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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00008614/00001
 Material Information
Title: Archive of Haitian Religion and Culture ( NEH Grant Proposal )
Alternate Title: The Vodou Archive : Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture
Physical Description: Grant proposal
Language: English
Creator: Hebblethwaite, Benjamin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Grant proposal
 Notes
Abstract: This collaborative partnership spearheaded by the University of Florida and Duke University seeks to improve the understanding of a central Haitian and Haitian-American spiritual tradition by gathering the audiovisual and textual sources of Vodou communities, by interpreting what we collect, by expanding the holdings through a self-submission tool, and by diffusing the knowledge via an open access digital library hosted within the existing Digital Library of the Caribbean. This project is part of a tradition of scholarly work stretching back to the early 20th century that has sought to counter reductionist and racist visions of the religion through ethnography, analysis of culture and music, and an exploration of the role of Vodou in Haiti’s founding revolution. The Vodou Archive is a first-of-its-kind digital library dedicated to curating and sharing the multimedia sources of Vodou.
General Note: National Endowment for the Humanities Collaborative Research Grant Application
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
System ID: AA00008614:00001


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The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture : Collaborative Research and Scholarship on Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora Benjamin Hebblethwaite and Laurent Dubois 1. Statement of significance and impact This collaborative partnership spearhead ed by the University of Florida and Duke University seeks $240,804 from the NEH Collaborative Research Grants to improve the understanding of a central Haitian and Haitian American spiritual tradition by gathering the audiovisual and textual sources of Vodou communities, by interpreting what we collect, by expanding the holdings through a self submission tool and by diffusing the knowledge via an open access digital library hosted within the existing Digital Library of the Caribbean In addition to the 27 international partners that cooperate with the Digital Library of the Caribbean this project includes collaboration from researchers at the University of Notre Dame t he University of Miami, the Schrijversvakschool in the Netherlands Flori da International University, the Universit des Antilles et de la Guyane and City Lore among others. This project is part of a tradition of scholarly work stretching back to the early 20 th century that has sought to counter reductionist and racist visions of the religion through ethnography, anal ysis of culture and music, work has long turned to the central texts in Haitian Vodou: its Creole language songs This project will produce the first freely accessible multimedia digital library that uses audiovisual te chnologies to curate, elucidate and facilitate the advanced search of the rich primary materials of Vodou in order to promote discovery and educate a broad public. Vodou is a coherent and systematic religio n and way of life for at least six million people in Haiti (Desmangles 1992:2). The Atlantic slave trade extended the ancient traditional religions of West and Central Africa to Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, the French Antilles, Saint Domingue/Haiti, Trinid ad and the United States where they fused into creolized religious systems. Vodou ceremonies are marked by enthusiastic singing, drumming, dancing, complex rituals, possession events and celebration that last for several hours. The project team members will explo re various questions about the sources of Vodou. (1) W hat is a Vodou ceremony and what are the roles played by songs, music, liturgy and ritual ? (2) W ho are the main participants in Vodou ceremonies and what kinds of actions, behaviors and possession events do the y engage in? (3) W hat do Vodouists say about ceremonies, songs and worship in i nterviews outside of the temple? (4) W hat pre existing Vodou content is there and what condition is it in? (5) H ow does Vodou religion build a bridge between Haiti and the Haitian diaspora in the United States? (6) W hat can be learned from the knowledge expressed by Vodouists in ceremonies and interviews and what less ons can scholars draw from them? In response to these questions, team members will provide content on line for scholars and the public in the form of first, sound recordings video footage and photographs collected at Vodou ceremonies and with practitioners and including transcriptions translations subtitles and extensive explanatory annotations ; second, textual content from rare materials will be transcribed, translated and annotated; third, syntheses about the meaning, structure and history of Vodou communities will analyze the content in the Vodou Archive and will stimulate research and teaching among American scholars; fourth, a self submission tool will allow for the primary and interpretative materials will be presented at the first of its kind Vodou Archive digital library which is dedicated t o

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The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture : Collaborative Research and Scholarship on Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora University of Florida and Duke University Table of contents 1. Statement of significance and impact 2. Table of contents 3. List of participants 4. Narrative Page I. Substance and Context 1 1. The collection, transcription and translation of new Vodou content 6 2. The transcription and translation of the existing published or manuscript texts 9 3. The annotation of the content and the critical syntheses 11 4. The self submission tool 12 II. History and duration of the project 13 III. Staff 15 IV. Methods 18 1. The technological services available 18 2. IRB approval for working with human subjects 18 3. The collection of the audiovisual materials 19 4 The transcription, translation and editing of the audiovisual materials 19 5 The creation of the digital library at the Digital Library Center 19 6 The obtainment of copyrights and permissions 20 7. The creation of a Haitian Creole interface for the Digital Library of the Caribbean 20 V. Fi nal product and dissemination 1. The digital library 20 2. A book 21 3. Articles and conferences 21 4. The roles of the Digital Library Center and the Digital Library of the Caribbean 21 5. The software engine 22 6. Maintenance in perpetuity 23 7. Equal rights philosophy 23 VI. Work plan 23 5 Budget 6. Appendices Appendix A: Letters of commitment and project support 1 Appendix B: Selection Principles for the content of the Vodou Archive 7 Appendix C: Transcription Policies and Translation Methods 7 Appendix D: Interview protocols/questions 8 Appendix E: Screen shots of the Vodou Archive prototype digital library 9 Appendix F: Bibliography 10 Appendix G: Discography 12 Appendix H: Rsums 13 Appendix I: Sample translations of Vodou songs and a nnotations 32 7. H istory of grants

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure List of project participants The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture 1. Ackerman, Holly, Duke University Libraries 2. Apollon, Musset, University of Florida, undergraduate 3. Confiant, Raphal, Universit des Antilles et de la Guyane, Lecturer, Contributor 4. Dubois, Laurent, Ph.D., Duke University, Professor of His tory and Romance Studies, Co Project Director 5. Hebblethwaite, Benjamin, Ph.D., University of Florida, Assistant Professor in Ha itian Creole, Project Director 6. Jenson, Deborah, Ph.D., Duke University, Professor of French Studies, Contributor 7. Lewis, Ferdinand, Ph.D., University of Florida, Lecturer in Urban and Regional Planning, Contributor 8. Loving, Matthew, University of Florida, Ro mance Languages Librarian 9. Mobley, Christy, Duke University, Ph.D. candidate in History 10. 11. Pierre, Jacques, Duke University, Lecturer in Haitian Creole, Contributor 12. Ramsey, Kather ine, Ph.D., University of Miami, Assistant Professor of History, Contributor 13. Renner, Randall, University of Florida, Digital Library Center 14. Richman, Karen, Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, Director of the Center for Migration and Border Studies Institute f or Latino Studies, Contributor 15. Soimaud, Jrme, Independent Artist, Contributor 16. Sullivan, Mark, University of Florida, Digital Library Center 17. Tarter, Andrew, University of Florida, Ph.D. candidate in Anthropology 18. Taylor, Laurie, Ph.D., University of Florida, Digital Library Center 19. van Daalen, Maria, MA, Schrijversvakschool, Amsterdam, Lecturer of Poetry, Contributor 20. Vargas Betancourt, Margarita, University of Florida, Caribbean Basin Li brarian 21. Vernet, Wilmide, University of Florida, undergraduate 22. 23. Wilcken, Lois, Ph.D., New York City Lore, Contributor 24. Wooldridge, Brooke, Florida International University, Digital Library of the Caribbean

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 1 The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture : Collaborative Research and Scholarship on Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora University of Florida and Duke University I. Substance and co ntext Vodou is the hereditary spiritual tradition of African descendants in Haiti (Jil and Jil 2009). Until scholars and practitioners began writing down songs in the mid twentieth century, Vodou was transmitted orally from elders to children and from pri ests to initiates. Vodou religion is founded on the adoration of Bondye (God), the lwa (spirits), the Marasa (the Divine Twins) and the dantan (ancestors). The unfolding of ritual orchestrated by priests, priestesses and musicians, the appearance of the lw a in the bodies of worshipers, and feasting in honor of the lwa transmits detailed information about the past and connects historical experiences to present day struggles. Vodou is a Haitian religion, phi losophy, culture and way of life with origins in Dahomey in West Africa and the Kongo in Central Africa. At the center of contemporary Vodou is the ceremony which is the nexus of rituals, liturgy, s ongs, rhythms, animal sacrifice and possession performance s. This collaboration focuses on the Vodou ceremony, its participants and the songs they sing. This collaborative partnership spearheaded by the University of Florida (UF) and Duke University (DU) seeks to improve the understanding of a central Haitian and Haitian American spiritual tradition by gathering the audiovisual and textual sources of Vodou communities, by interpreting what we collect, by expanding the holdings through a self submission tool and by diffusing the knowledge via an open access digita l library ( click here to see the current prototype ) hosted within the existing Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC). In addition to the 27 international partners working with the Digi tal Library of the Caribbean, c ollaborators from the U niversity of Notre Dame the University of Miami, the Schrijversvakschool, Florid a International University, the Universit des Antilles et de la Guyane and City Lore a mong others, will contribute e l e m e n t s t o t he future Vodou Archiv e digital library for which this application pertains This project belongs to a tradition of scholarly work

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 2 stretching back to the early 20 th century that has sought to counter reductionist and racist visions of the religio n through ethnography, analysis of culture and music, and an exploration of the role of Vodou in Creole language songs Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English this project focuses on making that knowledge available in Haitian Creole and English alo ng with substantial interpretative annotations and essays to contextualize the collection. The future Vodou Archive will be the first multimedia digital library to deliver a diversity of Vodou sources and complement them with rich scholarly exegesis that s ituates the source materials in their national and international historical and cultural context. The current assortment of Vodou content on websites is woefully inadequate (click here here and here to see examples). This project launches a digital library that will fill major gaps in knowledge about the religion and will serve as a springboard for f urthe r research by assembling a representative peer reviewed corpus of Vodou sources. The materials to be edited and curated by this team are of major literary, historical, cultural and religious significance. The vast Vodou corpus stands out because it preser ves a wealth of African cultural, ethnological and historical knowledge (Beauvoir 2008b). The oral and textual corpora of songs are comprised of the authentic and living traditions of the Vodou religion. They are primarily the songs that are sung in the co ntext of Vodou worship in public and domestic ceremonies and they constitute the sacred literature of the religion. Vodou songs, a constant in ceremonies, address the mythologies and characteristics of the lwa and they describe their relations with humans. Vodou songs are time capsules that reveal the history and origins of the Haitian people in Africa, their journey to the Americas in the French slave trade, and their lives in the French colony. Due to their sacred nature, they are very well preserved reco rds of African and Haitian history and culture (Michel 2006: 30). Ceremonies and songs preserve African historical (i.e. Bosou Achade Legba Danbala ), cultural (i.e. lwa ounsi ason oungan ) and geographical (i.e. Rada Savalou Boumba ) terms in a creol ized or blended religious and cultural

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 3 system (Brand 2000: 15; Monsia 2003; Rouget 1991, 2001: v). Likewise, there are numerous Vodou ceremonies (rites) classified by the African nanchon (nations/communities) where they originate, i.e. Rada, Petwo, Ginen, Seneka, Ibo, Danwonmen Nago, Kongo, Kita, etc. (Beauvoir 2008a: 109 110). Vodou songs form the largest corpus of Haitian Creole literature in existence (Laguerre 1980). As they intertwine with Haitian culture, identity and history, they are a key resour ce for anyone interested in understanding Haiti. While some songs, particularly those associated with initiation, are not shared outside of the religion, the majority of them are sung in open ceremonies, often recorded and distributed by practitioners (not ably in CDs produced and sold in Haitian diaspora communities), and a number have formed the basis for Haitian Vodou pop music (for example, Boukman Eksperyans 1991 ; Racin e Figuier 1999; King Kessy 2009, etc.). The review also can view clips of Vodou cerem onies on YouTube ( click here ), but little of the material is translated or explained, leaving goal is to offer access to a corpus that is both audio visual and textua l in order to guarantee maximum comprehension and contextualization. Vodou religion is profoundly important within the broader culture. Nevertheless, Vodou is still subject to extremely negative and stereotypical representations (Desmangles 1992). Such re presentations have concrete effects on the lives of Haitians. Within the country, Vodou practitioners have suffered through periods of persecution at the hands of the Catholic Church, often acting with support from the Haitian government, as well as the U. S. government during the 1915 1934 occupation of Haiti (Ramsey 2011) In the tumultuous years of 1941 42, temples were raided, sacred objects burned, and holy trees cut down. At times Vodou priests and priestesses have been killed. As recently as the past year, there were instances of attacks on Vodou practitioners who were blamed by some groups for the cholera epidemic ( click here ). In the U.S., negative depictions of Vodou shadow the dia spora community, notably during the 1980s when Haitians were accused of being responsible for the transmission of the AIDS virus from animals to humans (through animal sacrifice in Vodou ceremonies), and for having brought the disease to the U.S. (Stepick 1998; Farmer 1999). Though both theories turned out to be false, their dissemination led

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 4 to discrimination against Haitians in the U.S. for several years. Ignorance and negative ideas about Vodou are not only costly fo r practitioners themselves. These idea s undermine efforts on the part of scholars, development experts, and foreign organizations to understand contemporary Haiti and develop effective and sustainable community based projects (Stepick 1998; Farmer 1999). The proposed Vodou Archive therefore ai ms to preserve the rich cultural traditions of Vodou from the threat of loss. One key reason Vodou is easily victimized is because little Vodou sacred literature or commentary about it is available. From a comparative point of view, research and exeg esis on Christianity, Islam or Judaism are literally founded upon the study of the Hebrew Scriptures, the Qu r an, and the New Testament. While many Creole and French language volumes have been published ( Roumain 1943; Marcelin 1950 ; Rigaud 1953; Beauvoir 2008a & b; and Jil & Jil 2009 ), efforts to make a sizeable portion of the sources of Vodou available in English have been scant with the exception of the out of print Courlander (1939; 1960), t he out of print Laguerre (1980) and Lomax (2009) The collection, tr anscr iption, subtitling, translation and interpretation of digital sources are prerequisites for serious research on Vodou traditions in the English language world ( Olupona & Rey 2008). The Vodou Archive will provide all texts bilingually and include exten sive annotations about them in English. See the screen shot s in the appendix below for an illustration or click here for examples in the Vodou Archive prototype. Hebblethwaite (2012) strives to be a st andard and multidisciplinary publication on Vodou sources in addition to being a tool for the study of the Haitian Creole language and culture. Yet it only taps into a small portion of the massive corpus of Vodou songs and only in a textual format. A remar kable array of printed, recorded, filmed, and photographed materials remains largely untapped and unavailable to researchers and readers. The goal of this project is to collect and curate those Creole materials, to translate them into English and to provid e extensive scholarly syntheses for their interpretation. The multimedia corpus assembled in the Vodou Archive will represent a significant expansion of the possibilities for analysis and understanding of the religion. It will highlight the striking audiov isual dimensions of Vodou in a way that written text cannot. The materials to be curated are divided into four types:

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 5 Audiovisual content a vailable as sound, photographic or video footage that will be transcribed, translated, subtitled and explicated Textu al content available as facsimile, updated moderni zations and translations Critical syntheses such as commentary, exegesis, etymology, etc., available in English submission tool Table brackets indicate who is respon sible for the component: [H] = Hebblethwaite; [D] = Dubois; [ RA ] = Research Assistant; [ P] = Pierre; [T] = Tarter; [S] = Soimaud; [R] = Ri chman; [ vD ] = Van Daalen Hebblethwaite and Dubois selected these materials because, in the case of the interviews and ceremonies, they are a part of established and respected Vodou communities, and, in the case of the textual sources, they belong to l arge and important collections of Vodou songs. Table 1: The organization and corpus of the digital library, The Vodou Archive Audiovisual sources of Vodou and who will work on them Total number of files and texts and where they are held (1) Ceremonies a nd songs with Oungan (Vodou priest) 100 songs collected; 400 additional songs to be collected in Miami (2) Interviews and ceremonies with Oungan Beauvoir in Mariani, Haiti [H., D., RA] 5 10 hours to be reco rded and filmed in Haiti; 50 page (3) Interviews and ceremonies with Oungan Marcenat in Belle Rivire, Haiti [H., RA] 15 hours collected; transcription needed; 80 pages (4) Interviews and ceremonies and La Plaine du Nord, Haiti [ H., D., P., RAs] 30 hours of recording to be collected; 80 pages (5) 40 songs [H., D., P., RA] 2 00 songs held by IU Archives of Traditional Music (IU ATM) (6) 60 pages; held by IU ATM (7) 80 pages; recordings held by UF (8) 250 photographs; held by Soimaud (9) recordings, transcriptions and translat ions of Vodou experts on Vodou trees [T., H.] 150 photographs to be taken and 80 pages of interviews to be transcribed (10) Audiovisual footage of Oungan Erol Josu [D., P., RA] 150 songs to be recorded, transcribed, and translated (11) nd interviews from Leyogn [R.] 50 songs plus 30 pages of interviews (12) rhythms [W.] 30 rhythms x 5 minutes each (13) in Holland [ vD .] 100 photographs with annotations T extual sources of Vodou Total number of texts/pages (14) s (1939 40) song texts [H., P., RA] 100 song texts; 50 pages; IU ATM

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 6 (15) 22 pages; H. holds the manuscript (16) Vodou songs in Hati: Potes noires (1951) 28 pages; H. holds the manuscript (17) Selections from the Catholic mystical texts of Coret (1851) and Julio (1895) 6 0 pages total from Coret and Julio, ( click her e for a sample ) (18) Se lections from Beauvoir (2008a) and (2008b) [H., D., P., RA] 50 pages + 200 pages; H. holds the manuscript Critical syntheses Total number of pages (19) Archives and its holdings 80 pages (20) Annotations on the songs and interviews 1 2 notes per line of song (21) Annota photographs 80 pages and notes on all photos (22) earthquake Vodou 40 pages (23) construction and songs of reproach 30 pages (24) in Haiti 40 pages (25) 250 photographs all fully annotated (26) Annotations and subtitles on video footage Approximately 200 pages (27) tjenbwaz in Matinique 164 pages; held at UF ( click here ) (28) Self submission tool In place for the Vodou Archive (29) Index and its advanced search engine In place as in (28) above 1. The audiovisual content of the Vodou Archive The audiovisual content will be collected from several Vodou temples and practitioners in Miami and Haiti. Since Vodou is a hierarchically organized religion, it is critical to have the approval of a Vodou priest or priestess if one hopes to visit and study a community. The importance of gaining their approval is compounded by the fact that most Vodou temples are located in the homes of priests and priestesses. All priests, priestesses and practitioner s will be asked to sign UF IRB informed consent forms prior to recording. The audiovisual content has been selected based on our prior experiences and our network of contacts in Vodou communities. Contacts we have in the temples and communities of Oungan A lisma (living in Miami and with roots and connections in Gonaves), Oungan Beauvoir (living in Marian i, Haiti), and Oungan Marcenat (living in Belle Rivire, Haiti) represent an important group of contacts. Work in these networks will lead to invitations t photographic work at multiple temples will also provide us with leads to other ceremonies. (1) In Miami in 2010, Hebblethwaite began recording ceremonies at the temple, Socit Linto Roi in North Miami, and others. Ou ngan (Vodou priest) Michelet Alisma gave Hebblethwaite permission

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 7 to reco rd transcribe, translate and photograph durin g the ceremonies at his temple. In addition, the extensive Miami contacts of the photographer and Vodou expert Jrme Soimaud, will be d rawn upon for access to various Vodou temples. Oungan Alisma, in accordance with the Vodou calendar, regularly hosts ceremonies in honor of lwa (spirits) and he also conducts kanzo ( initiation cerem onies), consultations, healings and divinatory activities. regularly have mastered hundreds of songs and significant crowds attend ceremonies. The research team will specifically attend ceremonies for zili Dant from July 14 th 16 th 2013, and the Rada, Nago, Kongo and Petwo ceremon ies held nightly from December 31 st January 5 th 2014 15. As Hebblethwaite lives near Miami, he and other UF researchers will attend at least 3 additional Vodou ceremonies in Miami. (2) In Haiti, interviews will be collected with O ungan Max Beauvoir Vodou priests and researchers at his temple in Mariani, near Port au Prince, December, 2012 January, 2013. In addit ion, audiovisual materials from services in his community will be collected. (3) In 2008 and 2009, Hebblethwaite collected a 15 hour corpus of interviews with O ungan Nelson Marcenat in Belle Rivire, Haiti. The Vodou Archive includes a sample of those tra nscribed materials ( click here ) and additional selections will be transcribed and translated. Team members will th 2012, and Janua ry 6 th 2013, in Belle Rivire, Haiti, providing a perspective on rural Vodou. In between those ceremonies, we will also meet with Vodou experts in Jacmel and Port au Prince. (4) Additional oral sources will be collected during fieldtrips to key Haitian towns that annually attract Vodou pilgrims. Team members will travel to Haiti during key periods in the Vodou calendar in order to re cord and film songs, interviews and ceremonies at found altars and in local Vodou temples. In La Plaine du Nord on June 23 25 th 2013, a pilgrimage in honor of the lwa Ogou and Saint Jacques takes place and draws thousands of Haitians. In the winter break of 2013 14 the team will visit Gonaves to work with Oungan in late December and early January, 2013 14, and the temple Souvnans, also in Gonaves, during Easter week, 2014. We have

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 8 links with Vodou priests in Pestel, Haiti, who we can visit alternately Lastly, on July 14 th 1 6 th Dant and Our Lady of Mount Carmel draws thousands from all over Haiti and its diaspora (5) sound recordings (acc ompanied by his transcriptions, discussed below ), held by the Indiana University (IU) Archives of Traditional Music with rights hel d by the Emma Courlander Trust Hebblethwaite will select the best examples of those recordings to be u ploaded as sound files to the Vodou Archive and accompanied by the associated texts and annotations. Dating from 1939 40, those recordings are, along with Alan Lomax (2009), among the earliest known Vodou recordings (6) Chapter 5 in Hebblethwaite (2012), Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English is a transcription of songs and discourse collected by Laura Boulton in a Vodou temple in Haiti in 1947. Boulton is known for her ethno musicological fieldwork and recordings in countries around the world. The Vodou Archive will digitize her recordings, currently held by the IU Archives of Traditional Music with permissions held by Columbia U., and include the transcribed source texts, translations and annotations. Hebblethwaite worked with Aaron Fox and Ana Ochoa at Columbia U. in 2010 to obtain the (7) Recently, the UF Libraries rediscovered 20 reels of in stantaneous phonotape recorded in the field under the direction of Maya Deren in 1948. The reels had been in storage for decades at UF. Deren is well known for her fieldwork in Haiti that culminated in the 195 3 book, The Divine horsemen: The living gods of Haiti. recordings. This team will transcribe and translate a representative selection of her digitized materials and include annot ations about their meanings. UF is the rights holder. (8) Jrme Soimaud an independent artist living in Miami, has photographed Vodou ceremonies for several years in Miami and he has built up an important collection of 30,000 photographs dedicated to Vodou religious ritual. His photography of Vodou ceremonies and the Haitian community in Miami is

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 9 recognized in various publications (Plaza 2006; Spence 2009; Saunders 2010). Soimaud will select phot ographs for inclusion in the digital library and he will accompany Hebblethwaite and Dubois to take photographs in Haiti. Other team members also will contribute photographs to the Vodou Archive. In the Vodou Archive prototype, see a selection of his photo graphs here and annotations about them here (9) Vodou theology holds that Vodou lwa (spirits) dwell in the sky, in trees and plants, in the earth, and under w ater (Jil & Jil 2009). In the summer of 2011, Andrew Tarter, an NSF funded Ph.D. candidate in Anthropology at UF, collected photographs and recorded unstructured interviews with Vodou practitioners in Haiti on the topic of trees and plants central to Vodou (10) Dubois will work with Oungan Erol Josu on filming, transcribing, and translating his repertoire of Vodou songs ( click her for a sample ). Josu was born into the Vodou tradition and was initiated as a priest at the age of 17 and he has also released a highly acclaimed album of Vodou music entitled, Rglman (Ritual Order). Dubois and Pierre will film Josu singing at least 150 songs; in addition, they will transcribe, translate, subtitle and annotate the video files. (11) Richman has collected analog and digital recordings of Vodou ceremonies, songs, and interviews with Vodouists for many years. Her work primarily has focused on the commu nities located in the town of Leyogn, situated south of Port au Prince. Richman will digitize her analog collection and select materials from her digital data for inclusion in the digital library. After digitizing and making selections, she will transcrib e the songs and interview s, provide English translations and add annotations. (12) Lois Wilcken has studied and collected data on Vodou for more than two decades. As an ethnomusicologist, she will focus on drumming, an art form that has been understudied. Wilcken will research Vodou in New York in addition to a Vodou community surviving in a tent camp since the earthquake. She will develop a database of songs to discover patterns of modality and phrasing in the rhythmic structure Her contribution will pro vide a valuable component in music theory and structure. Wilcken notational transcriptions available as subtitles will help musicologists study Vodou rhythms.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 10 (13) Maria van Daalen, an accomplished Dutch poet, was initiated as a Vodou manbo in 2007. She will contribute 100 annotated digital photographs of Vodou as it is practiced in the Netherlands. 2. The textual sources of Haitian Creole Vodou The textual sources of Vodou are fairly abundant; however, they appear in rare and out of print books or manus cripts held by a small number of libraries and they are scarcely translated This part of the project involves collecting, scanning, transcribing, editing, translating, and annotating those texts (see the appendix for selection principles, transcription po licies and translation methods). (14) Hebblethwaite (2012) includes 50 out of approximately 200 songs from an unpublished Harold Courlander manuscript held by IU sic. Hebblethwaite and a research assistant will scan, transcribe, edit and annotate the songs. Hebblethwaite worked with the Emma Courlander Trus t and obtain ed the rights for the Harold Courlander songs in his (2012) book (15) o f print book, La tradition voudoo et le voudoo hatien in its original form available in the Vodou Archive prototype ( click here ), includes more than 100 unique Vodou songs and texts that Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants will transcribe and translate into English. (16) The collection of essays, Hati: potes noires (1951), digitized in its original form at the Vodou Archive prototype ( click here ), includes many unique Vodou songs embedded in scholarly commentary. Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants will transcribe the songs, modernize the spelling, and produce translations plus explanatory annotations. (17) Vodou priests and priestesses employ Catholic texts, liturgy and songs at the opening of ceremonies, as well as in healing rituals, good luck blessings and birth or burial rituals. Coret (1851) and Julio (1896) include common ly used French language prayers from which texts will be chosen, edi ted, translated and annotated. These French language Catholic materials shed light on the Christian traditions that have been grafted onto Vodou. Hebblethwaite and a research assistant will produce a total selection

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 11 of 60 pages. A 14 page sample from Julio (1896) is available at the Vodou Archive prototype ( click here ). Material will be selected based on feedback from Vodou priests and priestesses. (18) Oungan (Vodou Priest) Max Beauvoir (2008a & b) are the most significant Haitian Creole publications on Vodou. Beauvoir (2008a) is a centuries old cycle of prayers that was reconstructed work with Vodou priests who maintained parts o f the oral tradition. Beauvoir (2008b) is a collection of 1,763 Vodou songs, most of which are different from those in Hebblethwaite (2012). The team will collaborate closely with Beauvoir to ensure that the selections are representative. Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants will transcribe, translate and anno tate the material 3. Critical Syntheses of the Vodou Archive Interlocked with the audiovisual and textual materials, the digital library will include explanatory critical syntheses tha t interpret the materials and compare them to related religions in the African diaspora and in Africa. Based on the audiovisual and textual data collected, these essays and annotations will explain what a Vodou ceremony is and what roles the songs, music, liturgy and ritual have; they explore who the main participants in Vodo u ceremonies are and the actions and behavior they engage in, especially spirit possession; they examine what Vodouists say about ceremonies, songs and worship; they describe the pre existing Vodou content and the condition it is in; lastly, they explore h ow Vodou in Haiti differs or resembles the practice of the religion in the Haitian diaspora in the United States. Lastly, the syntheses examine the history of Vodou. (19) Hebblethwaite and Dubois will write an introduction to the digital library and its co ntents in which they analyze the history, structure and culture of Vodou in the context of the collected materials. (20) Focused on the difficult and obscure dimensions of the songs and interviews, the team members will provide annotations, footnotes and explanatory texts. These explanations will explain the mythologies and attributes of the lwa (spirits) the specialized terminology of Vodou, references to Vodou objects, traditions, and aspects of the religion that need explanation.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 12 (21) Annotations and explanations about the trees and plants in the Vodou cultural sphere will be provided by Tarter. Explanations will be provided for all of the photographs and a synthesis will be submitted about the interviews he collects from Vodou experts. (22) Given th at the January 12 th 2010, earthquake and the recent cholera outbreak have resulted in the ongoing scapegoating of Vodouists in Haiti ( click here for evidence ) Deborah Jenson will contri bute an essay that examines the impact that these two tragedies have had on Vodou and she will explore how Vodou songs are used to understand and overcome disasters. (23) st disaster redevelopment of Haiti. A key element in this critique of contemporary events is the chante pwen (song of reproach) (Richman 2008). Lewis will document references to reconstruction and redevelopment in chante pwen providing a window into the c hallenges of reconstruction in Haiti. (24) Kate Ramsey will write an essay on the sacred objects confiscated and purchased by U.S. Marines during the 1915 34 occupation. Several drums and other objects are in storage at the Smithsonian, one is at the Un iv ersity of Pennsylvania Museum and three are held at the National Museum of the Marine Corps in Virginia. Building on her 2011 book, Ramsey will discuss the history of the repression of Vodou in Haiti in the context of law, the U.S. occupation, the Catholic Church, and, in contemporary Haiti, the Protestant church. (25) The photographer, Jrme Soimaud, in collaborati on with Hebblethwaite and the research assistant s, will provide captions and explanations for all of the photographs that he selects for the digital library ( click here for an example of annotations to his photographs ). (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois, Pierre and the research assistants will provid e annotations, explanatory text and subtit les for all the audiovisual footage. (27) Raphal Confiant is a well known novelist, author, and scholar working in Martinique. His book in Martinican Creole, Djab adan kilti kreyol la ( Vodou spirits in Creole culture ), is available in the Vodou A rchive pr ototype ( click here ). His book explores djab (spirits) across the Caribbean and it

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 13 explores how African beliefs intersect with European traditions like F reemasonry, popular Catholicism and European folklore. He will document the ongoing practices of the Martinican tjenbwaz supplying a valuable perspective on African religious traditions on eastern Caribbean islands. (28) A permanent and interactive component of the digital library will be the self submission tool through which outside users can upload audiovisual or textual files in addition to scholarly papers for peer review The self submission tool is currently available as part of the Digital Libra ry of the Caribbean (dLOC), and 27 international partners are u sing it successfully to submit archival, library and museum materials for inclusion. The self submittal tool easily allows partners to register for accounts, authenticate access and submit materials to institutional and topical subcollections, all of which are searchable individually and in aggregate through the dLOC and all materials are fully searchable through commercial search engines like Google. The self submission tool will add interactivity and keep the digital library in a permanent state of growth (29) Finally, as part of the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC), the site is currently indexed and its advanced search engine makes all of the texts in the digital library fully searchable using metadata, with faceted search results, as well as fu ll text. The search engine is able to list every occurrence of a word to see how it is used across the entire collection. Hebblethwaite, Dubois and Tarter will collaborate with the dLOC programmer, Mark Sullivan, to refine the existing search engine. The s earch engine and user tools will stimulate new research because they provide researchers with the means to conduct the advanced study of Vodou II. History and duration of the project This digital library project is the multimedia expansion of research t hat Hebblethwaite and Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English Avengers of the New World: the Story of the Haitian Revolution (2004) and, Haiti: The Aftershocks of History (2012), along with two articles on Vodou song and history, represent the first phases of this project. While Hebblethwaite (2012) collects and analyzes

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 14 the role that Vodou has in archiving and channeling Haitian history. The planned Vodou Archive will fill a vacuum by providing an annot ated audiovisual and textual library that documents and explains Vodou ceremonies and songs. Hebblethwaite (2012) contains several bilingual chapters of source texts, including Roumain (1943), Jaegerhuber (1950), Price Mars (1956), Marcelin (1950a & b), Boulton (1947), the songs of 40), in addition to substantial critical chapters such as a dictionary of Vodou terminology, a grammatical sketch of Haitian Creole for stu dents of the language, a gallery of photographs, a bibliography and an index. What is lacking from Hebblethwaite (2012) is the audiovisual dimension of Vodou, a gap that this team addresse s. The books of McAlister (2002) and Richman (2008) include compact discs with songs, but in the case of McAlister the focus is Rara ( Vodou carnival processional culture), and in the case of Richman, the songs are recorded on cassette recorders by family members and are not from ceremonies. In terms of preliminary resea rch, several parts of this proposal are underway, i.e Table 1 shows that data collection has begun with Alisma (1), Marcenat (3 ), Boulton (6 ), Soimaud ( 8 ), Tarter ( 9), Josu (10), Richman ( 11 ) Van Daalen ( 13 ), Rigaud ( 15 ), Hati: Potes noires (16) Juli o ( 17 ) and Confiant (27) plus a prototype of the digital library is online ( click here ). Hebblethwaite has received an internal UF award of $11,408 to record, transcribe and translate Vodou ceremonies in Miami in th e summer of 2012. This work will be completed and available on the Vodou Archive prototype by August 15 th 2012. UF and DU are partners on the Digital Library of the Caribbean project, and institutional support is available for this project from both of t Digital Library Center is the technical host for the digital library and will comm it infrastructure and personnel for online publishing. The UF Center for Latin American Studies has office space and computer equipment available to support the work of the student assistants. Haiti Lab also has outstanding office space and computer equipment to support

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 15 al Library Center has produced the prototype of the Vodou Archive digital libr ary to illustrate the design, organization and types of content The project grant period will be three academic years and three summers ( 10/1/2012 9/30 / 2015), the equivalent of nine semesters. UF Libraries will provide support in perpetuity for online access and digital preservation for all project materials, as is the case for all digital projects supported by the UF Libraries and the Digital Libra ry of the Caribbean (dLOC). UF Libraries have 80 years of history serving as the preservation partner for libraries, archives and cultural heritage institutions in the Caribbean. shared support for preservation and access to Caribbean resources ( click here for history ). dLOC is supported by various units in the UF Libraries with focused support from the Digital Library Center. III. Staff At UF, the project director Benjamin Hebblethwaite (FTE .20, total cost share = $40 ,500 ; NEH summer stipend request = $ 2 6,836 ) teaches classes in Haitian Creole, Haitian Studies and French. He has a Ph.D. in French Linguistics from Indiana University. Hebblethwaite has published several books in addition to articles on applied ling uistics, theoretical linguistics and language policy. He has worked on numerous collaborative projects in linguistics. Hebblethwaite will coordinate all of the work at UF while the co project director, Laurent Dubois, will be responsible for work at DU Th ey will closely collaborate to produce and edit materials and they will supervise and review the work of the collaborators and RA s. They will also undertake much of the fieldwork select and produce texts, recordings and film footage for inclusion and, wit h the help of RAs, they will edit the digital data, add subtitles, annotations and produce or edit the parts of the critical syntheses They will maintain the ongoing self submission tool. Ferdinand Lewis Ph.D., Lecturer in the School of Landscape Archite cture and Planning a nd proficient speaker of Creole, will write an article that documents how Vodou songs of reproach address contemporary events in earthquake reconstructi on and redevelopment (100 hours ; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). Andr ew Tarter a Ph.D. candidate in Anthropology at UF and proficient speaker of Creole,

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 16 examines tree translate the interviews, and write annotations and texts that expla in and interpret the primary sources (400 hours; NEH request = $6,604 ). Musset Apollon and Wilmide Vernet are UF undergraduate students who speak, rea d and write Haitian Creole as native speaker s. As OPS research assistants, t hey will work 10 hours per wee k in the academic year and 20 hours weekly in the summer on transcription, translation, orthographic modernization and subtitling of videos (NEH total request = $24,624) Laurent Dubois (FTE .20; total cost share = $90,864; NEH summer stipend request = $2 6,636 ) the co project director, works as co director of the Haiti Lab at the F ranklin Humanities Institute; he is the author of several books on Haitian history that have explored the role of Vodou in the politics and culture of the country, and he has d one ethnographic research on the religion in France, the U.S. and Haiti and h e is proficient in Creole and French. Dubois holds an interdisciplinary PhD in Anthropology and History from the University of Michigan, and teaches in Romance Studies and History at Duke University He currently holds a Mellon New Directions Fellowship to study Musicology and Ethnomusicology. Deborah Jenson the other co director of the Haiti Lab who has published one book and several articles on Haiti and is proficient in Creole, will contribute an article to the project as well as offering expertise and leads about Vodou songs encountered in her parallel research project on trauma in Haiti ( 100 hours; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ) Jacques Pierre a core faculty member of the Haiti lab linguist and Creole instructor, will work closely with Dubois on the translation and interpretation of Vodou song texts (240 hours; NEH request = $9,048 ). Research assistant Christy Mobley a graduate student trained in African and Caribbean his tory, has studied Creole along with Lingala and will contribute to the interpretation of songs with a focus on the presence of African words and place names within them (10 hours week ly over two academic years and two summers ; NEH request = $13,200 ). The two teams at DU and UF will work with a wider network of contributors in other locations. Jrme Soimaud an independent artist living in Miami who speaks Creole and French, has been photographing Vodou ceremonies for several years and has amassed a vast c ollection of photographs. He

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 17 will select from his collection and write annotations (240 hours ; NEH request $4,800 ). Karen Richman Associate Professor at the U. of Notre Dame and proficient in Creole and French, has written extensively about Vodou. She will digitize selections from her analog recordings, transcribe them into Haitian Creole, produce English translations, and add annotations ( 100 hours; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). Kate Ra msey Assistant Professor of History at the University of Miami and proficient in Creole and French, will digitize documents that pertain to the persecution of Vodou and she will gather photog raphs of Vodou objects taken during the U.S. occupation of Haiti (100 hours; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). Lois Wilcken an ethnomusicologist who has published a book on Vodou rhythm and is proficient in Creole and French, will gather digital recording s from ceremonies in New York City and Haiti and she will film Vodou drummers and provide subtit led musical notation (100 hours; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). Maria van Daalen a Vodou priestess who also teaches poetry at the Schrijversvakschool in Ams terdam, will submit photographs of Vodou in the Netherlands with annotations (100 hours; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). Raphal Confiant a lecturer at the Universit des Antilles et de la Guyane and already a contributor to the Vodou Archive prototype will conduct research on the African religious practices of the Lesser Antilles (100 hours ; NEH honorarium request = $1,000 ). He is proficient in French, Martinican and Haitian Creol es. The librarians collaborating on this project include Laurie Taylor ( FTE .05 total cost share = $10,254 ) Digital Humanities Librarian for the UF Digital Library Center (DLC) and Technical Director of the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) She is r esponsible for all technical processes, standards, automation and website development. She supports digital humanities projects by coordinating technical support, user support through the web portal, documentation development, and the overall technical imp lementation for research, teaching and public needs. Lois Widmer ( FTE .0 1 total cost share = $3,081 ), Chair of the UF Digital Library Center, coordinates all digitization of materials, as well as all Matthew Lov ing ( FTE .02 total cost share = $ 4,011) Romance Languages Librarian and dLOC Coordinator, works with other subject experts on translations of

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 18 dLOC. Richard Phillips ( FTE .02 total cost share = $4,992 ) Collection, oversees a n extensive outreach network while also selecting materials for digitization. Mark Sullivan (FTE .01; NEH total request = $2,718 ), the dLOC Programmer at UF is responsible for the software development of the digital library management system, such as the dLOC metadata submission toolkit. Randall Renner ( FTE .02 ; NEH total request = $3,612 ) supervises the preservation and optimal online presentation of digital content Margarita Vargas Betancourt (FTE .02 total cost share = $3,921 brarian, will help locate materials about Vodou with a special emphasis on New Orleans, Louisiana, as well as help loc s De partment of Special Collections Holly Ackerman the Latin American and Caribbean librarian at DU and the campus liaison, will collaborate with the DU team to collect materials for the project. Brooke Wooldridge Project Director of dLOC based at Florida International University ( FIU ) is responsible for coordination among partners IV. Methods The pr central research questions explore the Vodou ceremony and the role of songs, music, liturgy, ritual and possession. We will investigate who the main participants are in Vodou ceremonies and what kinds of actions, behaviors and possession event s occur. Through interviews we explore what Vodouists say about the religion We will investigate how Haitian Vodou religion differs from the religion in the Haitian diaspora in the United States. Lastly, we will explore what lessons can be learned from th e knowledge expressed in Vodou ceremonies and interviews. The next paragraphs describe the methods we will employ to answer our research questions. I n order to minimize their impact on the budget, technological items will first be utilized from Digital Library Center (DLC) and DU production unit equipped with most of the technology expected to be needed by this project. The DLC maintains over seven mi llion unique pages and is considered one of the top ten libraries of its kind. In addition, Center for Instructional Tec hnology and Training and Academic Technology p rovide

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 19 various computer workstations with audiovisual editing software and tutors. The Haiti Laboratory at DU has access to a full time web consultant at the Franklin Humanities Institute who will provide t echnical support and training. Several of t he tech nological items needed for this project will be purchased in 2012 An application for working with human subjects has been submitted to the UF Institutional Review Board. Once we have final approval, audiov isual materials will be collected with handheld digital recorders in addition to video cameras that function well in dark settings since lighting is limited in evening ceremonies in Haiti. In order to maximize the diversity of the audiovisual data we captu re, several team members and collaborators will be outfitted with inexpensive flip cameras. One of the main problems with existing sound recordings from Vodou temples is the failure of researchers to position multiple microphones (mics) in various places. Many existing recordings (by Deren, Boulton, Courlander and Hebblethwaite) suffer from the use of a single mic and, as a consequence of lacking mixing capabilities, the powerful drumming adds gain and distortion to the recordings which make transcription of the lyrics challenging. We will r ecord ceremonies by means of a six channel sound board so that the drum volumes can be controlled in the recording process. In order to be as unobtrusive as possi ble, we will use six wireless mics that transmit to wirele ss receivers. The mics will be directional in order to avoid ambient volumes. Wireless lapel mics will be clipped onto the oundjennikon/sanba (choir leader) and the oungan (Vodou priest). Noise cancelling headphones will also be needed so that the volume l evels on the sound board can be set accurately. The mics, receivers, the digital recording device and the sound board will be powered by batteries and a small inverter charger in Haiti because electricity is usually scarce or non existent outside of cities After ceremonies we will confirm our transcriptions with choir members and we will elicit a cappella versions of Vodou songs to facilitate transcription. After the fieldwork, the collected data will be transcribed, translated, or edited on computers. Th e textual sources will be scanned so that the original text can be made available along with the edited version and its translation. Due to the fact that various orthographies were employed until the official

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 20 Institut pdagogique national ) spelling was adopted in 1980, older Vodou source texts require extensive updating and editing. Digital cameras will be used to take photographs. Team members will use their own computers to produce the critical apparatuses. The UF Digital Library Center (DLC) wil l create and support the Vodou Archive digital library, within the core service framework for all digital collections which ensures support in perpetuity. Final Cut Pro or similar software will be used for video editing and subtitling. Sound files will be archived as high quality WAV files. These files will be available online along with MP3 versions to support access even if bandwidth is limited. The text files will appear as page images, searchable text and PDFs to provide support for a variety of user ne eds. All materials will be freely accessible to the public during and after the project. The UF DLC will collaborate with all involved in the project to provide support for technologies that best match the project workflows. The UF DLC is the Technical Lea d for the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) and provides documentation and onsite and online training for dLOC partners. The UF DLC provides hands on support for faculty projects, and will provide ongoing support during the course of this project. Fo r self submitted materials, the UF DLC reviews, normalizes, and processes all files for the digital collections to support optimal access. In addition to the dLOC managed Vodou Archive digital library, the key textual and audiovisual files will be upload ed to iTunes University and f or users with limited bandwidth, the UF DLC supports access by mailing copies of files on CD/DVD and external hard drives when necessary. succeeded in obtaining publishing permission from the Emma Courlander Trust, the IU Archives of Traditional Music, the U. of Michigan Special Collections Library, Columbia Department of Ethnomusicology, O ungan Max Beauvoir, among other s He does not anticipate any problems securing the rights for the planned project. Data will be supported for online access through dLOC and in perpetuity through digital preservation following the standards and practices in place for all UF Digital Collections.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 21 Final ly, the Digital Library of the Caribbean features a multilingual interface, with English, French and Spanish. As a corollary of the Vodou Archive project, Creole will be added as another language option. The budget includes funds for one Haitian Creole tra nslator who will work 10 hours per week for two V. Final product and dissemination The intended audience of the Vodou Archive includes Haitianists, scholars of the Haitian and African di aspora s scholars of religion, anthropologists, folklorists, linguists, ethno musicologists historians and the general readers. A digital library makes possible a large audiovisual component that traditional book publishing cannot offer affordably. Filmed and transcribed ceremonies and songs dedicated to the lwa Legba, Ayizan, Danbala Wdo, Ayida Wdo, Ogou, zili, Agasou, Agwe, among others, will fill a major gap in the research on Vodou which has been primarily textual. The result of the project will be a scholarly digital library that enriches and educates the public by serving as the largest resource on Vodou religion, culture, literature, history and traditions in Haiti and the U.S. diaspora Three screen shots of the Vodou Archive are given in the app endix. Hebblethwaite and Dubois will publish a book that includes highlights from the collection accompanied with compact discs. The book will include an introduction, several chapters of Vodou songs plus the critical syntheses contributed to the Vodou A rchive (see Temple the appendices). articles that describe the digital library and its content to the Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, The Journal of the American Academy of Religion and The Journal of Caribbean History among others. Hebblethwaite and Dubois will give conference presentations about the Vodou Archive: some examples include The Haitian Studies Association The American Anthropological Association and The Southeastern Commission for the Study of Religion All presentations and articles will be available at the Vodou Archive.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 22 The UF Digital Library Center (DLC) develops, manages, and publishes digital content from curatorial collections in support of academic programs, organizes conversion and intake capabilities, facilitates awareness and coordinates instruction in scholarly use and development of digital technologies. The DLC provides all of the technical support and hosting for the UF Digital Collections (UFDC) and the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) which are open access collections, and it ensures digital preservation of all materials. The materials in UFDC and dLOC are co located, have a browse capability, and are cross ref erenced and searchable sets. UF adds more than one million pages a year, all accessible online. The DLC has already collaborated extensively with Hebblethwaite in the development of the prototype of the Vodou Archive The DLC is among the largest digitization facilities in the southeastern United States. SobekCM provides the core infrastructure p owering the collections; it is the internally designed, hosted and supported technology that powers all aspects of the digital collections, including content management and collection management. SobekCM allows users to discover online resources via semantic and full text searches, as well as a variety of different browse mechanisms. For each digital resource in the repository th ere are several display options. SobekCM software is open source. Some of its outstanding features include full text search, browsing views by title and thumbnail, and by new items, support for multiple file ty pes, rich metadata support and worldwide reach interview with O ungan (Vodou priest) Nelson Marcenat is listed here on Google ) SobekCM features extensive documen tation ( click here ). As of 2011, the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) averages over 400,000 unique verified hits per month. Texts and documents in the Vodou Archive will be made freely available in multiple fo rmats to ensure ease of integration into other library catalogues and scholarly aggregation sites (e.g., NINES ). The underlying technology automatically creates library catalog records (MARC format), which are used by UF Libraries and many others to automatically add the records to their local library catalogs. An RSS feed for all items and for the 100 newest items is available for all of the collections in dLOC.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 23 The project partners will promote the Vodou Archive along with dLOC by holding awareness workshops every semester, creating educational web modules, hosting an annual online lecture series, sponsoring presentations on Caribbean Studies, publishing and presenting on Caribbean Studies, creating online exhibits, and conducting onsite and online trainings for partners and users. digitization is done in accordance with established professional standards. Digitization w ill be completed in the UF Digital Library Center and Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) metadata will be created for all digitized materials In practice consistent for all UF digital projects, redundant digital archives are maintained. An in house DLC archive is created by archiving all master files, derivatives and metadata to the central tape archive (with copies of all files in Gainesville, Florida and Atlanta, Georgia). This in house archive provides timely access to all files. Addit ionally, the primary digital archive is maintained by the Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA). Completed by the FCLA in 2005, the Florida Digital Archive public university libraries. The content of the digital library will demonstrate the employment of current best practices and equal access by reflecting the diversity in age, r ace, gender, sexual orientation and ability found within the Haitian and North American communities, as outlined by the UF Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Duke Human Resources All materials produced in this project wi ll be designed for equal access for handicapped persons, particularly those with special visual and auditory needs. VI. Work plan The number and parenthesis refer to the projects given in Table 1: When Activities Responsible party (1) Fall, 2012 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from Miami (1), from Marcenat (3), Deren (7) Tarter (9), Oungan Josu (10) and Wilcken (12) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Tarter; Wilcken Fall, 2012 Textual data is transcribed and translated from Courlander (14) and Coret/Julio (17) Hebblethwaite and RAs Fall, 2012 Photographs are selected, uploaded and annotated from Hebblethwaite, Soimaud,

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 24 of Soimaud (8), Tarter (9) and Van Daalen (13) Tarter and Van Daalen Fall, 2012 Audio recordings are digitized and transcr ibed from Richman Fall, 2012 Annotations and commentary are produced for photographs (25) and for video recordings (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois, research assistants and Soimaud (2) Spring, 2013 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from ceremonies in Miami (1), new recordings from Marcenat (3), Deren (7), Tarter (9), Oungan Josu (10), and Wilcken (12) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Tarter, Wilcken Spring, 2013 Textual d ata is transcribed and translated from Courlander (14) and Coret/Julio (17) Hebblethwaite and RAs Spring, 2013 Photographs are selected, uploaded and annotated from Soimaud (8), Tarter (9) and Van Daalen (13) Hebblethwaite, RAs Soimaud, Tarter and Van D aalen Spring, 2013 The transcribed Haitian Creole texts from Richman (11) are translated into English Richman and Hebblethwaite Spring, 2013 Annotations and commentary are produced for photographs (25) a nd for video recordings (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Soimaud (3) Summer, 2013 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from Alisma in Miami (1), Beauvoir in Haiti (1), Marcenat in Haiti (3), in La Plaine du Nord in Haiti (4), and from Deren ( 7) and Tarter (9) Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs ; Tarter Summer, 2013 The sound files of Courlander (5) and Boulton (6) are uploaded UF Digital Library Center and the IU ATM Summer, 2013 The English translations of Deren (7), Tarter (9), Coret a nd Julio (17) are produced Hebblethwaite and RAs ; Tarter Summer, 2013 Annotations and commentary are produced for photographs (25) and for video recordings (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs ; Soima ud (4) Fall, 2013 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from Alisma in Miami (1), Beauvoir in Haiti (1), Marcenat in Haiti (3) and in La Plaine du Nord in Haiti (4) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants Fall, 2013 Texts from Courlander (1 4) and Beauvoir (18) are transcribed and translated Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants Fall, 2013 The sound files of Courlander (5) and Boulton (6) are uploaded UF Digital Library Center and the IU ATM Fall, 2013 The English translations of D eren (7), Josu (10), Coret and Julio (17) are produced Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Fall, 2013 The final version of Tarter (9) is edited Tarter and Hebblethwaite Fall, 2013 Annotations and commentary are produced for ceremonies, songs and interviews ( 20) and for video recordings (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs (5) Spring, 2014 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from ceremonies in Gonaves (4) and from Beauvoir (2) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Spring, 2014 Texts from Courlander (14) and Beauvoir (18) are transcribed and translated Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Spring, 2014 The English translations of ceremonies with Alisma in Miami (1) and with Josu in Miami (10) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 25 Spring, 2014 The final drafts of Deren (7) Josu (10) and Coret and Julio (17) are edited Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Spring, 2014 Annotations and commentary are produced for ceremonies, songs and interviews (20) and for video recordings (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs (6) Summer, 2014 Eng lish translation s are produced from the transcripts of ceremonies with Alisma in Miami (1), Josu (10), and Beauvoir (2) plus Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs Summer, 2014 Data is collected, transcribed and translated from ceremonies and Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs Summer, 2014 Ramsey travels to the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the National Museum of the Marine Corps to collect data and she writes a synthesis (24) Ramsey S ummer, 2014 Ramsey uploads documentation and critical annotations on the persecu tion of Vodou in Haitian history (24) Ramsey Summer, 2014 First drafts of critical syntheses are submitted by Tarter (9 ), Hebblethwaite and Dubois and the research assistants (20), Jenson (22), Lewis (23) Tarter; Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Jenson; Lewis Summer, 2014 The editing and English subtitling is undertaken on the video data (26) Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs (7) Fall, 2014 The English translation of ceremo nies is produced with Alisma in Miami (1), Beauvoir in Haiti (2), and from Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Fall, 2014 Dubois and research assistants Fall, 2014 Annotations and critical syntheses are undertaken on the collection (19), on songs and interviews (20) on video data (26) and by individual contributors: Jenson (22), Lewis (23) and Ramsey (24) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Jenson; Lewis; Ramsey Fall, 2014 The index and search engine are fine tuned (27) Mark Sullivan (8) Spring, 2015 The English translation of ceremonies with Alisma in books continues (18) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs Spring, 2015 is translated and subtitled Dubois and research assistant Spring, 2015 Annot ations and critical syntheses are undertaken on the collection (19), on songs and interviews (20) on video data (26) and by individual contributors: Jenson (22), Lewis (23) and Ramsey (24) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and RAs ; Jenson; Lewis; Ramsey (9) Summer, 2015 The final editing is completed on the data from Alisma in Miami (1), Josu (10) Hebblethwaite, Dubois Pierre and RAs Summer, 2015 Final correctio ns are made to the critical syntheses, songs and interviews, and essays by Lewis (23), Jenson (22), Ramsey (24), the video annotations (26) and on the index and its search engine (29) Hebblethwaite, Dubois and research assistants; Lewis; Jenson; Ramsey; Su llivan

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Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Project total 10/01/109/30/13 10/01/1309/30/14 10/01/1409/30/15 1. Salaries and Wages Computational Details/Notes a. Project Director Benjamin Hebblethwaite summer 2.5 pay per., 3% annual increase $6,856 $7,062 $7,274 $21,191 b. Project Co-Director Laurent Dubois summer 2.5 pay per., 3% annual increase $6,856 $7,062 $7,274 $21,192 c. UF OPS Research Assistant X 2 $12/hr X 10hr/wk  X 30 weeks $7,200 $7,200 $14,400 d. Summer UF OPS Research Assistant x 2 $12/hr X 20hr/wk X 10 weeks $4,800 $4,800 $9,600 e. Duke OPS Research Assistant $12/hr X 10hr/wk X 30 weeks $3,600 $3,600 $7,200 f. Summer Duke OPS Research Assistant $12/hr X 20hr/wk X 10 weeks $2,400 $2,400 $4,800 g. UF Grad. Student (Andrew Tarter) $14/hr X 20hr/wk X 10 weeks $2,800 $2,800 $5,600 h. Jacques Pierre at Duke U. $20/hr X 10hr/wk X 12 weeks $2,400 $2,400 $2,400 $7,200 i. Jerome Soimaud $20/hr X 10hr/wk X 12 weeks $2,400 $2,400 $4,800 j. OPS UF Digital Library Center translation $12/hr X 10hr/wk x 30 wks $3,600 $3,600 $7,200 k. OPS UF Digital Library Center processing $10/hr X 10hr/wk x 30 wks $3,000 $3,000 l. Mark Sullivan at UF Digital Library Center FTE .01 $696 $696 $696 $2,088 m. Randal Renner at UF Digital Library Center FTE .02 $926 $926 $1,852 2. Fringe Benefits a. Benjamin Hebblethwaite, UF 26.90% $1,829 $1,883 $1,936 $5,648 b. Laurent Dubois, Duke 25.70% $1,761 $1,814 $1,869 $5,444 c. UF OPS Research Assistant x 2 2.60% $188 $188 $376 d. Summer OPS UF Research Assistant x 2 2.60% $124 $124 $248 e. Duke OPS Research Assistant 10% $360 $360 $720 f. Summer Duke OPS Research Assistant 10% $240 $240 $480 g. UF Grad. Student (Andrew Tarter) 8.30% $232 $232 $464 h. Jacques Pierre, Duke 25.70% $616 $616 $616 $1,848 Applicant Institution: University of Florida; Project Director: Benjamin Hebblethwaite

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j. OPS UF Digital Library Center translation 2.60% $94 $94 $188 k. OPS UF Digital Library Center processing x 1 2.60% $78 $78 l. Mark Sullivan at UF Digital Library Center 30.00% $210 $210 $210 $630 m. Randal Renner at UF Digital Library Center 30.00% $278 $278 $556 3. Consultant Fees Honoraria for authors of syntheses x 6 $1000 per contributor $6,000 $6,000 4. Travel To Belle-Riviere/Jacmel/Port-auPrince (12/20/12-1/8/13) Domestic (to Miami) $260 X 5 $1,300 $1,300 Foreign (to Haiti) $500 X 5 $2,500 $2,500 Per diem and ground transportation 5 travellers x 18 days x $60 daily $5,400 $5,400 To La Plaine du Nord/Cape Haitian (6/20/13-6/27/13) Domestic (to Miami) $260 X 5 $1,300 $1,300 Foreign (to Haiti) $500 X 5 $2,500 $2,500 Per diem and ground transportation 5 travellers x 7 days x $60 daily $2,100 $2,100 To Miami (7/14/13-7/16/13) Duke Domestic (to Miami) $300 X 2 $600 $600 Car rental/gas Gainesville-Miami (GNV-Miami) 3 days x $100 $300 $300 Per diem 3 rooms x 3 days x $100 daily $900 $900 To Gonaives-Port-au-Prince (12/20/13-1/8/14) Domestic (to Miami) $260 X 5 $1,300 $1,300 Foreign (to Haiti) $500 X 5 $2,500 $2,500 Per diem and ground transportation 5 travellers x 18 days x $60 daily $5,400 $5,400 To Gonaives-P-au-P (4/14/144/28/14) Domestic (to Miami) 260 X 5 $1,300 $1,300 Foreign (to Haiti) $500 X 5 $2,500 $2,500 Per diem and ground transportation 5 travellers x 14 days x $60 daily $4,200 $4,200 To Saut d'Eau-Port-au-Prince (7/14/14-7/21/14) Domestic (to Miami) $260 x 5 $1,300 $1,300

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Foreign (to Haiti) $500 x 5 $2,500 $2,500 Per diem and ground transportation 5 travellers x 7 days x $60 daily $2,100 $2,100 To Miami (12/31/14-12/5/15) Duke Domestic (Durham-Miami) $300 X 2 $600 $600 Car rental/gas Gainesville-Miami 6 days X $100 daily $600 $600 Per diem 3 room X 6 days X $100 daily $1,800 $1,800 Three additional UF trips to Miami Vodou ceremonies Per diem and ground transportation 1 room, 3 days X $160 daily X 3 trips $1,440 $1,440 Two Research trips for Kate Ramsey to VA and PA Per diem and ground transportation 1 room, 5 days X $100 per day $800 $800 2 round-trip flight tickets $300 X 2 $600 $600 5. Supplies and Materials a. Digital recorder (i.e., Sony PCMM10/B) 1 $300 $300 b. Inverter-charger 1 $400 $400 c. Noise-cancelling headphones 1 $200 $200 d. Book and research publications Estimate $300 $300 6. Services $0 $0 $0 $0 a. Indiana U. digital duplication fees Courlander and Boulton files $400 $400 7. Other Costs $0 $0 $0 $0 8. Total Direct Costs Per Year $72,044 $79,925 $28,275 $180,243 9. Total Indirect Costs Per Year $24,206 $26,855 $9,500 $60,561 Indirect cost calculation: a. Rate: 33.6% of direct cost per year b. Federal Agency: DOH&HS c. Date of agreement: 06/18/10 10. Total Project Costs (Direct and Indirect costs for entire project) $240,804 11. Project funding a. Requested from the NEH Outright: $240,804

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Matching funds: $0 Total requested from the NEH $240,804 b. Cost sharing Applicant's contributions: $66,759 Third party contributions: $90,864 Project income: Other Federal Agencies: $0 Total Cost Share: $157,623 12. Total Project Funding $398,427

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 1 6. Appendices A. Letters of support

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 2

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 3

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 4

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 5 Screen shots of c orrespondence attesting to our welcome in the Vodou community

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 6

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 7 B. Selection Principles for the Vodou Archive The selection principles for the Vodou Archive are presented in the following paragraphs. First, the audiovisual sources available as sound, photographic or video footage have been selected based on our prior experiences and our network of contacts in Vodo u communities. Due to self defensive attitudes that stem from layers of persecution in history, and also from the fact that Vodou temples are typically itation about outside researchers. The contacts we have in the temples and communities of Oungan Alisma (living in Miami and with roots and connections in Gonaves), Oungan Beauvoir (living in Mariani, Hai ti), Oungan Marcenat (living in Belle Rivire, Hait i) and Oungan Yves Petit Frre, Oungan Adonya, Manbo Marlne Bernard and Manbo Mona Bienaim (all living near Pestel, Haiti) represent an important group of contacts. The fact that several priests and priestesses carry out ceremonies together in these temp les means that our attendance will lead to invitations to other ceremonies. In addition, Jrme Hebblethwaite also maintains contacts with various Vodou co mmunities via Facebook. These temples have been selected because they represent active, organized and well respected communities that we have already visited and studied. We have selected important temples in Miami (in addition to Haiti), because Vodou i s a transnational phenomenon that is spreading with the Haitian diaspora. Vodou is coherent and robust in the U.S.; its thriving presence and cultural productivity (ceremonies and songs) merits study. Vodou communities also serve a central role in the live s of Haitian Americans who want to celebrate and maintain their culture. Vodou temples are places where Haitian Americans seek support, friendship and spiritual communion with kindred spirits. The selection criteria for the practitioners we invite to inte rview are based on their knowledge and experience with the Vodou religion. Since our focus is on the songs of Vodou, we will ask to interview the priest or priestess and we will invite active and initiated members of the choir (the oungenikon/sanba [ choir leade r] and the ounsi [initiated choir member]) to meet with us outside the context of ceremonies so that we can elicit songs and talk about their meanings and functions in the ceremony. Doing a random survey of Vodouists would be less helpful for our purp oses because the mastery of Vodou songs, music and culture is specialized knowledge that is gained over a lifetime. Rank in Vodou typically reflects wisdom and knowledge. For these reasons it is best to interview individuals with adequate skills and exposu re. It is crucial to start with the Vodou priest or priestess and those individuals recognized as the guardians of the tradition. The selection criteria for the key Haitian towns that the research team will travel to are based on the importance Vodou has in the town or on the location there of an important Vodou priest. Our team plans to travel to Saut Mariani, Belle Rivire, Jacmel and Port au Prince. Pestel, Haiti, is also possible as an alternate site. In the cases of Saut Nord, these towns are major Vodou centers and, annually, become the destinations of Vodou pilgrims who travel from all over Haiti in order to take part in the events and ceremonies that take place in each locati internationally recognized temples, Souvnans, Lakou Soukri and nan Ba djo. In the cases of Mariani, Belle Rivire and Pestel, we know Vodou priests who are active the re. Finally, in the cases of Jacmel and Port au Prince, these are both important towns for Vodou that are easily accessible while we do our research in Mariani and Belle Rivire. Finally, the selection criteria for the textual sources are based on years of collecting the published sources of Vodou. The textual collections of Courlander (1939 40), Rigaud (1953), Hati: Potes noires (1951), Coret (1851), Julio (1895) and Beauvoir (2008a) an d (2008b) are all essential texts of Vodou religion and culture. C. Transcription Policies and Translation Methods pedals to transcribe all audiovisual data. It is standard to invest 7 hours of listening, re listening and

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 8 analysis for the transcription of each hour of recording. Thereafter, 2 3 hours are needed to verify and correct the transcriptions. All transcription will make use of the official spelling of Hait ian Creole called the IPN ( Institut National Pdagogique 1980). In order to maximize the accuracy of recordings that may be mired with extensive background noise (such as barking dogs, chatter, etc.), Hebblethwaite, Dubois and Pierre will verify all trans criptions with the original audio source; where the method of double checking fails to identify language data, the lacuna will be duly noted. All transcriptions included on the Vodou Archive will be verified by at least two analysts, one of whom will alway s be a native speaker of Haitian Creole. An illustration of our translation methods is provided in the appendix. In translating the source language, usually Haitian Creole, into the target language, English, our method places emphasis on accuracy and str aightforwardness. The grammatical and lexical composition of the English translation must faithfully respect the original Haitian Creole text. Freeman (2004) and Valdman (2007), leading works in bilingual Haitian Creole English lexicography, will be fundam ental tools used by all translators Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English includes a 100 assistants who work on th is project and who are not yet familiar with the Vodou lexicon. Translation will also undergo various layers of review and correction. Once Hebblethwaite, Dubois, the research assistants and any collaborator has completed a file, a different member of the team will review, add corrections and return the file for further improvement. That improved file will then be returned to a third team member so that a process of triangulation yields a highly vetted and polished translation. Hebblethwaite has published four books (2001, 2005, 2010 with Jacques Pierre and 2012) that include source texts and target translations in Haitian Creole, English, Old French or modern French. Hebblethwaite and Pierre (2010) book was ranked one of the best books of 2010 by Le Nouvelliste newspaper in Port au Prince ( click here to read the article ). D. Interview protocols/questions Interview participants are individuals who have expe rience in the religion, are initiated and are members of a Vodou temple. Along with oungan (Vodou priests) and manbo (Vodou priestesses) who often acquire an extensive repertoire of songs, the oungenikon/sanba (the leaders of singing) will be interviewed s ince they are living repositories of knowledge about songs. We want to know where the songs come from in Haiti, what the songs mean in the context of Vodou religion, and who the songs address and why. We want to know how songs are transmitted and collected by the leader of singing. How diverse are the sources of songs sung in a given ceremony or known by a given leader of singing? Do songs come from numerous temples and members in a bottom up process or is their use and transmission a top down process? How regularly do new songs emerge into the community and what are the processes or conditions necessary for their emergence? that ounsi (initiated choir members) are m eeting regularly to practice. We want to know how often per week or per month the community practices and where do the practices take place. We will ask whether practices occur accompanied by drumming or if they are a cappella. We want to know how many Vod ou songs may be known by a given leader of songs and to get some sense of this we will read the first lines of known songs in order to see whether the same or a variant song is known. This investigative technique will shed light on the imperviousness or th e malleability of Vodou songs. We will ask the participants about why there might be variations among similar songs. T he research team will also share recordings of difficult to transcribe Vodou songs from the historical corpus (Boulton, Courlander, Deren ) or in our own contemporary collection (Hebblethwaite, Dubois, Richman) in order to see if the leader of songs recognizes the song and can help us produce an accurate transcription. We will ask the leader of songs to provide us with a cappella versions of songs to make sure that our transcriptions are reliable.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 9 E. Screen shots 1. This screen shot shows all texts presented bilingually with extensive annotations about them in English: 2. This screen shot shows the homepage of the Vodou Archive:

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 10 3. This screen shot presents the view inside of the Vodou Archive with the filter menu for narrowing results on the left hand side of the screen: F. Bibliography Beauvoir, Max G 2008a. Lapriy Ginen Port au Prince: Edisyon Prs Nasyonal d Ayiti. 2008b. Le Grand Recueil Sacr ou Rpertoire des Chansons du Vodou Hatien Port au Prince: Edisyon Prs Nasyonal d Ayiti. Bellegarde The Case Vodou in Haitian Lif e and Culture: Invisible Powers ed. Claudine Michel and Patrick Bellegarde Smith, 101 115. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou ed. Donald J. Consentino, 61 87 Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los Angeles. Brand, Roger. 2000. Ethnographie et vocabulaire religieux des cultes vodoun Munich: Lincom Europa. Brown, Karen McCarthy. 1991. Mama Lola: a Vodou priestess in Brooklyn Comparative Studies in Religion and Society, 4. Berkeley: University of California Press. Consentino, Donald. 1995. Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California. Coret, Jacques. 1851. Paris: A. Audiard. Courlander, Harold. 1939 1940. Unpublished manuscript. Special Collections Library: University of Michigan. 1939. Haiti Singing Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1960. T he Drum and the Hoe: Life and Lore of the Haitian People Berkeley: University of California Press. Deren, Maya. 1953. Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti New York: Book Collectors Society. The Faces of the gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti Chapel

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 11 Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Dubois, Laurent. 2004. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Dubois, Laurent. 2012. Haiti: The Aftershocks of History. New York: Metropolitan Books. Comparative Studies in Society and History 43:1 (January): 92 100. Ta bou: Revue du 5: 325 340. Farmer, Paul. 1999. Infections and Inequalities: the Modern Plagues Berkeley: University of California. Fleurant, Guerds 1996. Dancing Spirits: Rhythms and Rituals of Haitian Vodun, the Rada Rite. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Hati, potes noirs Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. 2012. Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Jaegerhuber, Werner. 1950 [1945]. Complaintes hatie nnes Port au Prince. Jil, Dyeri M. and Ivwoz S. Jil. 2009. Svis Ginen: Rasin, rityl, resp lan Vodou Davi, Florida: Bookmanlit. J.L. 2012. Vodou Songs and Texts in Haitian Creole and English Benjamin Hebblethwaite (ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Julio, Abb. 1896 [2005]. Prires merveilleuses pour la gurison de toutes les maladies. Paris: Bussire. Laguerre, Michel. 1980. Voodoo Heritage Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Laman, K. E. 1964 [1936]. Dictionnaire kikongo franais (2 Volumes). Ridgewood, New Jersey: The Gregg Press. Lomax, Alan, Elizabeth Lyttleton, Revolie Polinice, Ellen Harold, H. P. Davis, and Gage Averill. 2009. The Haiti recordings San Francisco, CA: Harte Recordings. Marcelin, Milo. 1950. Mythologie Vodou (Rite Arada), Volume I & II. Ptionville: ditions Canap Vert. Mason, John. 1992. Orin "rs: Songs for Selected Heads. New York: Yoruba Theological Seminary. McAlister, Elizabeth A. 2002. Rara!: Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and Its Dia spora Berkeley: University of California Press. Mtraux, Alfred. 1972. Voodoo in Haiti New York: Schocken Books. Michel, Claudine and Patrick Bellegarde Smith, eds. 2006. Vodou in Haitian life and culture: invisible powers. New York: Palgrave Macmill an. Monsia, Marc. 2003. Religions indignes et savoir endogne au Bnin Cotonou, Benin: Les ditions du Flamboyant. Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel. 2010. Afro Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Murphy, Joseph M. 1994. Working the spirit: ceremonies of the African diaspora Boston: Beacon Press. Beyond the Myths of Culture ed. E. Ross, 295 321. New York: Academic Press. Olupona, Jacob and Terry Rey (eds.). 2008. of Yorb religious culture Madison: the University of Wisconsin Press. Plaza, Wal January. Price Mars, Jean. 1956. Formation ethnique, folk lore et culture du peuple hatien Port au Prince: Imprimerie N.A. Thodore, 1956. Ramsey, Kate. 2011. The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 12 Richman, Karen. 2008. Migration and Vodou Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. Rigaud, Milo. 1953. La tradition voudoo et le voudoo hatien: son temple, ses mystres, sa magie Paris: ditions Niclaus. Rouget, Gilbert. 1991 [1980]. La musique et la transe Paris: Gallimard. 2001. Initiatique vdoun, images du rituel: Chants et danses initiatiques pour le culte des vdoun au Bnin. Saint Maur, Franc e: ditions Spia. Roumain, Jacques. 1943 [2007]. Le sacrifice du tambour Asst(r) Port au Prince: ditions Presses Miami Magazine September/October. Segurola, Basilio, and Jean Rassinoux. 2000. Dictionnaire Fon Franais Madrid: Socit des Missions Africaines. Sverin, Franois. 2000. Plant ak pyebwa t d Ayiti Port au Prince: Editions Quitel. Small Axe a Caribbean platform for criticism May. Stepick Alex. 1998. Pride against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. Swartenbroeckx, Pierre. 1973. Dictionnaire kikongo et kituba franais: Vocabulaire compar des langues kongo traditionnels et vhiculaires Bandundu: C eeba Publications. Valdman, Albert, et al. Haitian Creole English Bilingual Dictionary Bloomington, Indiana: Creole Institute, 2007. Wilcken, Lois. The Drums of Vodou Tempe, AZ : White Cliffs Media Co, 1992. Wooldridge, Brooke, Laurie N. Taylor, and Mar k Sullivan. 2009. Developing an Open Access, Multi Institutional, International Digital Library: the Digital Library of the Caribbean. Resource Sharing & Information Networks 20: 1 2: 35 44. G. Discography Boukman Eksperyans. 1991. Vodou Adjae Island Records, New York. King Kessy. 2009. Voudou Djam (Vodou Is Strong) Available online at http://KingKessy.com Racine Figuier. 1999. Dant Geronimo Records, New York.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 13 H. Rsums BENJAMIN HEBBLETHWAITE ( Project Director ) Assistant Professor in Haitian Creole, Haitian and Francophone Studies Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures University of Florida 301 Pugh Hall PO Box 115565 Gainesville, FL 32611 5565 Tel.: 352.273.3762 | Fax: 352.392.1443 EDUCATION 2007. Ph.D. in French Linguistics, Indiana University. 2002. MA in French Linguistics, Indiana University. 1999. MA in French Literature, Purdue University. 1993. BA in Religious Studies, English minor, University of Missouri Columbia. TEACHING APPOINTMENTS 8/2007 present. Assistant Professor in Haitian Creole and French Linguistics, University of Florida, Gainesville. 8/2003 5/2007. Lecturer in Haitian Creole, University of Florida, Gainesville. PEER REVIEWED BOOKS 2012. Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 396 pages. 2010. Edited with Jacques Pierre. Une saison en enfer / Yon sezon matchyavl Bilingual edition aitian Creole and French. PEER REVIEWED PUBLISHED & FORTHCOMING ARTICLES Forthcoming in 2012. Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. French and underdevelopment, Haitian Creole and development: Educational language policy problems and sol utions in Haiti. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 1 72 manuscript pages. Forthcoming in 2012. Hebblethwaite, Benjamin and Michel Weber. : le crole hatien et la langue fr anaise Dialogues et cultures 1 20 manuscript pages 2011. Haiti Earthquake, 2010. In Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief Ed. by K. Bradley Penuel, Matthew Statler and J. Geoffrey Golson. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 4 pages. 2010. Adverb Code English Second Generation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 13 (4), 2010, 409 428. anglais de la 2 me gnration Miami Cahiers de Linguistique 34.2.103 126. 2009. Scrabble as a Tool for Haitian Creole Literacy: So ciolinguistic and Orthographic Foundations. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24.2.275 305. 2006. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Haitian Creole in South Florida: The Causes of the Failure to Develop the Natural Asset of Biliteracy Florida Foreign Language Journal 3.1.52 59. 2002. The Universality of M orpho Syntax: Synthetic Compounding in French, English, Dutch and Korean. The Journal of Universal Language 3.2.1 29.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 14 2001. The Unfolding of the Preposition and Affix de in L atin, Gallo Romance, French and Haitian Creole. Revue roumaine de linguistique 46.45 68. PEER REVIEWED BOOK CHAPTERS 1999. The Geo Socio Linguistics of Haitian Creole: the Diaspora. Semiotics 1999 ed. by Simpkins, S., Spinks, C.W., Deely, J, 454 473. New York: Peter Lang. PEER REVIEWED COLLECTIVE PUBLICATIONS 2008. Principal Haitian Creole content developer. Haitian Creole Express CD ROM Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute. 2007. Editorial assistant. Haitian Creole English Bilingual Dictionary Project director, Albert Valdman. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Creole Institute. OTHER PUBLICATIONS 2005. Edited and introduced with Jacques Pierre. The Gospel of Thomas in English, Haitian Creole and French Gainesville: Classic Editions, 120 pages. 2001. Translated in collab oration with Jacques Pierre. Pyebwa frenn nan Translation of Marie de Le Fraisne, into Haitian Creole. Bloomington: Edisyon Klasik, 35 pages PH.D. DISSERTATION 2007. Intrasentential Code Switching among Miami Haitian Creole English Bilinguals Bloomington: Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation. Ann Arbor: ProQuest, 463 pages. AWARDED GRANTS 4/2009. Center for the Humanities and the Public Sphere, $1774.73 grante d to the Smathers Latin American Studies Library to purchase Haitian Creole materials. 1/2009. Vodou Songs and Texts in Haitian Creole and English Studies Course Development grant, $3,500 awarded. 12/2008. The Haitian Creole Scrabble Project: Expanding the Tools of Literacy in Haiti Enhancing the Humanities Grant, $11,924 awarded. 2/2008. Internationalizing the Curriculum, $3,000 awarded for travel to Guadeloupe. PENDING GRANT PROPOSALS ACLS Collaborative Fellowship Gr ant (with Laurent Dubois, co P.I.), The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture Valdman, Albert & Benjamin Hebblethwaite, co PIs. The production of beginning and intermediate adva nced learning materials for Haitian Creole. In progress. RESEARCH APPOINTMENTS 8/2004 8/2005. Main content contributor in the creation of the Haitian Creole Express CD ROM for learners, Foreign Service Institute, Washington, D.C. 6/1999 5/2003. Research A ssistant at the Indiana University Creole Institute lexicography project. Conducted fieldwork in Haiti (summers of 1999 and 2000) and worked as a Research Assistant lexicographer at IU.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 15 L AURENT D UBOIS ( Project Co Director ) Marcello Lotti Professor of Rom ance Studies and History 213 Language Center, Box 90257 Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0257 www.duboisl.wordpress.com E DUCATION University of Michigan August 1998 Ph.D. in Anthropology and History Dissertation: A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1789 1802 Princeton University May 1992 B.A. in Anthropology and English Graduated summa cum laude P OSITIONS Marcello Lotti Professor of Romance Studies a nd History, Duke University 2010 present Departments of History and Romance Studies, Duke University, Full Professor 2007 2010 D epartment of History, Michigan State University Associate Professor 2003 2007 Department of History, M ichigan State University Assistant Professor 1998 2003 Department of Afro American Studies, Harvard University, Visiting Assistant Professor Spring 1999 S ELECTED F ELLOWSHIPS G RANTS AND A WARDS National Humanities Center Fellowship 2008 09 Guggenheim Fellowship 2008 09 Mer 2005 06 Fintz Excellence in Teaching Award 2004 M.S.U. Teacher Scholar Award 2002 Ford Africanist Fellow, W.E.B DuBois Institute for Afro American Research, Harvard University 1 998 99 Fulbright Advanced Student Grant (France) 1996 97 P UBLICATIONS Books Published 1. Haiti: The Aftershocks of History (New York: Metropolitan Books, forthcoming January 2012) 2. Soccer Empire: The World Cup and the Future of France (University of California Press, 2010). 3. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787 1804 (Omohundro Institute for Early American History and Culture and University of North Carolina Press, 2004). Awards: *Fr ederick Douglass Prize, Gilder Lehrman Center (For the best book on Slavery, Resistance and Emancipation) *Atlantic History Prize, American Historical Association *John H. Fagg Prize, American Historical Association (For the best bo ok on Spain, Portugal and Latin America) David Pickney Prize, Society for French Historical Studies (For the best book in French History)

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 16 4. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (The Belknap Press of Harv ard University Press, 2004). Awards: *Selected as one of the Best Books of 2004, Non Fiction, Los Angeles Times *Selected as one of the Notable Books of 2004, Christian Science Monitor *First Runner Up, Best Book, Adult Non Fiction, Society of Mi dland Authors, 2004 2005 Selected Reviews: Christian Science Monitor, Harpers Los Angeles Times The Nation Times Literary Supplement Edited Books Published 1. With Thomas Bender and Richard Rabinowitz, Revolution! The Atlantic World Reborn (New York : New York Historical Museum and Library, 2011).. 2. With Julius Scott, ed., Origins of the Black Atlantic (New York: Routledge Press, 2009). 3. With John Garrigus, ed., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789 1804: A History in Documents (New York: Bedfor d Press, 2006). 5. Soccer Empire: The World Cup and the Future of France (Berkeley: University of California Press, forthcoming 2010). Books Published in Translation 1. Les Vengeurs du Nouveau Monde: Histoire de la Revolution hatienne (Rennes: Les Persides, 2005) and (Port au Translation of Avengers of the New World by Thomas Van Ruymbeke, with Preface by Jean Casimir. 2. e la premire mancipation, 1789 1794 (Paris: Calmann Lvy, 1998). (This was a translation of a portion of my doctoral dissertation.) Books in Preparation 1. A History of the Caribbean with Richard Turits (under contract with University of North Carolina Press). 2. The Banjo: A Cultural History (under contract with Harvard University Press). Selected Articles, Book Chapters and Reviews 1. Norman Fiering, eds., The World of the Haitian Revolution: Viewed 200 Years After (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009). 2. Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisa l (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). 3. 54:4 (December 2007) : 39 69. 4. Genve 5 (2007): 325 340. 5. Small Axe 23 (June 2007): 177 185. 6. Toussaint Louverture The Nation (April 16, 2007). 7. Esprit (February 2007) : 71 80. 8. Social History 31:1 (February 2006): 1 14. (An earlier version of this article Estudios Afro Asiticos Ano 26, No. 2 (2004): 331 354, translated into Portuguese by an editorial team at the journal.) 9. Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales 58: 2 (March April 2003): 281 304.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 17 DEBORAH JENSON CURRICULUM VITAE 205 Language Center, Box 90257 Duke University Durham, NC 27708 (Office) 919 660 3122, (Cell) 919 381 8059 Email: Deborah.jenson@duke.edu EMPLOYMENT, DUKE UNIVERSITY Professor of French and Romance Studies (2008 ); Duke Global Health Institute faculty affiliate (2010 ) Director, Center for the Humanities, University of Wisconsin Madison, 2007 2008 Professor, Department of French and Italian, University of Wisconsin Madison, 2008 EDUCATION Ph.D. Harvard University Romance Languages and Literatures, 1994 Matri se Universit de Paris VIII, French and English Literature, 1985 Mention trs bien B.A. Bowdoin College, Romance Languages and Literatures, 1983 Cum laude, summa cum laude in French BOOKS Beyond the Slave Narrative: Politics, Sex, and Manuscripts in the Haitian Revolution (Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press and the University of Chicago, 2011), 322 pp. [French translation forthcoming with Editions Hrard Jadotte, Port au Prince, Haiti] Trauma and Its Representa tions: The Social Life of Mimesis in Post Revolutionary France (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001) 294 pp. Unconscious Dominions: Psychoanalysis, Colonial Trauma, and Global Sovereignties co edited with Warwick Anderson and Richa rd E. Keller, (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011), 328 pp. Sarah, An English Translation with Doris Kadish, (New York: MLA Editions, 2008) xli and 96 pp. Sarah, The Original French Text with Doris Kadish (New York: MLA Editions, 2008) xxxvi and 93 pp. by Hlne Cixous; editor; translation with Sarah Cornell, Ann Liddle, and Susan Sellers (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1991) 214 pp. ARTICLES AND BOOK CHAPTERS A Companion to Comparative Literature ed. Ali Behdad and Dominic Thomas (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Press, 2011) pp.369 386 with Marco Iacoboni), California Italian Studies 2011 th Student Research Team, Emerging Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vol. 17, n.11 (Nov. 2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110958 The Encyclopedia of the Novel ed. Peter Logan et al (New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2011) pp.219 20 and pp.809 10

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 18 Curriculum Vitae Holly Ackerman, Ph.D. 2120 Pershing Street Durham, N.C. 27705 PERSONAL Home Phone: 305 467 8454 Office Phone: 919 660 5845 E mail: holly.ackerman@duke.edu HIGHER EDUCATION Graduate School of International Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL Ph.D., International Relations Theory. 1996. Major fields : Latin American Studies; IR Theory; Security, Peace & Conflict Studies. Dissertation Director, Dr. Enrique Baloyra. Graduate School of Social Work, Columbia University, NYC, NY MS, Social Work, Major Field: Community Organization, Planning and Administration. 1969. College of Liberal Arts, Howard University, Washington, D.C. BA, Sociology, Magna Cum Laude, 1967. EXPERIENCE Duke University, Perkins Library, Librarian for Latin American, Iberian, and Latino Studies, July 2006 Present. University of Miami, Richter Library, Assistant Professor, Social Sciences and Area Studies Librarian, 2001 2006. Bibliographer for Sociology, Latin American, Caribbean, Afric ana, European, Middle Eastern and International Studies. Tulane University, Center for Latin American & Caribbean Studies and Graduate School of Soci al Work Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, Assistant Professor, 1997 2000. SELECTED PUBLICATIONS Cuba: People, Culture, History edited by West Durn, Alan. et al. New York: Charles S cribner & Sons. 2011, Page 750. Cuba: People, Culture, History edited by West Durn, Alan. et al. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons. 2011, Page 1905. Ackerman, Holly in Clive Carpenter, Ed. World and its Peoples London: Marshall Cavendish, 2008. I authored two articles in this 32 volume set on human geography including anchor essays on the Cuban Economy and Cuban Culture. Ackerman, Holly. Dif ferent Diasporas: Cubans in Venezuela, 1959 1998. In Andrea Herrera and Lourdes Gil. Revisiting the Cuban Diaspora: The 'Idea of a Nation' Displaced Albany: SUNY Press. 2007. Ackerman, Holly. Cuba: Potential Refugee Crisis? An Assessment. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Emergency & Security Services, June 2006. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?docid=44eb2fd44 Ackerman, Holly in Hispanic American Biographies Danbury, CN: Grolier Publishers, 2006. I advised the publisher on selection of Cuban Americans for inclusion in the encyclopedia which is aimed at high school and undergraduate students. I authored eleven biographies.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 19 Lois E. Wilcken, Ph.D. Ethnomusicologist / Teaching Artist / Arts Administrator 621 Rutland Rd Apt 4C, Brooklyn NY 11203 1716 718 953 6638 / makandal@earthlink.net Professional Experience 1971 Present Editor, Writer, and Researcher 1984 Present Ex ecutive Director and Director of Development, La Troupe Makandal 1989 1998 Assistant Professor, Hunter College CUNY 1989 1994 Research Consultant, New York City Board of Education 1994 Present Administrative Manager, City Lore 2003 Present Teac hing Artist, La Troupe Makandal Education Columbia University, New York, Ph.D., Music, 1991 Columbia University, New York, M.Phil., Music, 1988 Hunter College, New York, M.A., Music, 1986 Hunter College, New York, B.A., Music, 1971 Publications Books The Drums of Vodou Tempe, AZ: White Cliffs Media, Inc., 1992 Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York Edited with Ray Allen. Brooklyn, NY: Institute for Studies in American Music/University of Illinois Pres s, 1998 Articles Bulletin du Bureau National d'Ethnologie (Port au Prince), City Lore Ethnomusicology Research Digest Journal of Haitian Studies Latin American Music Review Latin American Perspectives New York Folklore The Beat The World of Music Voices Essays In Voices of the Americas (World Music Institute, 1988); Come Mek Me Hol' Yu Han': The Impact of Tourism on Traditional Music (The Jamaica Memory Bank, 1988); Island Sounds in the Global City (Institute for Studies in American Music/Univer sity of Illinois Press, 1998); Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (Garland Publishing, 1998); Caribbean Dance From Abaku to Zouk: How Movement Shapes Identity (University Press of Florida, 2002), Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore (2005), Encyclope dia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion (2007)

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 20 Ferdinand Lewis, PhD Curriculum Vitae Education 2008 PhD in Policy, Planning & Development University of Southern California, School of Policy, Planning and Development MAJOR: Urban Design and Policy MINOR: Qualitative Evaluation 1988 Master of Fine Arts, California Institute of the Arts 1986 Bachelor of Fine Arts, California Institute of the Arts Faculty Appointments Current, Lecturer, University of Florida, College of Design, Construction and Planning, School of Landscape Architecture and Planning 2008 2010 Visiting Assistant Professor, The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Department of Urb an and Regional Planning Publications (Urban & Regional Planning) Planning Theory 11 (1), February 2012. Uhm and Tridib Banerjee, in M. Biggeri and J. Ballet (Eds.) Children and the Capability Approach: Studies in childhood and youth London: Palgrave Macmillan. Journal of Human Development and Capability, 13 (2), May 2010 Regional Studies Vol. 40, No. 4, June 2006, pp. 429 436 Publications (Arts) C ritical Perspectives: A Prism of Writings on Art and Civic Dialogue (2005), ed. Pam Korza, Americans for the Arts. Ensemble Works: An Anthology (2005), Theater Communications Group Publishers The Cornerstone Community Collaboration Handbook (2003), Cornerstone Theater Company Touch Graphics: The Power of Tactile Design (2002); Rockport Publishers Cornerstone Theater and Los Angeles Poverty Department for the Community Arts Consulting and Research community participation in Hillsborough County, Florida present Los Angeles County Music Center/Active Arts Program Planning and development of Safe Routes to School curriculum development.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 21 JACQUES PIERRE 2320 Cherry Creek Drive, Durham, NC, 27703 (919) 660 3121 jp189@duke.edu EDUCATION Kent State University, Kent, Ohio Master of Arts in Teaching English as Second Language (TESL) 2006 2008 Master of Arts in French/English translation 2005 2007 Indiana University, Creole Institute, Bloomington, Indiana Certified Lexicographer 2003 2005 State University of Haiti, Port au Prince, Haiti Bachelor in Haitian Creole and French applied Linguistics 1994 1998 EMPLOYMENT Visiting Lecturer in French and Creole Studies, Duke University, 2010 Present Visiting Lecturer in Haitian Creole and Culture, Florida International University, 2009 2010 Director of the Haitian Summer Institute, Florida I nternational Summer 2007, 2008, 2009 & 2010 University Assistant Haitian Creole instructor, Florida International University Haitian Summer Institute, 2005 & 2006 PUBLICATIONS Yon Sezon matchyavl/Une saison en enfer November 2010, co editor with Benjamin Haitian Creole English Bilingual Dictionary, Assistant Editor with Albert Valdman, May 2007, Creole Institute, Indiana University. The Gospel of Thomas in English/French and Ha itian Creole, June 2005, co editor with Benjamin Hebblethwaite, Hans Gebhard Bethge and Michel Weber. Pye bwa Frenn nan (Translation of the le Fraisne by Marie De France) 2001, co author with Benjamin Hebblethwaite, Edisyon Klasik, Bloomington, Indiana. Poem Silencio, published in Chiric, Fall 2003, Chicano Riqueo Studies, Indiana University Poem Kadav vivan published in Hati progrs, International Haitian news paper, Vol 19. No.18, July 18 24, 2001. Poem Pwovb leve tonbe, published in Hati progrs, International Haitian news paper, vol 19.No 22, August 15 21, 2001. Article, Dekouvri plizy sans yon mo ka genyen pa dwe chita sou diferan fason li ekri published in Timoun February 2000 #85.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 22 LAURIE N. TAYLOR Interim Director, Digital Library Center University of Florida Libraries ADDRESS: Digital Library Center TEL: 352.273.2902 Smathers Library FAX: 352.846.3702 P.O. Box 117003 EMAIL: Laurien@ufl.edu University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 7003 EDUCATION: Ph.D. 2006 University of Florida (English/Digital Humanities) M.A. 2002 University of Florida (English/Digital Humanities) B.A. 1999 Jacksonville University (English) GRANTS Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library (Department of Education; 2009 2014) Florida Aerial Photographs / From the Air: the Photograph ic Record of Florida's Lands, Phase III (Library Services and Technology Act, 2009 2010) America's Swamp: the Historical Everglades (National Historic Publications and Records Commissions, 2009 2011) PUBLICATIONS Selected Refereed Publications authored with Val Davis, Stephen Williams, Dina Benson, Sara Russell Gonzalez, and Mark Sullivan. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Digit al Libraries 2010. "Developing an Open Access, Multi Institutional, International Digital Library," co authored with Brooke Wooldridge and Mark Sullivan. Resource Sharing & Information Networks 2009. "Gothic Bloodlines in Survival Horror Gaming," Horror Video Games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play. Ed. Bernard Perron. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009: 46 61. "Snow White in the City: Teaching Fables, Nursery Rhymes, and Revisions in Graphic Novels," in Approaches to Teaching the Graphic Novel. Ed. Step hen E Tabachnick. New York: MLA, 2009. Playing the Past: Video Games, History, and Memory, co edited with Zach Whalen. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2008. "Bioactive," in Gaming in Academic Libraries Casebook, co authored with Sara Russell Gonzalez, Valrie Davis, Carrie Newsom, Chelsea Dinsmore, Cynthia Frey, and Kathryn Kennedy. Ed. Amy Harris and Scott Rice. ACRL, 2008.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 23 Mark Vincent Sullivan, marsull@uflib.ufl.edu Application engineer and solutions developer Digital Library Center, University of Florida, P.O Box 117003, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA Summary of Qualifications and Skills Excellent independent problem solver, requirements analyzer, and project planner Strong background in object oriented design and programming Strong background in database design, query optimization, and database driven application development Experience presenting technical data to both customers and coworkers Excellent documentation skills including in line remarks and maintenance of external documentation Experience with the following: o C# o Java / Javascript o Visual Basic o C++ o ASP.net o AJAX o C o MS SQL o HTML o XHTML o Multi Threadin g o IIS Configuration o XML o XML Schemas o UML o NDOC/Sandcastle o Solr/Lucene o Tomcat Apache Professional Experience March, 2005 Current Information Technology, UF Libraries Gainesville, FL IT Expert Primary architect for the University of Florida Digital Collections database and ASP.net web presence which contains over 7 million pages and is projected to receive 30 million human hits this year. Created thorough documentation for this digital asset management system. Prim ary architect of widely adopted open source SobekCM METS Editor software to assist libraries with creation of metadata files for inclusion in digital repositories. Continued to maintain and create workflow applications and databases in .NET, C#, MS SQL. Developed and delivered presentations to internal groups and other institutions throughout Florida In support of international collaborative Digital Library of the Caribbean, created stand alone digitization toolkit, co authored training tools, an d conducted numerous training sessions throughout the Caribbean. Worked as team lead for the occasional programmer assisting with similar work. Support library faculty and researchers on ad hoc projects, such as creation of the human resource recruit ment study web presence. Feb, 2004 Jan, 2005 Digital Library Center, UF Libraries Gainesville, FL Systems Programmer Ephemeral Cities Project Implementation and design of software and database for the Ephemeral Cities Project, a grant to create ge ographic interfaces to browse through maps, documents, museum objects, and photographs for three Florida cities from 1884 1903. Managed a small staff of students to assist in the collection of data for current projects. Designed, created, and maintai ned workflow applications and databases in .NET, C#, MS SQL.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 24 Vita of: RICHARD F. PHILLIPS As of: Nov 22, 2011 ====================================================================== University of Florida Libraries : Head / Bibliographer UF Latin American Collection rank: Associate University Librarian (tenured 1996) Work Experience University of Florida Libraries: Head / Bibliographer of Latin American Collection. 1993 University of Colorado Libraries: Head of Cataloging. 1990 1993. Princeton University Libraries: Team Leader, Romance Languages Cataloging Team. 1986 1990. University of Florida Libraries: Latin American Cataloger. 1978 1986. Savannah Public Libraries (Georgia): Business / R eference Librarian. 1976 1978. Catholic Relief Services (Guatemala): Program Assistant. 1973 1974. Peace Corps (Brazil): Volunteer. 1971 1972. Education MA in Latin American Studies University of Florida 1981 MA in Library Science Florida State University 1976 BS in Business Admin. Marquette University 1970 Tel: 352 273 2745 ; email: ricphil@uflib.ufl.edu

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 25 KAREN E. RICHMAN, Ph.D. Institute for Latino Studies 230 McKenna Hall University of Notre Dame 574 631 8146 Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 krichman@nd.edu Present Position Director, Academic Programs and Migration and Border Studies, University of Notre Dame, Concurrent Faculty, Department of Anthropology, Fellow, Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies Recent Awards, Fellowships and Grants Heizer Mimesis and Alterity in Haitian Vodou Art. Ethnohistory 55 (2. Awarded September 2009. National Endowment for Financial Education. September 2009. Selected Publicat ions Book Migration and Vodou New World Diasporas Series, University of Florida Press. 2005. Journal Articles Religion at the Epicenter: Religious Agency and Affiliation in Logne After the Earthquake. Studies in Religion 41(1). 2012. The Somatics of Syncretism: Tying Body and Soul in Haitian Religion. Terry Rey and Karen Richman. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuse 39 (3):379 403. 2010. Run from the Earthquake, Fall into the Abyss: A Logne Paradox. Social Text. January, 2010. http://www.socialtextjournal.org/periscope/ayiti kraze haiti in fragments/ Congregating by Cassette. Karen Richman and Terry Rey. International Journal of Cultural Studies 12(1):53 70. 2009. A More Powerful Sorcerer: Conversion and Capital in the Haitian Diaspora New West Indian Guide 81 (1 2):1 43. 2008. Are They Mad? Nation and Narration in Tous les hommes sont fous. Marlene Daut and Karen Richman. Small Axe 26: 133 148. 2008. Innocent Imitations? Mimesis and Alterity in Haitian Vodou Art. Ethnohistory 55(2): 203 228. 2008.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 26 Kate Ramsey Department of History P.O. Box 248107 University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 (305) 284 5581 Employment 2006 Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Miami. Education 2002 Ph.D., Department of Anthropology, Columbia University. Publications Book 2011 The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti The University of Chicago Press. Selected Journal Articles and Book Chapters 2005 Vodou in Mid Twentieth de musologie 1 (nouvelle srie) (Winter): 165 179. 2004 Race, Nation, and Religion in the Americas Eds. Henry Goldschmidt and Elizabeth McAlister. New York: Oxford University Press, 231 258. 2002 formance and the Haitian State, 1935 Radical History Review 84 (Fall): 7 42. 2000 Dancing Bodies, Living Histories: New Writings about Danc e and Culture Eds. Anne Flynn and Lisa Doolittle. Banff, Alberta: Banff Centre Press, 196 216. Selected Fellowships and Grants 2007 Franklin Research Grant, American Philosophical Society. 2004 Short Term Research Fellowship, Department of Anthrop ology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Fall. 2003 2004 Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship, Penn Humanities Forum, University of 2002 2003 Postdoctoral Fellowship, Center for Religion and American Life, Yale University.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 27 Jerome Soimaud 250 NW 23 rd 3753 www.jeromesoimaud.com info@jeromesoimaud.com Jerome SOIMAUD, 1964, Paris, France. Lives and Works in Miami, Fl Education Academie de la Grande Chaumiere Instruction under Architect Alain Farel, Professor of Art History Ecole Selected Exhibitions 2011 12 Possession, Yeelen Art Gallery, Miami, Florida 2011 Ayiti Kriye, Yeelen Art Gallery, Miami, Florida 2010 Ayiti Kriye, Art For a Better World, Wyn wood, Florida 2009 Kanzo, Yeelen Art Gallery, Miami, Florida 2008 Midtown: Miami B Side, Yeelen Art Gallery Miami, Florida 2007 Tropics, Jerome Soimaud Studios, Miami, Florida 2006 Recent Works, Jerom e Soimaud Studios, Miami, Florida 1997 Art Show Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium 1996 97 Bastille Art Show, Paris, France Selected Publications January 2006. Spence, Kenn 2009. Affairs, June/July 2009. 2010. Awards/Grants John and James L. Knight Foundation, Knight Art Challenge Finalist 2009 Collections Private Collections in Paris, Madrid, New York, Miami and Atlanta. Public Collections, Pepsi Co.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 28 MARIA VAN DAALEN CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONALIA Name M.M. de Rooij Maria van Daalen Address Sepiastraat 60 1339ES Almere The Netherlands Cell ph. +31 (0)6 1706 6318 E mail mariavandaalen@gmail.com, info@mariavandaalen.nl Website www.mariavandaalen.nl www.mariavandaalen.com EDUCATION Maria van Daalen holds an MA [1983] in Dutch Literature and Linguistics, from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, with a teaching permit. She also studied Musicology, Codicology and Paleography at the Radboud University of Nijmegen [1980]. EXPERIENCE Maria van Daalen has taught Creative Writing and Mediaeval Dutch Literature at the University of Gronin gen, and Poetry at the School for Creative Writing, Amsterdam. Maria van Daalen is the only Manbo Asogwe in Haitian Vodou in The Netherlands (since 2007). Non vanyan: Fouye Racine Bon Manbo LITERARY PUBLICATIONS POETRY Raveslag Querido (Amsterdam, 1989) Onder het hart Querido (Amsterdam, 1992) Het Hotel Querido (Amsterdam, 1994) Het geschenk // De maker Querido (Amsterdam, 1996) Elektron, muon, tau Querido (Amsterdam, 2000) Yo! de liefde Querido (Amsterdam, 2003) D e wet van behoud van energie Querido (Amsterdam, 2007) My Love, You Have The World Cupped In Your Hands (Philip Elchers, 2010) < Eng. anthology> PROSE De zwarte engel Kleine Uil (Groningen 2005) Spiegel van Mysterin (Le miroir des mystres ) Querido (Amsterdam, forthcoming) TRANSLATIONS U vese di menziurne / Il bacio di mezzogiorno / De kus van het middaguur Anthology with poems by that Tursitan poet Albino Pierro, ed. Silvia Terribili, Italians transl. by Antonio Petrocelli (2007) RESE ARCH in MUSICOLOGY Daalen, Maria van Der Utrechter Lasso Codex aus der Bayerischen Hofkapelle in Mnchen. In: TVNM XXX 2 (1980), pp.85 112 Daalen, Maria van and Harrison, Frank Two Keyboard Intabulations of the Late Fourteenth Century on a Manus cri pt Leaf now in the Netherlands. In: TVNM XXXIV 2 (1984), pp.97 98 (pp.97 108)

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 29 Margarita Vargas Betancourt mvargasb@ufl.edu 405 Smathers Library PO Box 117009 Gainesville Fl. 32611 EDUCATION Department of Latin American Studies, Tulane University Ph.D. candidate (September, 2006) Master of Arts in Latin American Studies (May, 2003) Department of Spanish, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City Bachelor of Arts Degree (May 2000) PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE September 2011 Caribbean Basin Librarian, Latin American Collection, Departmentof Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville. January 2009 July 2010 Instructor, Social Sciences Department, Marymount School, Cu ernavaca, Cuernavaca, Mexico. World History and Latin American Studies. August 2003 May 2005 Instructor, Department of Latin American Studies, Tulane University. LAST 101 Introduction to Latin American Studies. PUBLICATIONS Vargas Betancourt, Los indios y las ciudades de la Nueva Espaa, edited by Felipe Castro Gutirrez, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Instituto de Investigaciones Histricas. Vargas Popol Vuh Human Mosaic 35(1), 2004, pp. 41 49. Vargas Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos Debates, 2011, [Online], Put online on January 31, 2011. URL : http://nuevomundo.revues.org/60635. Consulted on 02 septembre 2011. AWARDS, FELLOWSHIPS, GRANTS 2009 Teixidor Grant, Instituto de Investigaciones Histricas de la Univers idad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, partial funding for dissertation research in Mexico City ($3000.00). 2007 Louisiana Board of Regents Special Incentives Program, partial funding for dissertation research in Mexico City ($700.00). 2001 2007 Graduate School Fellowship, Tulane University ($60,000.00) 2001 2007 Graduate School Tuition Scholarship, Tulane University ($130,000.00) 2001 2007 Fellowship for Mexican Researchers, National Council of Science and Technology, Mexico ($86,400.00)

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 30 ANDREW TARTER Department of Anthropology, 1112 Turlington Hall, PO Box 117305, Gainesville, FL 32611 7305 andrew.tarter@ufl.edu ; (352) 337 2840 _________________________ _______________________________________ Education 2014 (expecte d) Ph.D Cultural Anthropology, University of Florida. 2010 MA: Cultural Anthropology, University of Florida. Thesis: after a Tree Planting Project: A Political Ecology Perspective on Land and Behavior Changes in Rural Ha 2004 BA, Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies, University of Washington, Seattle. Areas of Interest Haiti, Haitians, Haitian Creole, Vodou, the Caribbean, Latin America, NGOs, Anthropology of Development, Ecologi cal Anthropology, Environmental Anthropology, Political Ecology, agriculture, farmers, forestry, deforestation, reforestation, trees. Grants and Fellowships 2008 2009 US Department of Education Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) in Haitian Creo le. 2009 2010 US Department of Education Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) in Haitian Creole. 2010 2013 National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Research Consultancies / Consultancies 2011 Haiti Regenerat ion Initiative (Columbia University/UNEP/Earth Institute) 2010 2011 Hands that Feed (Forthcoming documentary about Food Security in Haiti) 2009 2010 Bound By Haiti (Award winning do cumentary film about Haiti earthquake) Book Chapters, Reviews, and Edito rial Contributions Book Chapter: Tarter, Andrew. The Last Tree in the Yard In E. Mendenhall & A.D. Koon (Eds.), Environmental Health Narratives: A Reader for Youth Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press (in press). Contributor: Hebblethwaite, Benjam in. 2011. Vodou Songs and Texts in Haitian Creole and English Temple University Press, Philadelphia. Contributor: Hebblethwaite, Benjamin, Quinn Hanson, and Andrew Tarter. Glos Kreyl Ayisyen (Haitan Creole Glossary). University of Florida. Book Review: Tarter, Andrew. (In Progress) Weathering the World: Recovery in the Wake of the Tsunami in a Tamil Fishing Village, for journal Environment and Society References : Dr. Gerald F. Murray murray@ufl.edu ; Dr. H. Russell Bernard ufruss@ufl.edu ; Dr. Michael Bannister mikebann@ufl.edu.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 31 Lois J. Widmer Digital Library Center, PO Box 117003, Gainesville, FL 32611 352.273.2916 Lwidmer@ufl.edu Professional Experience Chair, Digital Services (Digital Library Center) & Shared Collections, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2011 present Education Graduate Certificate Digital Information Management, University of Arizona, 2011 Graduate Certificate Management of Projects and Programs, Rabb Graduate School of Con tinuing Educa tion, Brandeis University, 2007 Professional Affiliations American Library Association American Society for Information Science & Technology (ASIS&T) Society of American Archivists Selected Publications Using the Engineering Literature (B. Osif, Editor), New York: Routledge, 2006. BROOKE WOOLDRIDGE Digital Library of the Caribbean Florida International University Green L ibrary 225A, Miami, FL 33199, Tel: 305 348 3008 Fax: 305 348 6579 Email: bwooldri@fiu.edu EDUCATION MA, Latin American and Caribbean Studies Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 2007 EXPERIENCE Coordinator, Digital Library of the Caribbean, Latin American Caribbean Center Florida International University: Miami, FL January 2008 present PUBLICATIONS Developing an Open Access, Multi Institutional, International Digital Library: the Digital Library of the Caribbean (in Resource Sharing & Information Networks), by Brooke Wooldridge, Laurie Taylor, and Mark Sullivan, 2009. GRANT FUNDED PROJECTS Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library U.S. Department of Education, TICFIA Program, 2009 2013 PI: Dr. Cristina Eguizabal, Florida International University Digitization of Haitian and Kreyl Resources US Embassy in Haiti, 2009 Project provided access to equipment and training to Haitian libraries and archives. Digital Library of the Caribbean U.S. Department of Education, TICFIA Program, 2005 2009 PI: Dr. Ed uardo Gamarra : Note: Coordinated this project for the final two years of the project.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 32 Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English (2012) ------* ------* 1. Beauvoir (2008b) in Hebblethwaite (2012) ...Si pa te gen Lwa, nou tout nou ta neye! 1 Si pa te gen Lwa, nou tout nou ta peri o nan peyi letranje. in foreign countries. Nou soti nan Ginen, We come from Ginen 2 Men nan men, pye nan pye! Hand bound to hand, foot bound to foot! Nou prale yon kote, l n rive n a va posede! Anba kal negriye, nou prale y on kote, Tou benyen, tou poudre ak Gwo Lwa a, All bathed and powdered 3 with the Great Lwa, n ape navige! General comments: Slavery became a national industry in Dahomey, in Saint Domingue (now Haiti), and, financially and managerially, in France (Mtraux 1958: 20). The torture of slavery and the spiritual resources needed to survive and overcome it remain a permanent theme in Vodou songs. This song refers to the Middle Passage and the central role of the Vodou lwa in protecting the lives of enslaved Africans. From its point of view in the colony, the song also looks forward to a time when Haiti is independent. 1 Lwa The lwa are pulsating and vital forces that sustain the universe ( Beauvoir 2011 ). The lwa are immaterial spiritual beings, forces, or spirits. The lwa are spirits created by God; they are also ancestors of great im portance who have become the patrons of specific domains. i The lwa can be forces of nature, deceased humans who have been made divine, or mysterious spirits with complex characteristics. The lwa are sakre (sacred) and they pale nan tt (speak in the heads) of their servants. ii The authentic and valued iii 2 Ginen A word with many meanings that can refer to the lwa the dwelling place of the lwa, the servants of the lwa and the afterlife paradise where the souls of Vodouists return. It generally refers broadly to Gin en Ginen refers to a much broader vision of Africa than just the modern state of Guinea. 3 powdered Poud ( powder) in Vodou refers to magic powder. Oungan (Vodou priests) earn money by selling powders that purport to provide success in business or love or protection from malicious forces. ------* ------* 2. J.L. in Hebblethwaite (2012) Twa Pat, o tw a Ave Mariya, nou kw nan Three Paters, oh three Ave Marias 1 we believe in Dye a ki ban nou lavi a, men gen Ginen. the God 2 who gave us life, but there is Ginen 2 Nan Ginen, o genyen lwa, genyen lwa o In Ginen, oh there are lwa, there are lwa, oh, nan Ginen lafanmi o, an nou met tt Oh the family 3 ansanm pou n ka sove peyi a. together so we can save the country. 1 Three Paters, oh three Ave Marias s religious culture is often described as syncretistic and stratified because many people practice both Vodou alliance and an underlying quest for unity.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 33 2 G od Bondye is disconnected from human matters, the lwa iv In Vodou thought, God is not envious that humans worship the lwa because God has no vices like jealousy and because God is indisputably the greatest power. v After the catastrophic earthquake of January 12, 2010, the oungan Max Beauvoir pointed out that Go d did not cause the earthquake in Haiti because God does not meddle in human affairs. vi Spatial imagery is common in comparing God to the lwa: God is anwo (above) and lezany (the angels/lwa) are anba (below). God is devan (in front) and lsen (the saints/lw a) are dy (behind). vii 2 but there is Ginen While all Vodou songs assert the primacy of Bondye, the lwa work lockstep with the Supreme Being. viii God, I serve the Three Mara ix x 3 family A reference to the community of Vodouists associated with a lakou (family compound) or an ounf (temple). Lafanmi is expected to uphold the tradition s and values of the family compound or community. xi ------* ------* 3. Marcelin (1950a) in Hebblethwaite (2012) Ala lwa mache nan dlo, Look how the lwa walks on water 1 Se Danbala o! Oh it is Danbala 2 Ala lwa mache nan dlo, Look how the lwa walks on water, Se Danbala o! Oh it is Danbala! Papa Danbala se tt dlo! Papa Danbala se tt dlo! Abobo! 3 1 Water An important metaphor in Vodou. The lwa and ancestors such as Danbala and Simbi live anba dlo (under the water). Many Vodou pilgrimages are to places where water flows (e.g., Sodo and Basen Ble). Water is a metaphor for spirituality, mysticism, renewal, and purity. Water also refers to insight into mysticism. Some Vodou priests with impressive healing powers are said to have lived for a period of seven years under water or in the sea. Eminent oungan and famous political figures are said to spend lengthy perio ds under water, where they receive directions from lwa. xii 2 Danbala The serpent lwa, Danbala Wdo, along with Ayida Wdo, were the first lwa created by God. Danbala is associated with the Kongo, Nago, Petwo, and Rada rites. He and his partner, Ayida Wdo, represent conception, birth, life, family, love, sexuality, fertility, inspiration, good fortune, movement, continuity, harmony, wisdom, and destiny. xiii He is married to Ayida Wdo but loves zili and other females. Some say that Danbala is the father and Ay ida Wdo the mother of all other lwa. xiv Danbala likes things to be pure and clean; he avoids illness. xv Danbala and Ayida are represented as two snakes in their vv They wind up their bodies under the water to support the weight of the earth. xvi When possess ed, servants of Danbala manifest snake like movements, climb trees, and do not speak but hiss and dart their tongues in and out. A basin with water is found in ounf dedicated to this couple. xvii Danbala dwells in freshwater springs and is associated with lar ge snakes. Danbala encircles the globe and is a wise and successful man. xviii He is represented as Saint Patrick, who is pictured in chromolithographs driving snakes out of Ireland. His color is white; his offerings include syrup, eggs, milk, flour, rice, and hens, and all of these must be white xix 3 Abobo A ritual Vodou praise acclamation of the Rada rite. xx Vodouists shout Abobo! between songs. The acclamation is sometimes accompanied by the smacking of the mouth with the fingers. ------* ------*

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 34 4 Marcelin (1950a) in Hebblethwaite (2011) Papa Legba nan ounf mwen! Papa Legba is in my temple! Atibon Legba nan ounf mwen! Atibon Legba 1 is in my temple 2 Alegba Papa nan ounf mwen! Alegba Papa is in my temple! Ou menm ki pote drapo nan Ginen! You bear the flag in Ginen! Ou menm ki pote chapo nan Ginen! You wear the hat in Ginen! Se ou menm k a pare soly pou lwa yo. 3 1 Atibon Legba The lwa who rules crossroads and paths, as well as the guardian o f all entries. xxi Atibon Legba is also known as Alegba. Legba is served in the Danwonmen, Kongo, Nago, Petwo, Zand, and, in particular, Rada rites. xxii Although Legba was originally a Nigerian Nago lwa, in Haiti he is mostly associated with the Rada rite of Da homey, probably because Legba was well established in the Dahomey region before the slave trade. Legba is the barrier between the living and the dead and between the natural and supernatural. Legba is an old and sexually frigid man who can no longer walk w ithout crutches; his nonexistent. Legba is portrayed as a hunched over elderly man who wears a broad brimmed straw hat and leans on a crutch and a cane; h owever, he is extremely strong. xxiii He smokes a long terracotta pipe and carries a makout (woven straw bag). His broad hat protects the other lwa from the sun. xxiv Like all lwa, Atibon Legba is invisible. He supervises roads, paths, gardens, courts, dwellings, a nd crossroads. He sees all that is done and hears all that is said. Legba believes that the world envies him because he is a king. As a result, he easily utters threats. Legba rarely appears in the services; when he possesses his chwal (horse), 2 Temple A Vodou temple complex or compound under the authority of an oungan or a manbo Lasosyete ounf (temple society) refers to the members of a given temple. xxv In the Fon language, the term hunx refers to a Vodou hut and hunxw to the house of a vodun (lwa) or a Vodou convent. xxvi 3 In any service, Legba has priority over all other lwa. All milokan (a single vv for several lwa) include Legba. xxvii The firs t three songs and dances are obligatorily dedicated to him. Legba is one of the most important lwa of Vodou mythology because he allows humankind to communicate with God and all other lwa. xxviii ------* ------* References i Jil and Jil 2009: 53, 72, 323. ii Beauvoir 2008b: 313. iii Ibid., 257. iv Jil and Jil 2009: 71. v Ibid., 372. vi Allen 2010; Jil and Jil 2009: 75. vii Beauvoir 2008b: 297. viii Lomax et al 2009: 153. ix Beauvoir 2008b: 279. x Ibid., 220. xi Beauvoir 2008b: 234. xii Marcelin 1950b: 123. xiii Frre 2005: 49; Freeman 2004: 117; Rouget 2001: 78. xiv Soimaud, personal correspondence, 2010. xv Murrell 2010: 79. xvi Jil and Jil 2009: 86.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and cult ure 35 xvii See Frre 2005: 46; Jil and Jil 2009: 86. xviii Arthur and Dash 1999: 264. xix Ibid. xx Freeman 2004: 65; Mtraux 1972: 373. xxi Marcelin 1950a: 15 24. xxii Frre 2005: 70. xxiii Frre 2005: 70. xxiv Marcelin 1950a: 17 18. xxv Freeman 2004: 685. xxvi Segurola and Rassinoux 2000: 243. xxvii Frre 2005: 70. xxviii Jil and Jil 2009: 79. Bibliography for the Sample Translatio ns of Vodou Songs and Annotations February 1. Available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk Arthur, Charles, and Michael Dash, eds. 1999. Libte: A Haiti Anthology Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener. Beauvoir, Max G. 2008b. Le grand recueil sacr ou rpertoire des chansons du vodou hatien Port au Prince: Edisyon Prs Nasyonal d Ayiti. Frre, Nancy Turnier. 2005. ritual del vod haitiano Boca Raton, Fla.: Nancy Turnier Frre. Freeman, Bryant and Jowel Laguerre. 2004. Haitian English Dictionary 5th ed. Lawrence, Kan.: Institute of Haitian Studies. Jil, Dyeri M., and Ivwoz S. Jil. 2009. Svis Ginen: Rasin, rityl, resp lan Vodou Davi, Fla.: Bookmanlit. Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. 2011. Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Lomax, Alan, Elizabeth Lyttleton, Rvolie Polinice, Gage Averill, Anna Lomax Wood, Ellen Harold, and H. P. Davis. 2009. Alan Lomax in Haiti San Francisco: Harte Recordings. Marcelin, Milo. 1950b. Mythologie Vodou (Rite Arada) vol. 2. Ptionville, Haiti: ditions Canap Vert. Rouget, Gilbert. 2001. Initiatique vdoun, images du rituel: Chants et danses initiatiques pour le culte des vdoun au Bnin. Saint Maur, France: ditions Spia. Mtraux, Alfred. 1972. Voodoo in Haiti New York: Schocken Books. Murre ll, Nathaniel Samuel. 2010. Afro Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Segurola, Basilio, and Jean Rassinoux. 2000. Dictionnaire Fon Franais Madrid: Socit des Missions Africaines.

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The University of Florida and Duke University: The Vodou Archive: Curating and sharing the sources of Vodou religion and culture Statement of history of grants The Digital Library of the Caribbean has been awarded numerous grants: Florida International University (FIU) Libraries, FIU Technology Fee Grant (2011 2013) Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library (TICFIA, 2009 2013) Digitization of Haitian and Kreyl Resources (US Embassy in Hait i, 2009) Digital Library of the Caribbean: Crossing Borders (TICFIA, 200 5 9) Sea of faces : peoples and cultures of the Caribbean, 14 00 200, an exhibition at the Historical Museum of Southern Florida (collaborative agreement, 2006) Caribbean Newspaper Imaging Project (CNIP) Converting and distributing indexed and abstracted digital image s of microfilmed Caribbean newspapers (Mellon, 1994) The Haiti Laboratory at D uke University, created in the f all of 2010, has received one internal grant: Problem Focused International Research Team Grant for research on post earthquake trauma in Haiti (2011 2012) Benjamin Hebblethwaite has received one internal grant for preliminary research on the Vodou Archive (summer 2012) The Humanities Scho larship Enhancement Fund, $11 ,408 ( click here to read the proposal )


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