victory of the mosquito. It was not until steps had been taken to keep down
the mosquitos which spread these fevers that any great progress could be made
with the work.
Mosquitos are responsible for yet another major disease, which is fortunately
not common in Uganda. This is filariasis, more familiar as elephantiasis from
the fact that the mosquito-carried parasites which cause the disease frequently
choke the lymph-vessels, causing the legs or other affected parts to swell to
two or three times their normal size (1). This disease seldom kills directly, but the
victims become so enfeebled that they fall easy victims to any other infection.

(1) The writer has seen, in Samoa, cases of this disease in which the sufferer was so
bloated as to be totally incapable of walking.









Bubonic plague and sleeping-sickness, the former carried solely by fleas and
the latter almost wholly by tsetse-fly, but perhaps in part by other biting insects,
are only too familiar to us all The economic ravages of the latter have been
mentioned above and its toll in human life was referred to indirectly; of 300,000
people living round Lake Victoria, it has been estimated that more than 200oo,ooo
died of sleeping-sickness in six years.
After the foes mentioned above the worst direct enemies of man are probably
the lice. Trench-fever, so common during the late war, is wholly louse-borne as
also, at least in most localities where it occurs, is typhus, a disease which was re-
sponsible for countless deaths both among the armies and the civilian population.
The sufferings of Serbia from this disease will be remembered; less familiar is the
fact that on more than one occasion a victorious advance was checked because both
victor and vanquished lay prostrate beneath the attack of their common enemy, the
louse. Lice are fostered by the insanitary conditions in which men are forced to
live in time of inter-human war, but any other human calamity is their opportunity.
A famine, particularly among the more backward sections of the population, is
usually followed and accompanied by typhus and the number of deaths from this
cause in Russia during the famines which have occurred there since 1918 must be
prodigious. Any cause which leads to personal uncleanliness will lead to infestation
with lice and the consequent typhus; it is because, for the most part, the natives of
Uganda wear few and easily-washed garments that typhus is not an accompaniment
of famines in this country, and it is significant to note that the only part of the
country where typhus has yet been recorded (Kigezi, where a number of deaths
from this disease have occurred recently) is one where the natives wear hide gar-
ments which cannot be washed, and are therefore heavily infested with lice.
Our Allies
In our defence against the insect attack we are not without allies, and these in-
clude many of the insects themselves. It becomes of immense importance to know
friend from foe and this is often by no means so easy as it sounds.
In the case of disease-bearing insects we know but little of our allies, though
we know that they exist. Against fleas and lice they appear to be of little or no
importance, against flies we have the help of birds and of certain small parasites.
Fish give us much assistance against the early stages of mosquitos as do certain
other mosquitos which have predaceous larvae, and other predaceous water-insects
are probably of great, though unknown importance. The foes of the tsetse, other than
man, are better known, but even here our knowledge is very limited. We know
that parasitic flies and wasps destroy a certain number of tsetse, though their in-
fluence does not appear to be great; dragon-flies certainly kill some tsetse and it
is extremely probable that birds destroy many. Even plants may enter the battle
on the side of man: there is in Tanganyika a plant with sticky leaves, to which tsetse
have been observed to adhere. Not much is known about this plant (which also
occurs in Ankole) but another kind of insect-catching plant (Drosera) is much better
known. The leaves are covered with glandular hairs, each of which exudes a drop
of gum; when an insect (often a fly, our species of Drosera is not large enough to
catch tsetse) alights on one of these leaves it finds itself held by the gum and unable










to release itself; slowly the leaf curls over the hapless prisoner, digestive juices are
poured over it by the plant and soon the fly has gone to the happy hunting-grounds,
while the leaf uncurls once more to await another victim, the plant to which it be-
longs having been refreshed by the dissolved-out juices of the insect. Another plant-
ally is a certain mould which grows on the bodies of flies and kills them; it is known
to destroy tsetse under certain conditions but we have not yet found a method of
enhancing the utility of such allies.
Of the friends who help us to defend our crops against the pests which attack
them we have more knowledge; the main outlines are quite clear, though every in-
dividual case is different from every other and an immense amount of detail remains
to be mastered.
Among our staunchest and most valuable allies against these particular
enemies are the insectivorous birds. Here again our knowledge is wholly inade-
quate, particularly since the same bird may be friend at one season and foe at
another. This is actually somewhat unfair to our feathered allies, as an example
from home will show: the blackbird spends the greater part of the year earning our
gratitude by destroying pests of our crops and fruit-trees; when the fruit is ripe he
takes a small payment for his services and we are then apt to consider him a foe;
the writer prefers to consider that he is merely taking his well-earned share of the
fruit which he has protected. It is an interesting and significant fact that in England
a serious insect-pest is often found to originate in a district where there is an active
and energetic sparrow-club.
Our knowledge of the help given us by birds in Uganda is almost nil, but one
example is too recent and too striking to have escaped notice: storks, as has been
recorded several times in this journal and elsewhere, find locusts a most acceptable
ration and destroy very large numbers of these enemies.
We have many allies against crop-pests among the insects themselves. Some
of these are predators, but the great majority are parasites The distinction between
these two groups in extremely hard to define, as they merge into one another. The
typical predator is much larger than its prey and devours it at one sitting, while
the typical parasite is smaller than its victim which it keeps alive as long as pos-
sible; the predator is usually an adult insect and the parasite invariably (among
parasites of plant-pests) a larva. An intermediate case is that of certain wasps
which, in the adult stage, are predaceous on caterpillars, but also store large
numbers of these as food for their grubs. The stored caterpillars are not killed but
are stung so that they become paralysed and, while unable to escape, remain fresh
and furnish provisions for the wasp-grubs. One of these wasps stores in mud nests
the caterpillars of a coffee-pest common in Uganda (Metadrepana); considerable
numbers of the pest have been found in nests of the wasp.
Among true predators the best-known are ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). We
have many species of this family in East Africa, one section of which is not preda-
ceous but itself includes numerous pests of plants; the remainder are most valuable
allies against mealy-bugs and scale-insects (Coccidae) and Aphids, both larvae and
adults feeding exclusively on these pests. In Kenya these beetles have been found
to control mealy-bug on coffee completely except where they are interfered with by
ants; for the same reason cotton-aphis has never become a serious pest ini Uganda.










As true parasites may be instanced the Tachinid flies. The majority of these
are parasitic on the caterpillars of various butterflies and moths, including many
pests; one species parasitises the egg-packets of locusts, while yet another is an
enemy, since its victim is the honey-bee. The order Hymenoptera, which includes
the ants, bees and wasps, besides many others which have no English names, con-
tains very many parasites.
In the simplest instances such a "wasp" lays its eggs in or on the body of its
victim; these eggs hatch into grubs which devour the tissues of their involuntary
host, carefully avoiding the vital parts until the time comes when they are full-fed.
Meanwhile the host continues to feed and often (to all outward appearance) to thrive.
The full-fed grubs eat their way out of the host, usually killing it in the process,
and spin cocoons from which they emerge as adult "wasps" to start the cycle again.
Example of this simple form of parasitism are Microbracon kirkpatricki, which des-
troys larvae of the pink bollworm, and (with the exception that it feeds on its host
from the outside) Prorops nasuta, which feeds on the berry-borer of coffee and with-
out which coffee-growing would be almost impossible; the latter species has
been exported from Uganda both to Java and to Brazil.
Some of these "wasps" lay their eggs, not in the larvae of their host, but in
the latter's eggs, and in some cases the parasites are so excessively tiny that several
of them can develop within one egg of the host. Parasitised eggs rarely hatch,
but an almost incredible complication has been proved to occur in the case of some
of the egg-parasites: in this instance the female of a very minute parasitic "wasp"
lays a single egg within that of a relatively large moth; the moth's egg hatches as a
caterpillar, and meanwhile the embryo in the egg of the "wasp" subdivides,
giving rise to numerous grubs, so that from one egg of the parasite are derived, not
one, but a large number of adult "wasps".
Parasitism is immensely complicated by competition between two rival species,
both of which may have happened to lay their eggs within the same individual host
which is not large enough to feed both, and by "hyperparasitism"-the condition
which occurs when a "wasp" lays its eggs, not in the actual caterpallar or other plant
-pest, but in the parasite feeding inside it. Such cases are far from uncommon
and it may even happen that a third species of "wasp" may parasitise the parasite
which is parasitising the parasite which is parasitising the pest! It may easily be
seen how difficult it becomes, in such cases, to distinguish friend from foe.
Among our friends we must not forget those which help us directly as opposed
to those which do so indirectly by attacking our enemies. They are not very nume-
rous and the chief ones are well known to us all; they include silkworms, bees and
the scale-insect which produces shellac.
Other insects become our allies, not through attacking harmful insects, nor from
the value to man of their own products, but by their direct effect on useful or
noxious plants. An instance of the value of such insects is afforded by the case of
the clover-crop in New Zealand: when clover was first imported it failed to produce
seed because of the absence of bumble-bees to pollinate the flowers; bumble-bees
were therefore imported into New Zealand, but unfortunately (probably because this









was before the days of a well-developed intelligence service in entomology) the
wrong species of bumble-bee was imported, and this not only failed to pollinate the
clover but became a pest in gardens by destroying flowers; subsequently an entomo-
logist was consulted, the right kind of bumble-bee was imported, and clover in New
Zealand now produces seed. A number of insects feed on noxious weeds and a
moth which was imported into Australia to deal with the imported prickly pear has
freed thousands of acres from this plant-pest.
The Intelligence
As in other wars, the fight against insects demands an intelligence service;
this service is made up of entomologists with the able aid of research-workers in
the sciences of botany, chemistry, medicine and allied studies. The need for such a
service was recognized very late; the savage made a crude use of applied entomo-
logy when he moved his habitation from the malaria-ridden marshy valleys to the
healthy uplands, or his herds from an area where they were unable to live on
account of the ravages of the tsetse, but such moves were only retreats and abandon-
ment of territory to the enemy, they could only take place in uncrowded lands and it
was not until the study of insects became systematic that man could hope to regain
lost territory or even to hold his own against an insect invasion. In Europe the
belief that entomology was a study implying a certain degree of feeble-mindedness
persisted late and died hard; it is to be doubted if it is entirely extinct today. In
the Oxford Encyclopaedia of 1828 the article on entomology contains the following
words: "There is not, perhaps, any branch of natural history the study of which
has been so generally regarded with indifference and contempt. The insect hunter
is not infrequently treated with ridicule and his pursuit branded as frivolous." In
spite of this general stigma cast on entomology and its devotees there have not
been lacking, from the very early days of modern science, men with the boldness
to pursue this despised branch of knowledge.
It is not to be supposed that applied entomology was entirely unknown before
the advent of the entomologist (professional or amateur) who was prepared to give up
most of his life to the study; books on insect pests and remedies against them were
published at least as early as 1590 and the ancient Romans had some knowledge of
the subject (it is of interest to record that the decline and fall of the Greek and
Roman Empires have been attributed, in part, to the ravages of malaria), But the
early writings on the subject were not based on exact knowledge and the remedies
they proposed were somewhat of the hit-or-miss order. As Howard puts it, "people
had to fight insects before they knew anything about them." In Great Britain no
public money was expended on economic entomology until 1885, and it was not until
1894 that the first salaried economic entomologist in England was appointed.
Medical entomology received its first great stimulus from the discovery by Sir
Patrick Manson in 1879 that filariasis (elephantiasis) was transmitted by mosquitos,
followed twenty years later by the discovery by Sir Ronald Ross that this was also
true of malaria. Since then discoveries of insect-transmission of disease have been
numerous and we know that many of the major diseases which afflict mankind are so
transmitted. It is to be noted that pioneers ot medical entomology were medical men,
and not (except in so far as they had made themselves so) entomologists.









In recognition of the fact that entomology demanded the services of paid and
trained workers and not only of amateurs (devoted as these amateurs were and
invaluable as their pioneer work has been) Great Britain lagged behind, and
in 1912, when it was decided to appoint economic entomologists to work in our African
Colonial Empire it was found necessary to send the selected men to the United States
to study American methods; the expense of this course was generously defrayed by
Andrew Carnegie. Uganda must have been among the first of the territories under
the Colonial Office to employ economic entomologists, for she appointed an agricul-
tural entomologist in 1908 (the late Mr. C. C. Gowdey) and a medical entomologist
(Mr. W. F. Fiske) five years later. The latter appointment is of special significance
as Mr. Fiske held no medical qualifications; the superstition that a medical entomo-
logist should be primarily a medical man and only secondarily an entomologist, is far
from dead; needless to say, it is a superstition held almost exclusively by the medical
profession, but a recent advertisement for a medical entomologist for one of our
African territories contained the stipulation that the applicant must hold a medical
degree-to the writer rather as if it were insisted that an alienist should be qualified
as a dentist (1).
A very large part of the earlier entomological work dealt with systematics,
the study of the classification of insects, which is the basis of all our knowldege.
With the swing of the pendulum this study had tended to fall into disrepute
and its followers to be looked down upon, to some extent, by other members
of the profession. A single instance will demonstrate at once this attitude of
mind and its absurdity: the late Hon. N. C Rothschild, when at his University, (2)
decided to take up the study of the systematics of fleas. On informing the Professor
of Zoology of this resolve he was met with attempts to dissuade him from such
an ignoble pursuit and finally with the remark: "Oh, well, if you like sticking
insects between two bits of glass." (Fleas are mounted for examination on a
microscope slide beneath a cover-glass). Rothschild persisted in his "ignoble and
puerile" studies, and some years later was able to explain the fact, previously
inexplicable, that certain areas of India were comparatively immune from plague
in spite of possessing an equally heavy rat-flea population with districts which
suffered severely; the fleas in the immune districts were not the same species
as those in the non-immune, though -very closely related to them and indis-
tinguishable except by the aid of the microscope. Much money had been wasted in
India on attempts to explain by investigations on other lines a problem which
proved so readily explicable by the despised systematist. This curious attitude
to the foundations on which any accurate and valuable work must rest is no

(1) "At first the medical men seemed to feel that entomology was after all a rather simple
thing and that it would be easy for them to handle the whole field thus developed. But it
has become obvious that to secure the best results men trained in economic entomology and
broady trained in the biology of insects are of the utmost importance. One way to control
the disease is to control the insect that carries it; hence men trained in the control of
insects are the ones to do the work to the best advantage" (Howard). In view of the
advertisement mentioned above it would appear that Howard's optimism was a little
premature.
(2) Cambridge, the writer regrets (in view of the professor's attitude) to add,








longer common among field-entomologists, but it still exists to some extent
among those who employ them, and it is not uncommon for an entomologist
who finds that he must undertake a certain amount of systematic work before
his field-observations can have any value to be forced to carry on his attempts
to find out with exactly what species of insects he is dealing more or less by
stealth-a position analagous to that of a physician expected to treat a disease
without making any attempt to find out whether it is smallpox or measles !
In any attempt to review the workers on the intelligence-staff one small body
of men who rank higher in the writer's estimation than any of the others must not
be forgotten, as they too often are. The reference is to such men as those (in at
least some cases without any qualifications, except their heroism, for the work)
who, during the investigations carried out in Havana into the causation and thus
the prevention of yellow fever, volunteered to allow themselves to be bitten by
mosquitos infected with this dread disease.' They risked, and in some cases lost,
their lives in order to assist in saving the lives of thousands who will never know
their names. The results have amply justified their heroic self-immolation.

The different types of workers of the intelligence division have been somewhat
inadequately mentioned above; now let us turn to the types of duty they perform.
Nearly all of our insect foes have some joint in their armour or weak spot in
their defence. Part of the work of the entomologist and his co-workers is to find out
this weak spot. This can only be done by a complete study of an insect through-
out its life and in as many different sets of conditions as may be possible. To
take an extremely familiar and simple example, the weak spot in the life-history
of the mosquitos is that they must spend their larval and pupal life in water; to
exterminate the larvae and pupae is, therefore, a very much simpler task than to
attempt to destroy the adult insect. In the case of a plant-pest the weak spot may be
that at some particular season when the crop on which it feeds is not in a condition
suitable to its needs it may be dependant on alternative food-plants, the destruction
of which may have dire results to the pest.
One of the most important duties of the entomologist is to distinguish friends
from foes. In this connection a local example may be given: a certain small bug
which is frequently found on coffee was first believed to be a minor pest; we now
know that, far from being a pest, it feeds exclusively on other insects among which
are numbered many pests. Some of the instances given under the heading of "our
allies" will show how complicated these problems may be and what close study is
necessary if our work is to be fruitful.
A G. H. Q. of economic entomology was set up in 1912 in the shape of the
Imperial Bureau (now the Imperial Institute) of Entomology; this institute, besides
issuing publications, acts as a clearing-house of information, identifies insects, and
undertakes work which cannot be suitably dealt with by individual countries (such
as research on the locust-problem and the breeding and distribution of parasites of
pests). Of recent years the League of Nations has undertaken a great deal of
work in connection with the dissemination of knowledge of disease-bearing insects








i41

It may well be asked how much has been accomplished. It must be remembered
that in the war between insects and man victory on man's side is practically never
complete; any relaxation of our guard will enable the insects to seize their opportu-
nity and become as dangerous as they ever were. But with this proviso in mind we
may instance some of the more notable victories won by man: Phylloxera, which de-
stroyed the vineyards of France, the boll-weevil of cotton in America, the fluted
scale which did great damage to oranges and related plants, and a moth which was
destroying the coconut plantations of Fiji, to mention but a few examples taken at
random, are no longer the.menace which they were. On the medical side Howard
puts the situation very well: "The effect of the discoveries on public health is very
apparent. Thousands of lives have already been saved as their result. The intensity
of many great scourges has been relieved. One of them, yellow fever, has measur-
ably become a thing of the past(i). The work in this direction regarding the tropics has
shown that tropical countries may be inhabited safely by ihe white race, and what
that means for the future of the world one cannot now estimate. All over the
the United States even -a country which is fortunately, for the most part, situated
in the healthiest of climates-life on the average is longer and happier because of
the knowledge that has been gained regarding insect-borne diseases."
Our Weapons.
There are innumerable ways in which it is possible for us to destroy insect
pests; it is not proposed to do more than to mention briefly a few of the more im-
portant of them.
Hand-picking. Simple means are often the best, but it is strange how difficult
it is to induce people to adopt them; they seem to prefer something complicated.
Hand-picking is a most efficient way of destroying many pests, including the two
kinds of caterpillars which are among the worst pests of sweet potatoes in Uganda.
Mechanical and chemical methods. Traps are legion and may depend on a me,
chanical principle (driving locust-hoppers into trenches, a mere elaboration of hand-
picking, tsetse traps, which depend on the liking of the insect for a certain degree
of darkness, etc.) or on the use of a poisonous chemical (poisoned baits for locusts,
bait-sprays for coffee-bug, etc.) or may combine both principles (fly-papers, use of
chemicals to make a mechanical trap more attractive, etc.).
Direct chemical attack comprises such methods as the spraying of mosquito
breeding-places with oil or the scattering from aeroplanes of clouds of poison-dust
over forests attacked by caterpillars or over flying locust-swarms (the latter method
now under investigation in Rhodesia and showing great promise).
Parasites. When a plant is introduced into a new country it is very fre-
quently found that its pests come too, and often that they have left their parasites
behind. Similarly a pest invading a new territory often does so without its para-
sites. In such cases it becomes necessary to provide transport for our allies the
parasites; in many cases these are kept at G.H.Q. (the Imperial Institute of Ento-

(1) Howard is speaking mainly of America; his statement is hardly true, as yet, of Africa
though even here he is probably only anticipating a little.










mology) in readiness for despatch to any part of the world. In other instances at-
tempts are made to increase the stock of parasites in a country by breeding up
those already present; this is seldom of much value as a natural balance between
host and parasite has usually been reached and this balance is very difficult to
upset.
Indirect methods. The general principle of most of the indirect methods of de-
fence is to influence the plant in such a way that it is no longer vulnerable to attack.
This can be done by selection of immune or partially immune varieties (e.g. the
Phylloxera-resistant vines imported into France from America and on to which the
French vines were grafted, and Jassid-resistant strains of cotton.) Other methods
include increasing the vigour of the plant either by manuring or by suitable
methods of cultivation, and using varieties which "dodge" the period of maximum
prevalence of the pest or mature at a time when the climate is unsuitable for the
insect.
A method which is intermediate between direct and indirect is that of starv-
ing out the pest by destroying its alternative food-plants at a time when the crop
is not in a suitable condition to feed it. A special application of this principle is
the use of a suitable crop-rotation.

Conclusion.
The writer has tried to show something of the war between man and his insect
foes-a war which inflicts more losses on mankind, not only in property but also
in direct casualties, than even the greatest of inter-human wars. From these relentless
enemies it is hardly ever possible to snatch a decisive victory and even a relaxation
in the pressure of the attack is hard to win; until very recently victories gained by
the insects have been increasingly numerous and in some cases their attack is still
forcing man to retreat before their ravages (). Our greatest needs in the warfare are
knowledge and the application of that knowledge when gained. To obtain that
knowledge is the duty-of the "Intelligence"; to put it into practice when gained is
not only the duty of Governments but of every one of us.

(1)Large areas in tropical Africa have had to be abandoned to tle tsetse in recent years and
in some areas the fly is still advancing, though in other cases our counter-attacks have met
with considerable success. Pink bollworm has recently invaded Uganda and the issue is still
in doubt.










NOTES



The Story of the Entry of the Alur into The West Nile

By MAJOR N. L. C. LOWTH, M.C.



Once there lived a great King named Atira the direct descendant of Rubanga
the creator. Atira died and his son Otira died and his son Opodo succeeded him. He
was a powerful king and ruled his people from a place called Nyilak in the Lango
country. Eventually he died and left three sons by name Tiful, Nyapir and
Kyebambi, the latter sometimes known as Nyabongo.

One day Nyapir borrowing his brother Kyebambi's spear went tohunt elephant.
He speared an elephant but the elephant got away with the spear deeply embedded
in its tlesh. Nyapir returned to his brother and reported the loss of the spear. ,Kye-
bambi became very angry at the loss of his favourite hunting spear. Nyapir seeing
his brother's ill-disguised wrath decided to follow the wounded elephant in an en-
deavour to recapture the missing spear. He walked for many days and eventually
crossing a great river (the Nile) he found himself in a beautiful cool country higher
than he had ever been before. One day while wandering in this strange and de-
lightful country he met a very old woman, who asked him "What are you looking
for?" Nyapir replied "For the spear of my brother who like me is also a king." Then
the old woman said "Come to my dwelling for there you will find many spears and
from my store of spears you may take your choice." On entering the hut Nyapir im-
mediately recognized the hunting spear of his brother Kyebambi. He was delighted
and having arranged a feast in honour of the old woman he departed carrying with
him his brother's spear and a beautiful necklace a present from the old woman with
whom he had made great friends, and the place where he met the old woman is called
Nyapir after him.
Eventually he reached his home and summoning his brothers he returned the
spear to Kyebambi and there was much feasting and rejoicing. Now while the feast
was at its height and Nyapir was recounting the history of his wanderings in the
beautiful country he had seen and his meeting with the old woman he produced the
necklace which was much admired and handed round from hand to hand, but the in-
fant son of Kyebambi gloating over the bauble with childish glee accidentally swal-
lowed the neclace.
It was now Nyapir's turn to get angry and rising in his wrath he demanded
from the father the immediate return of his necklace. Kyebambi offered him other
jewels in its place but he refused and thus they wrangled over the necklace until










Kyebambi thinking to settle the dispute shouted "Take this knife, open up my child
and retrieve your necklace." Nyapir seized the knife, cut open the stomach of Kye-
bambi's infant son and retrieved the jewels.
This action of Nyapir engendered a bitter hatred between the three brothers
and they decided to separate. Tiful impressed with the stories of the wonderful
cool lands beyond'the great river migrated with his followers including the Lendu
and the Okebo to the highlands west of the Nile watershed and his descendants
now comprise the Belgian Congo Alur. Nyapir following his brother Titul and travel-
ling along the north bank of the Victoria Nile camped with his followers opposite
Pakwach. One day in his wanderings he came across a tobacco plant close to the
river and exclaimed "This surely has fallen from my brother Tiful's pipe". Unwilling
as yet to establish contact with his brother on account of their quarrel, Nyapir buried
an axe on the east bank of the river as a sign that he wished no further commu-
nication with his brother Kyebambi and that henceforward they should meet as
enemies. Then he crossed the Nile and settled at Pakwach and Nebbi.
Now Nyapir soon became anxious on account of his cattle, as the grazing in
his new country was none too good and there were no salt licks and his cattle began
to.fail. One day certain cattle were missing from the King's kraal and thinking that
they had been killed by wild animals or had strayed and might return no action was
taken and the matter was forgotten. Later on however the cattle returned on their
own account and the herdsmen on close examination found salt adhering to their
feet. Overjoyed at this discovery Nyapir gathered together all his people and fol-
lowed the tracks of the strayed cattle into the highlands of the West Nile leaving
the princess Dosha to rule over the Packwach area. In these highlands he establi-
shed himself and eventually formed contact with his brother Tiful. And his des-
cendants and the descendants of his people comprise the West Nile Alur ofp to-day
and the people of Nebbi and Jonam.
SNow while the woman Dosha was still ruling over Pakwach and the Jonam
area three Acholi came from the North, following the river, and they were appoint-
ed by Nyapir as rulers under Dosha and the present Sultan of Jonam is descended
from these people.









A Federal Capital for Eastern Africa-Some Early Proposals
By H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.
In his Further Memories published in the Journal for October 1934, Sir Albert
Cook refers to the proposals for the amalgamation of the Uganda and East Africa
Protectorates which were afoot at the beginning of the century.
The project was not in fact of Sir Harry Johnston's conception, but seems to
have been in the mind of the Foreign Office even when assisting at the birth of
the separate protectorates. Circumstances- the evacuation by the Chartered
Company of that part of the British sphere in East Africa lying westwards of
Kikuyu- had in 1893 compelled the hasty improvisation of an Imperial adminis.
trat on in that area and this was confirmed as the Uganda Protectorate in the
following year. A government had therefore been in existence in Uganda for over
two years when the imminent demise of the Chartered Company left the home
authorities with the problem of providing an administration for the Coast belt and
its hinterland to the borders of Uganda at the Kedong Valley. Even at this stage
the Foreign Office clearly toyed with the idea of bringing the whole of the East
African sphere under one government. But the immediate difficulties rendered
such a fusion for the time being impracticable. The only two focuses of political
importance,- the Coast and Buganda- were 700 miles and about three months of
travel apart; and in the Coast belt the position was further complicated by the rights
ot the Sultan of Zanzibar. Thus, the Company's administration having finally
ceased on the 3oth June 1895, the East Africa Protectorate came into being on the
following day.
The completion of the Uganda Railway, the vote for the construction of which
had just been passed by Parliament, was doubtless regarded as the event which
would justify and facilitate the amalgamation of the two administrations.
Thus when on ist July 1899, Sir Harry Johnston was given his instructions upon
appointment as Special Commissioner to Uganda it was impressed upon him that a
very important point was the selection of a future headquarters, and, bearing in mind
the possibility that East Africa and Uganda might eventually be merged, that this
seat of government should lie as near as possible to the main lines of communication
and in a healthy district.
Sir Harry was never one to let the grass grow beneath his feet and showed
none of the hesitancy which led the Closer Union Commission of 1929 to refrain dis-
creetly from making any recommendation as to the location of the headquarters of
a future Governor-General. On his way up country he stopped in November 1899,
at Eldoma Ravine and, with James Martin who was in charge of the station, scout-
ed the neighbourhood for a suitable site for the future federal capital of Eastern
Africa. Choice fell upon a spot on the Mau Plateau at the headwaters of the drain-
age system which develops westwards into the Nyondo Valley. The site is about a
mile and a half due north of Londiani railway station, its centre lying approxi-
mately on the northern boundary of the present Londiani Township, where it adjoins
the farm of Mr. W. Evans (L.R. No. I120/3/3). (1) Sir Harry became enthusiastic in
(1) The references to the farms at Londiani and Njoro have been kindly furnished by the
Surveyor General of Kenya.









his description of the mountain peaks, the rich woodlands and the grassy meadows
which made up the surrounding landscape and his selection was later endorsed by
Sir Clement Hill, Superintendent of the African Protectorates at the Foreign Office,
when he visited Uganda towards the end of 1900.
Early in 19i0 R. C. Allen, the first Chief Surveyor of Uganda, who will
still be remembered by some readers of the Journal as "Reliable Raymond," reached
Uganda, and he was at once deputed to carry out a survey of the new capital,
for which Sir Harry had, immediately after the death of Queen Victoria, devised
the name of King Edward's Town. This was thus the very first task undertaken
by the present Uganda Survey Department. In March 19o0, Allen reached the
Cross Roads, as the site was usually referred to, near the present Londiani
station, railhead at the time being still about 25 miles distant in the neighbourhood
of Elburgon. Here he worked until the end of May. It was the rainy season
and the grassy meadows were found to have become waterlogged uplands, so that
when Sir Harry Johnston on his way to the coast prior to the termination
of his commission once more inspected the site ( 9th May, 1901) he decided that
search must be made elsewhere. One idea was that the future Government House
might be built on Mount Blackett, the prominent hill, now in the Western Mau
Forest Reserve, lying about three miles south-east of Londiani Station
Eventually, however, it was decided to try out a site near Njoro, of which the
centre would be on the west side of the Njoro river, some two to three miles
due south of the present Njoro railway station, where the river takes a sharp
right angle bend in farms (L. R. Nos. 525 and 526) now owned by Mr. Tunstall.
Here survey was continued from June until the beginning of October, when
Allen was suddenly ordered to cease work and return to Entebbe.
Other counsels had in fact meanwhile prevailed and the Foreign Office had
made known the decision to hand over to the East Africa Protectorate the whole
of the then Eastern Province of Uganda-roughly from Naivasha to the Sio River.
The considerations which led to this decision have never been made public but some
facts are evident Uganda, with its primitive internal communications, was an un-
wieldy unit, while an East Africa Protectorate that did not extend beyond Kikuyu
was rather like a shop with a window front (the Coast) but with little or no stock'in-
side; and financially it was making discouraging progress. There were furthermore
advantages in having the whole of the railway from Mombasa to Lake Victoria
within the territory of one government. The transfer was not regarded as putting
an end to the possibility of amalgamation, though it is not clear what more favour-
able turn of affairs was to be awaited and in the outcome, amalgamation, fusion or
federation were hardly mentioned for the next quarter of a century.
The rites of the divorce of the old Eastern Province from Uganda and the settle-
ments on her re-marriage to East Africa were conducted at the end of November at
Njoro where Sir Charles Eliot, the Commissioner, W. J. Monson, his secretary and
H.P. Espie, the Acting Treasurer for East Africa met Jackson (later Sir Frederick),
Acting Commissioner, G.D. Smith, the Treasurer and R.C. Allen for Uganda. There
were junketings at Njoro on St. Andrew's Night, i90o. Monson, (1) who had in his

(1) Clearly the author of the very feeling In Memoriam of Sir Frederick Jackson which
concludes, posthumously, the latter's Early Days in East Africa.









day a local reputation as a minor poet, presented each of the company with a
quatrain: One of these has been preserved. To Allen who perhaps regarded wryly his
months of wasted effort upon the foundations of the future capitalof Eastern Africa
he addressed the lines:-
"Were you monarch of all you survey
From Elmenteita to Toro.
A very fine kingdom you'd sway
And your capital would be Njoro."
The formal transfer to the East Africa Protectorate of Uganda's old Eastern Pro-
vince was effected on Ist April 1902.


Ruwenzori and Elgon-Footnotes
By H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.


In his paper on the Mountains of Uganda in the Journal for October 1934, Mr.
Patrick Synge supports without comment the almost universally accepted claim of
H. M. Stanley to have discovered or rather re-discovered Ruwenzori when he
obtained his first view of the snows on 24th (not 2oth) May 1888.
But if in this case discovery is marked by the identification of the presence of
snow on high mountains, Stanley was clearly forestalled by two other members of
his expedition, Mounteney-Jephson and Surgeon Parke. The facts are set out in
Parke's "My Personal Experiences in Equatorial Africa as Medical Officer of the Emin
Pasha ReliefExpedition" (1891). On 2oth April 1888, he and Jephson were transport-
ing the collapsible steel boat from Kavalli's to Lake Albert and Parke's journal for
that day states "On the march we distinctly saw snow on the top of a huge mountain
situated to the south-west of our position. As this was a curious and unexpected sight,
we halted the caravan to have a good view. Some of the Zanzibaris tried to persuade
us that the white covering which decorated the mountain was salt; but Jephson and
myself were quite satisfied that it was snow". On 22nd April having rejoined
Stanley at Kavalli's, Parke continues "I reported to Mr. Stanley that I had seen a
snow-clad mountain. He was a good deal interested. (He saw this mountain
range afterwards, and at once named it the Mountains of the Moon)" (1)
If, by way of comparison, Stanley's own account is read (In Darkest Africa
Vol. I. page 405) under date of 24th May 1888 it will be seen that Stanley claims
that "my eyes were d rected by a boy to a mountain said to be covered with salt";
and he concludes his account by dismissing in somewhat too patently deprecatory
terms the report, which he admits had been made to him by Parke a month pre-
viously, on the ground that the latter must have been looking at some other hills.

(1) The words in brackets were added when Parke prepared his journal for publication,









The incident is typical of Stanley, whose abilities as a publicist were hardly
surpassed by his great achievements as an explorer. When Stanley was in command
he saw to it that there was little limelight for his assistants.
Loven Peak is mentioned as being the highest point of Mount Elgon. The
name, which refers presumably to Sven A. Loven, whose work on the mountain is
described in his "KringMount Elgon"(Stockholm 1926), has not been and is unlikely
to be adopted on official Uganda maps. G. M. Gibson of the Uganda Survey
Department carried a deliberate topographical survey to ti e summits in 1930.
Loven Peak is apparently identical with the peak-situated about 2 miles and bea-
ring about 15 1 (from North by East) from Jackson's Summit for which the
native name of Wagagai was obtained. Its altitude--the highest on the mountain
-was determined at 14,178 feet. Both the name and height have been accepted
for official purposes.

A Crocodile Trap
BY J. CARMICHAEL

Game of various kinds has been trapped by the African native since time imme-
morial. One reads of and occasionally meets with various ingenious devices design-
ed to kill or capture almost everything from the elephant to the francolin, but a
description of a crocodile trap does not appear to have yet found its way into the
literature of this part of Africa.
The Government cattle at Old Entebbe have from time to time suffered from
the attacks of these saurians which infest Lake Victoria in such numbers and one
wily old reptile accounted for seven adult animals before he met the fate he deserved.
Shooting crocodiles sounds very easy, but an object lying practically level with
the surface of the water is not quite such a simple target as might be imagined; at
least, that is the experience of one very indifferent marksman. So when the local
crocodiles definitely decided to make Old Entebbe a regular meeting place for their
repasts it was suggested that a trial might be given to a device which long ago was
used by the Sesse Islanders to capture crocodiles for food.
Frankly I was sceptical, but the trial was justified and eight crocodiles were ac-
counted for in a few weeks. Moreover, the remaining members of the local crocodile
fraternity must have become aware of the danger, for since then a distant and
hungry glance at the cattle is all that they have ventured.
I am indebted to Om. Yokana Kibuka, Native Veterinary Assistant, for the
following notes concerning the trap :-
In the days of Kabaka Mutesa the Buvuma were very fond of crocodile's flesh
and this custom was handed on to the Basesse by a gentleman called Mulindwa who
lived on the island of Kakunyu. Although the Basesse as a whole did not appreciate
this new diet a certain number of people in the small chieftainship of one Semuimbi
acquired the taste, and were made the object of ridicule of the rest of the Basesse
who produced a song commencing "The people of Semuimbi eat crocodile's flesh,"











The following articles are required for the trap:-
(I) A strong piece of wood about i ft. long sharpened at both ends. This
was usually the native wood called enzo.
(II) A rope about 32 yards long, one end of which is made fast to a large
log of ambatch (Heriminiera Elaphroxylon) (Luganda-kirinds).
(III) A strong stake about 5 feet long.
(IV) A piece of meat 4 or 5 lbs. in weight, large enough to cover the small
stick of enzo.
This sharpened piece of wood is pushed through the meat and is secured firmly
to the rope, which is attached to the ambatch log. The stake is stuck into the sand
so as to form an angle of 45' over about two feet of water. A half hitch is passed
over the end of the stake and the meat with its hidden, pointed stick is suspended
over the surface of the water at a height of about eighteen inches. The crododile
snatches at and swallows the meat together with the concealed stick attached to the
rope.
The pointed ends pierce the throat and the stick gets fixed transversely be-
hind the valve. The trapped reptile makes off into the water, taking with him the
log of ambatch which floats and marks his wake. He is followed and despatched
or, as happened in five out of the eight "kills" at Entebbe, comes on shore and dies.
The ingenious part of the scheme seems to be the hanging of the bait well off the
water so that it has to be reached for and grabbed, thus causing the pointed stick
to pass behind the valve before its presence is realized by the greedy saurian.
The crocodile apparently cannot or will not open its mouth once the bait has
been seized.
The dead ones which I have examined have had the sharpened piece of enzo
stuck far back behind the valve.
The trap is not ioo% efficient, for several times only pieces of crunched and
broken stick have been found in empty traps, but it has proved a useful and easy
way of dealing with these pests, whilst at the same time furnishing an interesting
example of native woodcraft.












CORRESPONDENCE.


Blood-Brotherhood in Ankole.
(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
SIR,
I would like to modify two statements in my article on Blood-Brotherhood
which appeared in the July number of the Journal. They are somewhat misleading
as they stand.
On page 34 I have stated that Omukago cannot be made with a woman or
between women. This is only true in so far that it cannot be made with a girl as
such because a boy likes a girl and wishes to make Omnukago with her. If how-
ever the father of a family wishes his son to make Omukago with another family
and there is no boy in the family but only a girl, her father will make her represent
the family by performing the ceremony. In the same way it may happen that two
girls make Omukago, each representing the family as there are no boys. It some-
times occurs later that a boy and girl marry when they are blood brothers of diffe-
rent families. The marriage tie would not affect this in any way, as the clans
of their respective abanywani would in each case be different.
On page 38 I state that a Muhima cannot make Omukago with another Mu-
hima before first making it with a Muiru. This however is not general throughout
Ankole, but only refers to the southern part, in Mpororo.
Yours etc.,
F. LUKYN WILLIAMS.
MBARARA,
DECEMBER, 1934.


The Bakama of Bunyoro.
(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
SIR,
To make easier any synthetical attempt to write the history of Central Africa,
it would be useful to obtain as complete as possible a list of the Bakama of Bunyoro,
or at least a list of the Babito dynasty. As far as the published accounts available
here in our unspecialised libraries of Europe go, our information on this point
remains still more meagre than in the case of the Buganda kings; moreover, our
sources seem too often to be obscure, and sometimes they do not agree even on
important points. Such is the case for the six or eight immediate successors of
Mpuga Rukedi, founder of the Babito dynasty.









The following lists are extracted from
purposes :-
P. Bikunya Rev. J. Roscoe
(1927) (1923)


1 Mpuga Rukidi
(Winyi, Kyabongo)
2 Oyo Kabambaiguru
(Omuzikya)
3 Winyi Ruguruka
Rwangira
4 Nyarwa
5 Chwa
6 Winyi Ruguruka
Machorya Rubembeka
Ntoro
7 Rukidi Olimi
Omuitabyaro
8 Winyi Kyebambi Bikaju


1 Mpuga Rukidi
(Nyabongo)
2 Nyimba

3 Chwa I

4 Winyi Ruguruki
5 Oyo Kabambaiguru



6 Olimi Rulundwangeye

7 Kyebamba Bikaju
etc.


various authors for comparative


R. P. Torelli
in R.P. Gorju
(1920 p. 64)


1 Mpuga Rukidi
(Ruguruka Ruchobe)
(Nyabwongo)
2 Rugabira Macliege
(Weinyi)
3 Bulemu
(Nyabwongo)
4 Chwamali
(Yabura N'ensi)
5 Muzikya Kabamba-
iguru (Kyebambe)
6 Rwembekwa Ntero
(Weinyi)
7 Rwita-Mahanga
(Olimi)
8 Kyebambe Bikaju


R. P. Gorju
(1920
pp.61-62)


1 Mpuga Rukidi


1 Mpuga Rukidi
Wunyi
2 Ochaki Olimi

3 Oyo
4 Chwa

5 Wunyi


6 Olimi

7 Isansa


N. B. No mention is made here of the numerals added to the royal names (Wunyi, Nyabo-
ngo, Olimi, Kyebambo, etc.) as they vary even in the account given by each particular author.
It is easy to see however that the above lists must, in spite of their differences,
originate from one common tradition, and therein lies their real historical value.
Nevertheless it appears necessary to try to reconcile their differences, and I think it
would be worth while to seek once more the oral testimony of the natives of Bunyoro
on this point.
The early accounts given by Sir Harry Johns'on 1902 (pages 596 to 6oo) bas-
ed on contributions supplied by Mr. George Wilson and by the Rev. A. B. Fisher,
do not throw much light on the question, which remains somewl at puzzlidg, at
least for the common reader.
When we come to more detailed information, contradictions are also frequent
between the various accounts. For instance the names of the Queen-mothers of the
Bakama are not yet well l.nown, at least of some of them. Even in recent times,
we see that Kanyangi, the mother of Kabarega, is given by the Rev. Mr. Roscoe
(1923) as belonging to the clan Banyangi, but according to P. Bikunya (1927)she was
a Munyonzakati, and so on.
I have no doubt that at the present time several people are a position to give
fuller information on these points. Would any of the readers of the Uganda Journal
he'p those who are interested in the early history of the Great Lakes' region of
Africa by collecting and collating such information?
Yours etc.,
(Dr.) J. M. DERSCHEID,
Professor, Colonial University of Belgium.
14, RUE DE FLEURUS, BRUSSELS.
29TH OCTOBER, 1934.


[









The Uses of the Banana.

(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
SIR,
With reference to his article on the above subject, which appeared in the
October issue of the Journal, perhaps your contributor might be interested
to know of a further use of the banana plant.
In Ankole I have seen a native soap which I was informed was prepared there
by first burning the stems and leaves of the plant and then boiling the ash with
either the fat of sheep tails or with the oil of the Shea butter-nut. The banana
plant has, of course, a high content of potash and the ash of the plant has thus a
sufficient proportion of this element in caustic form to make possible the formation
of a potash soap with a suitable fat.
Yours faithfully,
GORONWY AP GRIFFITH.
AGRICULTURAL LABORATORIES,
KAMPALA.
OCTOBER 16TH, 1934.


Enssnene.

(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
SIR,
The problem of the ensenene raised by your correspondent Mr. R. M. K.
Kasule is one of great biological interest, and his letter has stimu'ated discussion
on the subject anew.
Any understanding of the habits of ensenene might throw light on the kindred
problems presented by locusts, and thus be of practical value. Locusts and ensenene
belong.to two distinct families of the Orthoptera (the Sh rt-horned and Long-horn-
ed grasshoppers respectively); it is therefore the more remarkable that they display
closely similar phenomena. Their common habit of forming flying swarms is
obvious to all. Another character of ensenene shared by the solitary phase of the
Migratory Locust is the presence of two principal colour varieties, the green and
the brown, whose proportions vary for unknown reasons. These, as well as the rarer
pink forms, are all given distinctive names in Luganda and doubtless in other local
languages.
The unexplained appearance and disappearance of these grasshoppers, the
mystery surrounding their breeding habits and early development, and the curious;
fact that they seem to eat little or nothing during the adult state amply account for
the fantastic stories prevailing about their origin and way of life.












Most long-horned grasshoppers lay their eggs in plant stems, but others, like
locusts, deposit them in th ground. Ensenene hoppers are unknown to the Kampala
entomologists, but it can hardly be doubted that they live a secluded life among
low-lying grasslands in various parts of Uganda itself.
It is hoped to gather more information about these interesting creatures for
publication in a future Journal. Meanwhile I hope that any readers who may make
observations or pick up information about them will not fail to communicate it.
Yours etc.,
D. R. BUXTON.
AGRICULTURAL LABORATORIES,
KAMPALA,
i7th December, 1934.


Basoga Death and Burial Rites.
(To The Editor "The Uganda Journal")
SIR,
May I point out that the name Yekoniya K. Lubogo should appear
for Ezekeri Zibondo, as the able compiler of the information which appeared
under "Basoga Death and Burial Rites" in the last number of the Journal?
Yours faithfully,
A. WILLIAMS.
KAMPALA, (General Secretary, C. M. S.)
NOVEMBER 15th, 1934.




Vw




-w rr


Printed and Published by the Uganda Printing and Publishing Company. Limited,
P.O. Box 84 Kampala. for Ihe Uganda Literary and Scientific Society.