Froudacity

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Title:
Froudacity West Indian fables by James Anthony Froude
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261 p. : ; 12 ̊
Language:
English
Creator:
Thomas, John Jacob
Publisher:
T. Fisher Unwin
Place of Publication:
London
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Gresham Press
Unwin Brothers
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
Description from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Froudacity): Froudacity: West Indian Fables by James Anthony Froude is a 1889 polemic written by John Jacob Thomas as a rebuttal to James Anthony Froude's 1888 book The English in the West Indies. Froude's travelogue attacked the British West Indian colonies for wanting to establish self-government, arguing that if the majority black population were allowed to vote on leaders they would choose leaders that would repress the white population. Like many of his West Indian contemporaries, Thomas was outraged at the inaccuracies of Froude's text as well as the racist arguments that Froude uses as justification for his beliefs. He decided that writing a refutation to Froude was his patriotic duty1 and that it would act as self-vindication2 for West Indian blacks. Froudacity was Thomas' last and most significant work. Thomas finished writing it shortly before succumbing to pneumonia.
Statement of Responsibility:
explained by J.J. Thomas.

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University of Florida
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University of South Florida
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Applicable rights reserved.
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oclc - 06150384
lccn - 01011139
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lcc - F2131 .T44
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AA00000555:00001


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FROUDACITY.







PREFA CE.


I also realized the fact that the Bow of
Ulysses" was not likely to have the same
ephemeral existence and effect as the newspaper
and other periodical discussions of its contents,
which had poured from the press in Great
Britain, the United States, and very notably, of
course, in all the English Colonies of the
Western Hemisphere. In the West Indian
papers the best writers of our race had written
masterly refutations, but it was clear how
difficult the task would be in future to procure
and refer to them whenever occasion should
require. Such productions, however, fully satis-
fied those qualified men of our people, because
they were legitimately convinced (even as I
myself am convinced) that the political destinies
of the people of colour could not run one tittle of
risk from anything that it pleased Mr. Froude
to write or say on the subject. But, meditating
further on the question, the reflection forced it-
self upon me that, beyond the mere political
personages in the circle more directly addressed
by Mr. Froude's volume, there were individuals
whose influence or possible sympathy we could
not afford to disregard, or to esteem lightly. So
I deemed it right and a patriotic duty to attempt




Full Text

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FROUDACITY.

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I. Blownbysurmises, jealousies, conjectures."" Whydost thou showtotheaptthoughtsofmenthethingsthatARENOT?"-SHAKESPEARE..

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FROUDACITYWESTINDIANFABLESBY JAMES ANTHONYFROUDEEXPLAINEDBYJ.J.THOMASAUTHOROF IeThe Creole Gra1ll11tar T.FISHER.UNWIN26PATERNOSTERSQUAREMDCCCLXXXIX

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PREfACE.01LASTyear had well advanced towards its middle-infact it was already April,1888before Mr. Froude's book of travelsintheWestIndies became known and generally accessible to readers in those Colonies. My perusal of it in Grenada about period above mentioned disclosed, thinly draped rhetorical flowers, the dark outlinesofa scheme to thwart political aspiration. intheAntilles.Thatproject is sought to be realized by .de terring the home authorities from granting an elective local legislature, however restricted in character, to any of the Colonies not yet en joying such an advantage.Anargument based on the composition of the inhabitants of those Colonies is confidently relied upon to confirm the inexorable mood of Downing Street.

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6PREFACE.Over-large andever-increasing,-soruns the African element inthepopula tionoftheWestI ndiesis,from its past history and its actual tendencies, a standing menace to the continuanceofcivilization and religion.Animmediate catastrophe, social, political, and moral, would most assuredlybebrought aboutbythe grantingoffullelective rights to de pendencies thus inhabited. Enlightened states manship shouldatonce perceive the immense benefit that would ultimately result from such refusal of the franchise.Thecardinal recommen dationofthat refusal isthatit would avert de finitively the political dominationofthe Blacks, which must inevitablybethe outcomeofany concessionofthe modicumof right so earnestly desired.Theexclusionofthe Negro vote being inexpedient,ifnot impossible, the exerciseofelectoral powers by the Blacks must lead to their returning candidates of their own race to the local legislatures, and that, too, in numbers preponderating according to the majority of the Negro electors.TheNegro legislators thus supreme in the councilsofthe Colonies would straightway proceed to pass vindictive and retaliatory laws against their white fellow-

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PREFACE.7colonists.Forit is only fifty years since theWhitemanandtheBlack man stood in the reciprocal relationsofmasterandslave. Whilst those relations subsisted,thewhite mas'ters inflicted, and the black slaveshadto endure,thehideous atrocitiesthatare in separable fromthesystem of slavery. Since Emancipation,theenormous strides made in self-advancementbytheex-slaves have only had the effectofprovoking a resentful uneasiness inthebosomsofthe ex-masters.Theformer bondsmen, on their side,andlike their brethren of Hayti,are'eaten up with implacable, blood-thirsty rancour against their former lords and owners.TheannalsofHaytiform quite a cabinetofpoliticalandsocial object lessons which, intheeyes of British statesmen, shouldbeinvaluable in 'showingthetruemethodofdealing with Ethiopic subjectsoftheCrown.TheNegrorace in Hayti, inordertoobtain andtoguardwhatitcalls its freedom, has outragedeveryhumane instinct and falsi fied every benevolent hope.Theslave-owners there hadnotbeen a whit more cruelthanslave-owners intheotherislands. But, in spiteofthis, how ferocious, how sangumary,

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8PREFACE.how relentless against themhas the vengeance of the Blacks been in their hourofmastery! A century has passedaway since then, and; not withstanding that, the hatredofWhites stilI rankles in their souls,andischerishedandyielded to as a national creed and guide of conduct. Colonial administrators ofthemighty British Empire, the lesson which History has taught and yet continues to teach you inHaytias tothebest modeofdealing with your Ethiopic colonists lies patent, blood-stainedandterrible before you, and should be taken defini tively to heart. But if you are willingthatCivilization andReligion-inshort, all the highest developmentsofindividual and sociallife-shouldatonce be swept away by a desolating vandalismofAfricanbirth;if you do not recoil from the blood-guiltinessthatwould stain your consciences throughthemas sacre of our fellow-countrymen in theWest IJ1.dies, on account of their race, complexion andenlightenment;finally, if you desire those modern Hesperides torevertinto primeval jungle, horrent lairs whereintheBlacks, who,buta short while before,hadbeen ostensibly civilized, shall be revellers, as high-priestsand

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'PREFACE.9devotees, in orgiesofdevil-worship, cannibalism, andobeah-daretogivethefranchise to thoseWestIndian Colonies,andthenruetheconse quencesofyour infatuation! ... Alas, iftheforegoing summaryoftheghastly imaginings of Mr.Froudewere true, in what a fool's paradisehadthewisestandbestamongst us been living, moving, and having ourbeing!Uptothedateofthesuggestionbyhim as aboveofthealleged facts.andpossibilitiesofWestIndian life, we had believed (even grant ingthecorrectnessofhis gloomy accountofthe past andpresentpositions ofthetwo races) that to no well-thinkingWestIndian White, whose ancestors may have, innocentlyorculp ably, participated inthegains as well astheguiltofslavery, wouldtheremembrance of its palmy daysbeotherwisethanoneofregret.WeNegroes, ontheotherhand, after a lapseoftime extendingovernearly two generations, couldbeindebted only to precarious traditionorscarcely accessible documents foranyknow ledge we might chance uponofthesufferings endured in these Islandsofthe vVest by thoseofourrace whohavegonebefore us. Death, with undiscriminating hand,hadgathered

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roPREFACE.inthehuman harvestofmasters and slaves alike, according tooroutofthenormal lawsofnature;whileTimehadbeen letting down on the stageofour existence drop-scene after drop sceneofyears, tothenumberofsomething like fifty, which hadbeen curtaining off the tragic incidentsofthepastfromthepeaceful activitiesofthepresent. Being thus circumstanced,thoughtwe, what rational elementsofmutual hatred shouldnowcontinue to exist in the bosomsofthetworaces?Withregard totheperpetual reference to Hayti, becauseofour oneness with its inhabi tants in originandcomplexion, as a criterion fortheexact forecastofour future conductundergiven circumstances, this appeared to us, lookingatactual facts, perversity gone wild inthemanufactureofanalogies.ThefoundersoftheBlack Republic, we had all along under stood, were not in any sense whatever equipped, as Mr.Froudeassures ustheywere, when starting on their self-governing career, withthecivilandintellectual advantagesthathadbeen transp,lanted from Europe.Onthecontrary, wehadbeentaughtto regard them as most unfortunate in thecircumstances under which.

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PREFACE.IItheyso gloriously conqueresJ/their merited free dom.Wesaw them free,"but perfectly illiterate barbarians, impotent .to usetheintellectual re sourcesofwhich. their valourhadmade them possessors, intheshapeofbooks onthespirit and technical detailsofa highly developed national ;existence.Wehadlearnt also, until this new interpreterofhistoryhadcontradicted the accepted record,thatthecontinued failureofHaytito realizethedreamsofToussaint was due tothe fatal wantofconfidence subsisting between, the faireranddarkersectionsoftheinhabitants, which had its sinisteranddisas trous origin intheactionoftheMulattoes in attempting to secure freedom for themselves, in conjunction withtheWhites,atthesacrificeoftheir kinsmen. Finally,ithad been explainedtousthattheremembranceofthis abnormal treasonhadbeen underlyingandperniciously. influencingthewhole courseofHaytiannational history. All this established knowledge wearecalled upontothrow over board, and acceptthebaseless assertionsofthis conjuror-upofinconceivable fables!Hecalls upon us to believe that, in spiteofbeing free, educated, progressive,andatpeace with

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12PREFACE.all men, weWestIndian Blacks, were weeverto become constitutionally dominant inournative islands, would emulate in savageryourHaytianfeIIowBlacks who,atthetimeofretaliating upon their actual masters, were tortured slaves, bleedingandrendered desperateunderthe oppressors'lash-andall this simplyandmerely becauseofthesamenessofourancestry andthecolourofourskin!OnewouldhavethoughtthatLiberia wouldhavebeen a fitter standardofcomparison in respectofa coloured population starting a national life, really and truly equipped withtherequisitesandessentialsofcivilized existence.Butsuch a reference would have been fatalfoMr.Froude'sobject:theannalsof "Liberia being a persistent refutationoftheold pro-slavery prophecies which ourauthorso feelingly rehearses.Letus revert, however, toGrenadaandthenewly-published"BowofUlysses," whichhadcome into my hands in April,1888.It seemed to me, on readingthatbook,anddeducing. therefrom the foregoing essential su.mmary,thata critic wouldhavelittle more to do, in order toeffectuaIIy exorcise this negro phobic political hobgoblin,thantoappeal to

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PREFACE.impartial history, as well as to common sense, in its application to human nature in general, and to the actual facts ofWestI ndian life in particular. History, as against the hard and fast White master and Black-slave theory so recklessly invented and confidently built upon by Mr. Froude, would showincontestably-(a)thatfor upwards of two hundred years beforetheNegro Emancipation, in1838,there had never existed in one of those thtn British Colonies; which had been originally discoveredandsettled for Spain by the great Columbusorby his successors,theConquzstadores,any prohibition whatsoever, ontheground of raceorcolour, againsttheowningofslaves by any free person possessingthenecessary means, and desirous of doingso;(b)that, as a consequence of this non restriction,andfrom causes notoriously his torical, numbersofblacks, half-breeds, and other non-Europeans, besides suchofthem as had become possessedof their "property"by in heritance, availed themselvesofthis virtual license, and in courseoftime constituted a very considerable proportionofthe slave-holding sectionofthose communities;(c)that these

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14PREFACE.dusky plantation-owners -enjoyed and used in every possible sense the identical rights and privileges which were enjoyed and usedbytheir pure-blooded Caucasian brother-slave owners.The above statements are attested by written documents, oral tradition, and, better still perhaps, by the living presence in those islands of numerous lineal representativesofthose once opulent and flourishing non European planter-families. Common sense, here steppingin,must, from the above data, deduce some such conclusionsasthe following.Firstthat, on the hypothesisthatthe slaves who were freed in1838fullfifty yearsago-wereall on an average fifteen years old, those vengeful ex-slavesofto-day will be all men of sixty-five yearsof age; and, allowing for the delay in getting the fran chise, somewhat further advanced towards the human life-term of threescore and ten years. Again, in ord.er to organize and carry out any scheme of legislative and social retaliationofthe kiridsetforth in the BowofUlysses," there must be (which unquestionably there is not) a considerable, well-educated, and very influential number s.urviving of those who had actually

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PREFACE.been in bondage. Moreover,thevengeance of these people (also assumingtheforegoing non existent condition) would have, in case of opportunity, to wreak itself far more largely and vigorously upon members of their own race than upon Whites, seeingthattheincrease oftheBlacks, as correctly represented inthe"Bow:ofUlysses," isjustas rapid asthediminution of theWhitepopulation. Andtherefore, Mr. "Danger-to-the-Whites"cry in sup port of his anti-reform manifesto would not appear, after all, to be quite so justifiable as he possibly thinkS .. Feeling keenlythatsomethinginthe shape of the foregoing programmemightbe success fully worked up for a public defence of the maligned people, I disregardedthebodily and mental obstaclesthathave beset and clouded my career during the last twelve years, and cheerfully undertookthetask, stimulated thereto by what I thought weighty considerations. I sawthatno representative ofHerMajesty's EthiopiaWestIndian subjects cared to come forward to perform this workinthe more permanent shapethatI felt to be not only desirable but essential for our self-vindication.

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16PREFACE.I also realized the factthatthe"BowofUlysses"was not likely tohavethesame ephemeral existenceandeffectasthenewspaperandotherperiodical discussions of. its contents, which had poured fromthepress inGreatBritain, the United States,andvery notably,ofcourse, in alltheEnglish ColoniesoftheWesternHemisphere.IntheWestIndian papersthebestwriters of our racehadwritten masterly refutations,butit was clear how difficultthetask wouldbein future to procureandrefer to them whenever occasion should require.Suchproductions, however, fully satis fied those qualified menofour people, becausetheywere legitimately convinced (even as I myself am convinced)thatthepolitical destiniesofthe peopleofcolour could not run one tittleofrisk from anythingthatitpleased Mr.Froudeto writeorsay on the subject. But, meditating further onthequestion,thereflection forceditself upon me that, beyondthemere political personages in the circle more directly addressedbyMr.Froude'svolume, there were individuals whose influenceorpossible sympathy we could not afford to disregard,orto esteem lightly.SoI deemed it right and a patriotic duty toattempt

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PREFACE.17\the enterprise myself, in'obedience to the above stated motives.Atthis point I must pause to express on be half of the entire coloured population of the West Indies our most heartfelt acknowledg ments to Mr.C.Salmon for the luminousandeffective vindication of us, in his volume on"WestIndian Confederation," against Mr. Froude's libels.Theservice thus rendered byMr.Salmon possesses a significance and valuein,my estimation.Inthefirst place, as beingthework of a European of high position, quite independentofus (who testifies 'Got:lcerning Negroes, not through having at them from balconies, decksofsteamers,orthe seatsofmoving carriages,but from actual and long personal intercourse with them, which the internal evidenceofhis book plainly proves to have been as sympathetic asitwas familiar), and, secondly, as the work of a:n individual entirely outside of our race,ithas been grate fully accepted by myself as an incentive to self help, on the same more formal and permanent lines, in a matter so important tothestatus which we can justly claim as a progressive, law-abiding, and self-respecting sectionofHerMajesty's liege subjects.2

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18PREFACE.It behoves me now to say afewwords re specting this book as a mere literary production. Alexander Pope, who, next to Shakespeare and perhaps Butler, was the most copious con tributor to the current stockofEnglish maxims,says:" True ease in writing comes from Art, not Chance, As those move easiest who have learnt to dance."A whole dozen yearsofbodily sickness and mental tribulation have not been conducive tothatregularity of practice in composition which alone can ensure the"trueease"spokenofby thepoet;andtherefore is it that my style leaves so much to be desired, and exhibits, perhaps, still more tobe pardoned. Happily, a quarrel such as ours with the authorof"TheEnglish in theWestIndies" be finallyoreven approximately settled on the scoreofsuperior literary competency, whetherofaggressor or de fender. I feel free to ignore whatever verdict might be grounded on a consideration so purely artificial.Thereought tobeenough, if not in these pages)atany rate in whatever else I have heretofore published,thatshould prove me not so hopelessly stupidandwanting in

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PREFACE.self-respect, as would be implied by my under taking a contest in artistic phrase-weaving with one who, even amongtheforemostofhis literary countrymen, is confessedly a master inthatcraft.Thejudges to whom I do submit bur casearethose Englishmenandothers whose conscience blends withtheirjudgment,and who determine questions as this on their essential rightness which has claim tothefirst and decisive consideration.Formuchthatisirregular inthearrangement and sequenceofthe subject-matter, some blame fairly attaches to our assailant.Theerratic manner in whichhelaunches his injurious statements againstthehapless Blacks, even inthecourseofpassages which no more led up to themthantoanyother sectionofmankind, is a very notable feature of.his anti-Negro production.Ashefrequently repeats, very often with cynical aggravations, his chargesandsinister pro phecies againstthesable objectsofhis aversion, I could see noothercourse open to methanto take him up onthepoints whereto I demurred, exactly how, when,andwhere I found them. My purpose could notbeattained up without direct mentionof,orreference to, certain public

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20PREFACE.employes in the Colonies whose official conduct has often beenthesubjectofcriticism inthepublic pressoftheWestIndies.Thoughfully awarethatsuch criticism has on many occasions been much more severethanmy own strictures, yet, it being possiblethatsome special responsi bility may attach towhatI here reproduce in a more permanent shape, I most cheerfullyaccept, intheinterestsofpublic justice,anyconsequence which may result. A remarkortwo concerningthepublication of this rejoinder.Ithas been hinted to methattheissueofit has been too long delayed to secure foritany attention in England, owing tothefactthattheWestI ndiesarebutlittle known, and of less interest, tothegenerality of English readers.Whilstadmitting, as in duty bound,'thepossible correctnessofthis fore cast,andregrettingtheoft-recurring hindrances which occasioned such frequent and, some times, long suspensionofmylabour;and noting, too,theadditional delay caused through my unacquaintance with English publishing usages, I must, notwithstanding, plead guilty to a lurking hopethatsome small fractionofMr. Froude's readers will yet be found,

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PREFACE.21whose interest intheWestIndies willbetemporarily revived on behalfofthis essay, owing to its direct bearing on Mr.Froudeand his statements relativeto these Islands, con tained in his recent bookoftravels in them.ThisI am led to hope willbemore particularly the case whenitis borne in mindthattherejoinder has been attemptedbya memberofthatvery same race whichhehas, with such eloquent recklessnessofall moral considerations, held uptopublic contemptanddisfavour.Inshort, I can s'carcely permit myself t6 believeit possiblethatconcern regarding a popular author, on his being questioned by an adverse critic of however restricted powers, canbeso utterly dead within a twelvemonth as tobeincapable of rekindling. Mr.Froude's" Oceana," which had been published long before its author voyagedtotheWestI ndies, inordertotreatthe Queen's subjectsthereinthesame more than questionable fashion asthatin whichhehad treated thoseoftheSouthernHemisphere, hadwhatwas inthemain a formal rejoinder to its misrepresentations published only three months ago in this city. I venture to believe that no serious work in defenceofanimpor-

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22PREFACE.tantcauseorcommunity can lose much,ifanything,ofits intrinsic value through some delay in its issue; especially when written inthevindicationofTruth,whose eternal principlesarebeyond and abovetheinfluenceoftimeandits changes.Atany 'rate, thisattempttoanswer someofMr.Froude'smain allegations againstthepeople oftheWestIndies cannot failtobeofgraveimportanceandlively interestto inhabitantsofthose Colonies.Inthis opinion I am happy in being able to recordthefull con currenceofa numerous and influential bodyofmy fellow-West Indians, menofvarious races,butunited in detestationoffalsehood and in justice.J.J.T.LONDON, June, 1889.

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BOOKI.INTRODUCTIONVoyageOut...Barbados St. Vincent Grenada...BOOKII.TRINIDAD REFORM INTRINIDADNEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIESBOOKIII.SOCIALREVOLUTIONWESTINDIANCONFEDERATION..THENEGROASAWORKERRELIGIONFORNEGROESBOOKIV.HISTORICALSUMMARY PAGE 344144 4 853 5581113175201207233

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BOOKI.

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Ij'{TRODUCTION. 101 Lnm the ancient hero, oneofwhose warlike equipments furnishes the complementary title of his book,theauthor of"TheEnglish in the WestIndies;or,TheBow of Ulysses," sallied forth from his home to study, if not cities,atleast men (especiallyblackmen),andtheir manners in the British Antilles. James AnthonyFroudeis,beyond any doubt whatever, a very considerable figure in modern English literature.Ithas, however,forsome time ceased tobe a question whether his ac ceptability, to the extent whichitreaches, has not been due rather totheverbal attractiveness than to the intrinsic value and trustworthiness of his opinions and teachings.Infact, so farasa ,judgment canbeformed from examined specimens of his writings, it appears thatour

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FROUDACITY.author isthebond-slave of his own phrases.Tosecure an artistic perfection of style,hedis regards all obstacles, not only those presentedbytherequirementsofverity,butsuch as spring from anyotherkindofconsideration whatsoever.Thedoubt may safelybeenter tained whether, among modern British menofletters, therebeoneofequal capability who, intheinterestofthehappinessofhis sentences, so cynically sacrifices what is due not only to himselfasa public instructor,butalso tothatpublic whomheprofesses to instruct. Yet, asthetoo evident playthingofan over-permeable moral constitution,hemightsetup some plea in explanationofhis ethical He might urge, for instance,thatthe high cultureofwhich his booksareall so redolent has utterly failed to imbue him withtheniladmira1'isentiment, whichHoracecommendsasthesole specific for making menhappyandkeepingthemso. F or, as a matteroffact,and special reference tothework we have undertaken to discuss,Mr.Froude,.though cynical in his general utterances regardingNegroes-ofthemale sex, be itnoted-is,inthemain, all ex travaganceandself-abandonment whenever he

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iNTRODUCTION.brings an objectofhis arbitrary likesordislikes under discussion.Atsuch timesheis no observer, much less worshipper, of proportion in his delineations. Thorough-paced, scarcely controllable, his enthusiasm fororagainst ad mits no degree in its expression, saveandexceptthesuperlative.HenceMr. Froude's statementoffactsordescriptionofphenomena, whenever his feelingsareenlisted either way, must be taken withtheproverbial (l grainofsalt" by all when enjoying the luxury of perusing his books. So complete is his self-identification with the sectorindividual for the time being en grossing his sympathy,thateven their personal antipathiesaremade hisown;andthehostile language, often exaggerated and unjust, in which those antipathies find vent, secures in his more chastened modeofutterancean exact reproduction none the less injurious because divestedofgrossness.Ofthis special phase" ofself-manifestation a. typical instance is affordedatpage164,under t4e headingof"Dominica,"in a pas sage which atonce embracesandaccentuates the whole spiritandmethod of the work.Toa eulogium oftheprofessional skill and suc-

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3FROUDACITY.cessful agricultural enterpriseofDr. Nichol, a medical officerofthatColony, with whomhebecame acquainted for .the first time during hisshortstay there,ourauthor travels out ofhis way to tack on a gratuitous and pointless sneerattheeducational competencyofalltheelected membersoftheisland legislature, among whom,hetellsus,theworthy doctor had often tried in vaintoobtain a place.Hiswantofsuccess,ourauthor informs his readers, was brought about through Dr.Nichol"beingthe only man intheColonyofsuperior attainments." acquainted withthestormy politicsofthatlovely little island do not require tobeinformedthatthebitterest animosityhadfor years been raging between Dr. Nicholandsomeofthe electedmembers-afact which our author chose characteristically to regard as justifyinganonslaught by himself onthewholeofthatsectionofwhichthe foes ofhis new friend formed a prominent part. Swayed bytheabove specified motives, our author also manages to see muchthatis,andalways has been, invisible to mortal eye, and to fail tohearwhatis audible toandremarked upon by every other observer.

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iNTRODUCTION.Thuswe find him(p.56) describing the Grenada Carenage as being surrounded by forest trees, causing waters to present a violettint;whilsteveryonefamiliar withthatlocality knows that there are no forest trees within two milesoftheobject which they aresoingeniously made to colour. Again, and aptly illustrating the influence. of his prejudices on his senseofhearing, we will notice somewhat more in detailthefollowing assertion respecting the speechofthegentryofBarbados:H Thelanguage oftheAnglo-Barbadians was pure English,thevoices without the smallest transatlantic intonation." Nowit so happensthatno Barbadian born and bred,behe gentle or simple, can, on opening his lips, avoidthefateofPeterofGalilee when skulkingfrom"the peril of a detected nationality:"Thyspeech bewi-ayeth thee!"Itwould, however, beprudenton this point to taketheevidence of otherEnglishmen, whose testimony isabove'suspicion, seeing that they were free fromthemoral dis turbancethataffected Mr.Froude'sauditory powers. G.J.Chester, in his" Transatlantic Sketches" (page 95), deposes as follows:-

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FROUDACITY. H Butworse, far worse thanthecolour, bothofmenandwomen, istheir voice andaccent. Well may Coleridge enumerate amongthepainsoftheWestIndies,'theyawny-drawny way in which men converse.'Thesoft, whining drawl is simply intolerable. ResembletheworstNorthernStateswoman's accent it may in some degree,butit has not a grainofits vigour. A man tells you,'ifyou can speer it, to send a beerer with a bottleofbare,' andtheclergyman excruciates youbypraying in church,'. Speer us, good Lord.'.TheEnglish pronunciationofAandE is in most words transposed. Barbados has a considerable number of provincialismsofdialect.Someof these, astheconstant useof"Mistress"for'Mrs.,'are interesting as archaisms,orwords in use intheearly daysoftheColony, and which have never diedoutofuse.Othersare Y ankeeisms or vulgarisms; others, again, suchastheexpression'turning cuffums,' i.e. sum mersets, from cuffums, a speciesoffish, seem tobeoflocal origin." .Ina note hereto appended,theauthor gives a listofEnglish wordsofpeculiar use and acceptation in Barbados.

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lNTRODUCTION.33Tothe same effect writes Anthony Trollope:"Butif the black people differ from their brethren.ofthe other islands, so certainly do the white people.Onesoon learns toknowaBim.Thatis the in which they them selves delight, and therefore, though thereis sound of slang about it, I give it here.Onecer.tainly soon learns to know a Bim.Themost peculiar distinctionis inhs voice.Thereisalways a nasal twang about t, but quite distinct from the nasaHtyofa Yankee. The Yankee's word rings sharp through hisnose;not sothatofthefirst-class Bim.Thereis a soft drawl about it, the sound is seldom completely formed.Theeffect on the ear is the same as that on the hand when a man givesyouhis to shake, and insteadofshaking yours, holds his own still, &c., &c." ("TheWestindies,"p.207).From the above and scores of other authod tative testimonies which might have been citedtothe direct contraryofour traveller's tale under this head, we can plainly perceive that Mr. Froude's love is not only blind, but adder-deaf as well.Weshall now contemplatehimunder circumstances where his feelings are quite other than those of a partisan.3

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34FROUDACITY.VOYAGEOUT.ThatMr. Froude, despite his professions to the contrary, did notgoout on his explorations unhampered by prejudices, clear enough fromthefollowingquotation:-."Therewas a small black boy among us, evidentlyofpure blood, for his hair was wool and his colour black as ink.Hisparents must have been well-to-do, forthe boy had been to Europe to be educated.Theofficers on board and some oftheladies played wjth him as they would play with a monkey.Hehad little more sense than a monkey, perhaps less, and the gestures of him grinning behind gratings and perching out his long thin arms between the bars were curiously suggestive oftheoriginal from whom we are told nowthatall of us came.Theworst of it was that, being lifted above his own people,hehad been taught to despise them.Hewas spoilt as a black and could not be made into a white, and this I found afterwards wastheinvariable and dangerous consequence whenever a superior contrived to raise himself.Hemight do well enough himself, but his family feel their blood as degradation. His

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VOYAGEOUT.35children will not marry among their own people, and not only will no white girl marry a negro, but hardly any dowry canbelarge enough to tempt aWestIndian white to make a wifeofa black lady.Thisisoneofthemost sinister features inthepresent stateofsocial life there."'We'may safely assumethattheplayingof" the officersonboardandsomeoftheladies"withtheboy,"astheywould play with a monkey,"isevidently a suggestionofMr. Froude's own soul, as well astheresemblance to the simian tribe which he makes out from the frolicsofthelad. Verily,itrequiresaneye rendered morethanmicroscopic by preju dice to discern the difference betweenthegam bols of juveniles of any colour under similar conditions.Itistruethatitmightjustbethe difference betweenthefriskingsofwhite lambs andthefriskingsoflambsthatarenot white.Thatany black pupil shouldbetaughtto despise his own people through being lifted above them'byeducation, seems a reckless statement,and far from patrioticwithal;inas much astheeducation referred to here was European,and'theplace from which it was obtained presumably England.Atall events,

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FROUDACITY.thedifference among educated black men in deportment towards their unenlightened Jel iow-blacks, can be proved to have nothingofthatcynicism which often marksthebearingofEnglishmen inananalogous case with regardto their less favoured countrymen.Thestatementthata blackperson canbe"spoilt"for such by education, whilsthecannot be made white,isoneofthesilly conceits whichtheworshipoftheskin engenders in ill-con ditioned minds.Nosympathyshould be wasted on the negro sufferer from mortificationatnot being able to I( change his skin."TheEthiopianofwhatever shadeofcolour whoisnot satisfied with being such was never in tended to be more tha,n a mere living figure. Mr.Froudefurther confidently statesthatwhilst a superiorNegro I( might do well himself," yet I( his family feel their blood as a degradation."Iftherebesome who so feel,theyare indeed very much tobepitied;buttheir sentiments are not entitled totheserious importance with which our critic has invested them.Butisitatall conceivablethata people whose sanity has never in any way been questioned would strain every nerve to secure for their offspring a

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VOYAGE OUT. 37distinctionthe ofwhichtothem selves wOl;lld bea feeling of their own abase ment?Thepoor Irish peasant who toilsandstarves to secure for his eldest son admission into the Catholic priesthood, has afarother feel ing than oneofhumiliation when contemplating that son eventually asthespiritual directorofa congregation and parish. Similarly,thelaud able 'ambition which, inthecaseofa humble Scotch matron, is expressed inthewishandexertion to see'herJamieorGeordie"waghis pow 'inthepou'pit," produces, when realized, salutary effects inthewhole family connection. These effects, which Mr.Froudewould doubt less allow and commend in their case,hefinds it creditable to ignorethevery possibility ofinthe experienceofpeople'whose cuticleisnot white.Itis, however,butbare justiceto say that,as'Negroesarebyno means deficientinself-love andthe-tenderness of natural affection, such gratifying fulfilmentofa family's hopes exertsanelevating and, in many cases, an ennobling influence oneveryoneconnected withthefortunate household: Nor,fromthe eminently sympathetic natureoftheAfrican race, arethenearfriendsofa family

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FROUDACITY.unbenefited in a similar way.Thisis true, and distinctivelyhuman;but, naturally, no apolo gist of Negro depreciation would admitthereasonableness of applying to the affairsofNegroes the principlesofcommon equity,orevenofcommon sense.Tosum up practically our argument on this head, we shall supposeWestI ndians to be called upon to imagine that thel,essdistinguished relations respectivelyof,say, the late Solicitor-GeneralofTrinidad andthepresent Chief JusticeofBarbados could be otherwise than legitimately elatedatthe conspicuous position wonbya member of their own household. Mr. F roude further ventures to declare, in this connection, that the children of educated colouredfolk"will not marry among their own people." Will he tellus,then, whomthedaughters marry, or if they ever do marryatall, since he asserts, with regard toWestIndian Whites, that"hardlyany dowry can be large enough to tempt them to make a wife of a blacklady"?Ourauthor evidently does not feelorcare that the suggestion he here induces is a hideous slander against a large bodyofrespectable people of whose affairs he is absolutely ignorant. Full

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VOYAGEOUT.39of the "go" imparted to his talk by a conscious ness of absolute license with regard to Negroes, our dignified narrator makes the parenthetical assertionthatno 'white girl (in theWestIndies) will"marrya Negro." But has he been informedthatcases upon cases have occurred in those Colonies, and in very -high Anglo-WestIndian"families too, where the social degradationofbeingmarredto Negroes has been avoided by the alternativeofforming base private connections even with menialsofthat race?Themarrying of a blackwife,on the other hand, by aWestIndian White was an eventoffrequent occurrence at a period in regard to which our historian seems to be culpably un informed.Inslavery days, when all planters, black and white alike, were fused in a common solidarityofinterests, the skin distinction which Mr. Froude so strenuously advocates, and would fain risk so much to promote, didnot,so far as matrimony was concerned, existinthe degreethatitnow does. Self-interest often dictated such unions. especially on the part of in-comingWhitesdesiring to strengthen their position and to increase their influence in

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FROU.DACITY.the land of their adoptionbymeansofadvan tageous Creole marriages. Love, too, sheer uncalculating love, impelled not a few Whites to enter the hymeneal state with the dusky cap tivatorsoftheir affections.Whenrich, the white planter not seldom paid for such gratifi cationofhis laudable impulsebyaccepting exclusion from"Society"-andwhen poor, he incurred almost invariably his dismissal from employment.Ofcourse, in all cases of the sort the dispensersofsuch penalties were actuated by high motives which, nevertheless, did not stand in the wayoftheir meeting, in the householdsofthe persons thus obnoxious to punishment, the sameoreven' a lower class of Ethiopic damsels, under the titleof"housekeeper," on whom they lavished a very plethora of caresses.' Perhaps it may be wrong so to hint it, but, judging from tions in his own book, our author himself would have been liable in those days to enthralment by the piquant charmsthatproved irresistible to so manyofhis brother-Europeans.Itisalmost superfluous to repeatthatthe skin discriminating policy induced as regards the coloured subjectsofthe Queen since the

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BARBADOS.41abolitionofslavery did not, and could not, operate when coloured and white stood on the same high level as slave-owners and ruling potentates intheColonies.Ofcourse, when the administrative power passed entirely into the handsofBritishofficia.ls,their colonial compatriots coalesced with them, and foundnoloss inbeingin the good books of the dominant personages. In conclusionofourremarks upon the above extracts, it maybe,statedthatthe blendingofthe racesisnota burning question."It can keep," as Mr. Bright wittily said withregard'toa subject of similar urgency.TimeandNaturemight safely be left uninterfered with to work out whatever social development of this kindisinstore fortheworld and its inhabitants.BARBADOS.Our distinguished voyager visited manyofthe BritishWestIndies, landing firstatBarbados, his social experience whereof is set forth in a very agreeable account.Ourim mediate business, however,' is not with what West Indian hospitality, especially among the well-to-do classes, can and does accomplish for

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FROUDACITY.theentertainmentofvisitors,andparticularly visitors so eminent as Mr. Frol.lde.Weareconcerned with whatMr.Froudehas to say concerning our duskybrethrenandsisters in those Colonies.Wehave, thus, much pleasure in being ableattheoutset to thefollowing favourable verdictofhis respectingthem-premising,atthesame time,thatthebalcony from which Mr.Froudesurveyedtheteeming multitude in Bridgetown wasthatof a grand hotelatwhichhehad, on invitation, partakenofthe refreshing beverage mentioned inthecitation :-' "Cocktail over,andwalking in theheatofthesun being a thing not tobethoughtof, I sat for two hours inthebalcony, watchingthepeople, who were as thick as bees in swarming time. Nine-tenthsofthem were pure black. You rarely saw a white face,butstill less would you see a discontented one, imperturbable good humour and self-satisfaction being written onthefeaturesofeveryone.Thewomen struck me especially.Theywere smartly dressed in white calico, scrupulously clean, and tricked out with ribands andfeathers;buttheir figures were so good, and they carried themselves so

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BARBADOS.43welland gracefully,thatalthough they might make themselves absurd, they could not look vulgar. Like the Greek and Etruscan women, they are trained from childhood to carry weights on their heads.Theyare thus per fectly upright, andplanttheir feet firmly and naturally on the ground.Theymight serveforsculptors' models, and are well aware of it." Regarding the other sex, Mr. Froudesays:"Themen were active enough, driving carts, wheeling barrows, and selling flying-fish," &c.Healso speaks with candourofthe entire absence of drunkenness and quarrelling, and the agreeable prevalenceofgood humour and Iight-heartedness among them. Some critic might, on reading the above extract from our author's accountofthe men, be tempted toask-"Butwhat'isthemeaning ofthatlittle word 'enough'occurring therein? "Weshould be disposed to hazard a suggestion thatMr.Froude, being fair-minded and loyal to truth, as far as is compatible with his sympathyforhis hapless"Anglo-WestIndians," could not give an entirely ungrudging testimony in favour of the possible, nay probable, voters by whose suffrages the supremacyoftheDark

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44FROUDACITY.Parliamentwillbe ensured, andtherelapse into 'obeahism, devil-worship,andchildren eatingbeinaugurated. Nevertheless, Sz"szcomnz"adixzsset-if hehadsaid all thingsthus!Yes, if Mr..Froudehad, throughout his volume, spoken in this strain, his occasional wantofpatienceandfairness with regard to our male kinared mighthave found condona tion in his even morethanchivalrous appre ciationofour womankind.Butit has been otherwise.Sowe are forced totryconclusions with him inthearenaofhis ownselectionunreflecting spokesmanthatheisofBritish colonialism, which, we grievetolearn through Mr. Froude's pages, has, liketheBourbon family, not only forgotten nothing, but, un fortunately for its own peace, learnt nothing also.ST.VINCENT.Thefollowingarethewords in which our traveller embodiesthemain motiveandpur poseofhis voyage:-" My own chief desire was to seethehuman inhabitants, to learn what they 'were doing, howthey were living, and whattheywere about...."

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ST.VINCENT.45But, alas, withthemercurialism of ment in whichhehas thought proper. to indulge when onlyNegroesandEuropeansnotof"Anglo-WestIndian" tendencies were concerned,hejauntily threw tothewinds all the scruples and cautious minuteness which were essential totheproper executionofhis project.AtBarbados, as wehaveseen,hesatisfies himself with sitting aloft,ata balcony-window,tocontemplate,themovementsofthesable throng below,ofwhose character, moral and political, he nevertheless professestohavebecome a trustworthy delineator. F romtheabove-quoted account of his impressionsoftheexternal traits and deportmentoftheEthiopicfolkthus superficially gazed at,ourauthor passes on to, an analysisoftheir mental and moral idiosyncrasies,andotherintimate matters, whichtheverysilence Of thebookasto his methodofascertainingthemisa sufficentproofthathis knowledge in their regard has not been acquired directlyandatfirst hand.Norneed we saythatthegene rally adverse castofhis verdicts on what hehadbeenatno painstostudy for himself pointsto I'hostile ness "ofthewitnesses whose

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FROUDACITY. testimon y alone has formed the basisofhis conclusions. Throughout Mr. Froude's tour in the British. Colonies his intercourse was exclusivelywith"Anglo-West Indians," whose aversion to the Blacks he has himself, perhaps they would think placed on record.Inno instance do we findthathe condescended to visit the abodeofany Negro, whether it was the mansion of a gentleman orthehutofa peasant of that race.Thewhole tenorofthebook indicates his rigid adherence to onesided course, and suggests also that, as a traveller, Mr.Froudeconsiders maligning on hearsay to bejustas convenient as reporting facts elicited by personal investigation. Pro we, however, to strengthen our statement regarding his definitive abandonment, and that without any apparent reason, 'of the plan he had professedly laid down for himselfatstarting, and failing which no trustworthy data could .have been' obtained concerning the character and disposition ofthepeople about whom he undertakes to thoroughly enlighten his readers. SpeakingofSt. Vincent, where he arrived immediately after leaving Barbados, our author says :-

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ST.VINCENT.47"Idid not land, forthetime was short,andasa,beautiful picturetheisland was best seenfromthe deck.Thecharacteristics ofthepeople arethesame in alltheAntilles, and could be studied elsewhere.,.Now,itis a fact,patentandnotorious, ,.that "thecharacteristics ofthepeople are"not"thesame in alltheAntilles." A manofMr. Froude's attainments, whose studies have made him familiar with ethnological facts,mustbeawarethatdifferenceoflocal surroundingsandInfluences does, inthecourseoftime, inevitably create differenceofcharacteristic and deport ment. .Hencethereis in nearly every Colony a marked dissimilarityofnative qualities amongst the'Negroinhabitants, arising not onlyfrom the causes above indicated,butlargely also fromthegreatdiversityoftheir African an cestry.Wemight as well be told that because the nationsofEuropeare generally white and descended fromJaphet,theycould. be studied one by the light derived from acquaintance with another.Weventure to declare that, unless a common education from youth has been shared by 'them,theHamitic inhabitants of one island have very little in common with

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FROUDACIT}.thoseofanother, beyondthedusky skinandwoolly hair.Inspeech, character, and deport ment, a coloured nativeofTrinidaddiffers as much from oneofBarbados as aNorthAmerican black does from either, in all the above respects.GRENADA.In Grenada, the islandhearri ved at, our traveller's procedure with regard to the inhabitants was very similar.Therehelanded in the afternoon, drovethreeorfour miles inland to dineatthe houseofa"gentlemanwho was a passing resident," returned inthedark'to his ship,andstarted for Trinidad.Inthe courseofthis journey back, however, ashesped.along inthecarriage, Mr.Froudefound opportunity to look into thepeople's houses along the way, where,hetells us, he could seeandwas astonished to observe signsofcomfort, and even signsoftaste-armchairs,sofas, side-boards with cut-glass upon them, engravings and coloured prints upon thewalls."Asa resultofthis nocturnal exami nation,dvold'oiseau,hehas written paragraph upon paragraph about the people's character

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GRENADA.49and prospects intheisland of Grenada.Toread the patronizing terms in which our historian-traveller has seen fit to comment on Grenada and its people, one would believe that his account is of some half-civilized, out of-the-way region under British sway, and inhabited chiefly by a horde of semi-barbarian ignoramusesofAfrican descent.Iftheworld had not by this time thoroughly assessedtheintrinsic value of Mr. Froude's utterances, onewhoknows Grenada might have felt inclined to resent his causeless depreciation oftheintellectual capacityofitsinhabitants;but sideringtheestimate which has been pretty generally formedofhis historical judgment,Mr.Froude.may be dismissed, as regards Grenada and its people, with a certain degree of scepticism. Such scepticism, though lost upon himself, is unquestionably needful to pro tect his readers from the which the author's singular contempt for accuracy is but too liable to induce. Those who know Grenada and its affairs are perfectly familiar withthefactthatallofits chief intellectual business, whether official(evenin the highest degree, such as temporary4

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5FROUDACITY.administrationofthe legal, com mercial, municipal, educational,orjournalistic, has been for years upon years carried on by menofcolour.Andwhat, as a consequenceof.this fact, has the worldeverheard in dis paragement ofGrenadathroughout this long seriesofyears?Assuredly not a syllable. Onthecontrary, she has beenthethemeofpraise, not only fortheadmirable foresight with which she avoidedthesugar crisis, so disastrous tohersister islands,butalso forthepluck and persistence shown in sustaining herself through an agricultural emergency brought about by commercial reverses, wherebythesteady marchofhersons in self-advancement was only checked for a time,butneverdefinitively arrested.Infine, as regards every branch of civilized. employment pursued tliere,thegood peopleofGrenada hold their own so well and worthilythatany showofpatronage, even from a source more entitled to confidence, would sirtiply be a pieceofobtrusive kindness, not acceptable to any, seeingthatitis required by none.

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BOOKII.

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TRINIDAD. 10'MR.FROUDE,crossing the ninety milesofthe CaribbeanSealying between Grenada and Trinidad, lands next morning inPortof Spain, the chief cityofthat"splendidcolony," as Irving, its worst ruler, truly callsitinhis farewell message to the Legislature. Regarding PortofSpain in particular, Mr. Froudeispositively exuberant in the display of the peculiar qualitiesthatdistinguish him,andwhich we have already admitted. Ecstatic praise and groundless detraction go. hand .in hand;bewildering toanyonenot possessed of the key tothemysteryoftheartof blowinghot and cold, which Mr.Froudeso start lingly exemplifies.Asitis our purpose tomakewhat says concerning this Colony thecrucialtestofhis veracity as a writeroftravels,

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54FROV.DACITY.and alsoofthevalueofhisjudgmentsrespect ing men and things, we shall first invitethereader's attention tothefollowing extracts, withourdiscussion thereof:" Onlanding we found ourselves in a large foreign-looking town,PortofSpain having been built byFrenchand Spaniards according to their national tendencies, and especially with a view tothetemperature, whichisthatofa forcing house,andrarely falls below 800 Thestreets are broad, and. are planted with trees for shade, each house where room permits having a gardenofits own, with palms and mangoesandcoffee-plantsandcreepers.Of san#ary arrangements there seemedtobenone.Thereis abundanceofrain,andthegutters which run down bythefootway are flushed aimost everyday.But they are all open.Dirtofevery kind lies about freely, to be washedin.tothemorlefttoputrifyasfateshall drect" (p.64). Lower down, on the same page, our author, luxuriating in his qmtempt for exactitude whenthecharacterofotherfolk only isatstake, continues:_"Thetown has between thirtyandforty thousand people living in it,andthe

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.S5 ran and Johnny crows between themkeepoff pestilence." Onpage6Swe havethefollowing astounding statement with respect to oneofthetrees inthegardenin frontofthehouse in which Mr.Froudewas sojourning:_ClAtthegate stood as sentinel a cabbage palma hundred feet hgh." Theabove quotations, in which wehaveelected tobecontent with indicatingbytypo graphical differencesthepoints on whichattention should be mostly directed, will suffice, withanyoneknowing Trinidad, as examplesofMr. Froude's trustworthiness.Butas theseareonly on mattersofmere detail, involving no questionofprinciple, they are dismissed with out any further comment. Itmust pot be so, however, withthefollowing remarkable de which occur on page 67ofhis too picturesque work:-"Thecommonplace in trudes upon the imaginative.Atmoments onecanfancythattheworld isanenchanted place after all,butthencomes generally an absurd awakening.Onthefirst nightofmy arrival, before we went to bed,therecameaninvitationtometo attend a political meeting which wastobe held in a few days onthe

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FROUDACITY.Trinidad isa purely Crowncolony,andhas escaped hithertotheintroductionofthe electon virus.Thenewspapersandcertain busy gentleme1't inPortofSpain had discoveredthatthey were living,undera'degradingtyranny,' andtheydemanded a constitution.Theydidnot complain that their affairshadbeenill-managed.Onthecontrary,theyin sistedthatthey were the most prosperousoftheWestIndian colonies, and alone had a surplus in their treasury.Ifthis was so,itseemed to methattheyhadbetterlet well alone.Thepopulation, all told, 'was but170,000,lessbythirty thousand than thatofBarbados.Theywere a mixedandmotley assemblageofall races and colours, busy each with their own affairs,andnever hitherto troublng themselves about poltcs. Butithad pleasedtheHomeGovernment to set upthebeginningofa constitution again inJamaica;nooneknew why,butso it was; andTrinidaddid not choosetobebehindhand.Theofficial appointments were valuable, andhadbeen hitherto given away bytheCrown.Thelocal popularitiesvery naturallywished tohavethem fortherriselves.Thiswas the

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.57reality inthething, so farastherewas a reality.Itwas dressed up inthephrases borrowed fromthegreatEnglish mastersofthe art, about privilegesofmanhood, moral dignity,theelevating influenceofthesuffrage,&c.,intended for home consumption amongthebelievers in the orthodox radical faith."Thepassages which wehavesignalized. in the above quotation,andwhich occur with more elaborationandheedless assurance on a later page, will produce a feelingofwonderatthehardihood of him who not only conceived,butpennedanddaredto publish them as well, against the gentlemen whom we all know tobebeforemost inthepolitical agitationatwhichMr.Froudeso flippantly sneers.Anemphatic denial maybeopposed to his pretencethat"theydid hot com plainthattheir affairs had been ill-managed."Why,thevery gistandkernel ofthewhole agitation,setforth in print through long yearsofiteration, has beenthescandalous mismanagementoftheaffairsoftheColony-especiallyunderthebaleful adminis tration ofGovernorIrving.TheAugeanStable, miscalled by him"ThePublicWorksDepartment,"and officialshecoolly

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FROUDACITY.fastened upon the financial vitalsofthatlong suffering Colony, baffled even the resolute willofa Des Vreu:?,to cleanse it. Poor Sir Sanford Freeling attempted the cleansing, but foundered ignominiously almost as soon as he embarked on that Herculean enterprise. Sir A.E.Havelock, who came after, must be mentioned by the historianofTrinidad merely as an incarnate accident in the succession of Governors to whom the destiniesofthat maltreated Colony have been successively intrusted since the departureofSirArthur Hamilton Gordon.Thepresent Governor of Trinidad, Sir William Robinson, is a man of spirit and intelligence, keenly alive tothegrave responsibilities resting on him as a ruler of men and moulder of men's destinies.Hashe, with all his energy, his public spirit and indisputable devotion to the furtherance of the Colony's interests, been able to grapple successfully with the giant evil?Hashe effectually gained the ear of our masters in DowningStreetregarding the inefficiency and wastefulness of Governor Irving's pet department?Wepresume that his success has been but very partial, for other wise itisdifficult to conceive the motivefor

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.59retammgthearmyofofficials radiating from that office, withthechiefunderwhose super vision so many architectural andotherscandals have for so long beentheorderoftheday.ThePublicWorksDepartmentiscostly enough to have been a warning tothewholeoftheWest Indies.Itis truethatthelavish squan dering ofthepeople's money bythatdepart ment has been appreciably checked sincetheadventofthepresent headoftheGovernment. The papers no longer team with accounts, nor is even the humblest <:esthetic sense offended now,asformerly, with viewsofunsightly, uselessandflimsyerections,thecostofwhich, onanaver age, was five times more thanthatofgood and reputable structures. This, however, has been entirely due to the personal influenceoftheGovernor.SirWilliam Robinson, not beingthetool, asSirHenry Irving ownedthathewas,oftheDirector of Public Works, could not be ex pected to be his accompliceorscreener inthecynical wasteofthe public funds. Here, then,isthe personal rectitudeofaruler operatingasa safeguard tothepeople'sinterests;andwegladly confess our entire agreement with

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60FRO UDA CITY.Mr.Froudeonthesubject oftheessential quali ficationsofa Crown Governor.Mr.Froudecontends,andwe heartily coincide with him,thata rulerofhightrainingandnoble purposes would, astheembodimentoftheadministrative authority,betheverybestprovision forthegovernmentofColonies constitutedasours are.Buthehas also pointed out,andthatin no equivocal terms,thattheabovearefar from having been indispensable qualifications forthepatronageofDowningStreet.He has shownthattheColonial Office is,moreoftenthanotherwise, swayed in the.appointmentof ColonialGovernorsbyconsiderationsamong thespecial fitnessofthemanappointed holdsbuta secondary place.Onthispointwehavemuch gratification in Mr.Froude'sown words (p. 91):-"Among.thepublic servantsofGreatBritaintherearepersons always tobefound fitandwilling for postsofhonouranddifficultyifa sincere effortbemadetofind them.Alas!in timespastwehavesent personstoruleourBaratarias to whomSanchoPanzawas asagetroublesomemembersofParliament,youngerbrothersof powerful families, impecuniouspeers;favour-

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.61ites, with backstairs influence, for whom a provision was to be found; colonial clerks bred in the office who had been obsequious and useful!" Now then, applying these factstothe political history of Trinidad, with whichweare more particularly concernedatpresent, what do we find?WefindthatinthepersonofSirA.H.Gordon(1867-187)thatColonyatlength chanced upon a ruler .both competent and eager to advance her interests, not only materially,butin the nobler respectsthatgive dignity to the existence of a community.Ofcourse, he wasopposed-ably,strenuously, vio lently,virulently-butthemetal of whichthemanwas composed was only fused into greater firmness by being subjected to such fiery tests. On leaving Trinidad, this eminent ruler leftaslegacies to the Colony he had loved and worked for so heartily, lawsthat placed the persons and belongingsofthe inhabitants beyondthereachofwanton aggression; themeansby which honest and laborious industrycould,through agriculture, benefit both itself and the general revenue.Healso left an educational systemthatopened (to even the humblest) a free pathwaytoknowledge, to

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62FROUDACITY.distinction, and, if the objects of its beneficence were worthy of the boon, to serviceableness to their native country. Aboveall,he left peace among thejarring interests which, under the badge of Englishman andofCreole, under the badge of Catholic and under the badgeofProtestant, and so many other forms of sectional divergence, had too long distracted Trinidad. This he had effected, not by consti tuting himself a partisanofeither section, but by inquiring with statesmanlike appreciation, and allowing the legitimate claims of eachtoa certain scope of influence in the furtheranceofthe Colony's welfare. Hencethebitter rivalryofjarring interests was transformedinto.harmoniQus co-operationonall sides, in advanc ing the common good of the common country.TheColonial Office, knowing little and caring less about that noble jewel in the British Crown, sent out as successor to so brilliant and successfulanadministrator-whom?OneSir James Robert Longden, a gentleman without initiative, without courage, and, above all, with a slavish adherence to red-tape and a clerk-like dreadofcompromising his berth.Havingservedfora long. seriesofyears in subordinate postsin

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.63minor dependencies, the habit of being im pressed and influenced by colonial magnates grew and gathered strength within him. Such a ruler, of course, the serpents that had only been" scotched,butnot killed," by the stern pro-' ceduresofGovernor Gordon, could wind round, beguile, and finally cause tofall.Measure after measureofhis predecessor which he couldinany way neutralize in the interests ofthecolonial clique, was rendered of none effect.Infact,he was subservient to the wishesofthosewhohad all long objected to those measures, but had not dared even to hint their objectionstothe beneficent autocrat who had willed and given them effect for the general welfare. After Governor Longden came Si,r_ HenryTurner Irving, a personage who brought to Trinidad a reputation for all the vulgar colonial prejudices which, discreditable enough in ordi naryfolk,are, in the Governorofa mixed community, nothing less than calamitous.Morethan did he justify the evil reportswithwhich rumour had heralded his coming.Abler,more astute, more daring thanSirJames Longden, who was, on the whole, only a"con stitutionally timidman, ,GovernorIrvingthrew

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FROU.DACITY.himself heart and soul into the armsoftheSugarInterest, by whom he had been helped into his highoffice,and whose belief he evi dently shared, that sugar-growers alone should be possessorsofthe landsoftheWestIndies. It would be wearisome to detail the methods by which every act ofSirArthurGordon'stobenefit the whole population was cynically and systematically undone by thishis_native-hating successor.Inshort, the policyofreaction whichSirJames Longden began, found in Governor Irving not only a consistent promoter, but, asitwere, a sinister incarnation. It is truethathecould not,atthe bidding and on the adviceofhis planter-friends, shut up the Crown Lapds ofthe Colony against purchasersoflimited means, because they happened to be mostly natives of colour,buthe could annul theprovision by which every Warden in the rural districts, on the receiptof-the statutoryfees,had to supply a Government title on the spottoevery one who put:chased any acreage of Crown Lands.Everyintending purchaser, therefore, whether living at'Toco, Guayaguayare, Monos, or Icacos, the four extreme points of the IslandofTrinidad, was compelled to go to Portof

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.65Spain, fortyorfifty miles distant, through an almost roadless country, to competeattheSub Intendant's auction sales, with every probability of being outbid in the end, and having his long deposited money returned to him after all his pains. Lieutenant-GovernorDesV ceux told the LegislatureofTrinidadthatthemonstrous Excise imposts of theColony wereanincentivetosmuggling, and he thoughtthattheduties, licenses, &c., should be lowered intheinterest of good and equitable government.SirHenryTurner Irving, however, besides raisingtheduties on spirituous liquors, also enactedthatevery distillery, however small, must pay a salary to a Government official stationed within it to supervisethemanufactureofthespirits. This,ofcourse, wasthedeath-blow to alltheminor competition which had so long been dis turbing the peaceofmindofthe mighty pos sessors ofthegreatdistilleries. Ahabwas thusmadeglad with the.vineyard of Naboth. In the matterofofficial appointments,too,Governor Irving was consistent in his ostentatious hostility to Creoles in general,andto coloured Creoles in particular.Ofthefifty-sixappointments whichthatmodel Go-5

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66FROUDACITY.vernor made in1876,onlysevenhappened tobenatives and coloured,outofa population in whichthelatter element is so preponderant as to excite the fearsofMr. F roude: In educational matters, thoughhecould not with any show of sense or decency re-enacttherule which ex cluded studentsofillegitimate birth from the advantagesoftheRoyal College,hecould, nevertheless,pandertotheprejudicesofhim selfandhis friendsbyraisingthestandardof proficiency while reducingthelimitoftheage for free admissiontothatinstitution-boysof African descent having shown an irrepressible persistency in carrying off prizes.Everyoneacquainted withTrinidadpolitics knows very welltheineffably low dodgesandsubterfugesunderwhich the Arima Railway was prevented from having its ter minus in the centreofthattown.Thepublic was promised a savingofEightThousand Pounds by their high-minded Governor for a diversionoftheline"by only a fewyards" fromtheoriginally projected. terminus.Intheend it was Joun:d out not onlythattheterminus oftherailway was nearly a whole mile outsideofthetownofArima,butalsothatTwenty

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.67Thousand Pounds"Miscellaneous"hadtobepaid upbythegood folkofTrinidad, in addi: tion to gulping down their disappointmentatsaving noEightTho,usand Pounds,andhavingtofind by bitter experience, especially in rainy weather,thattheir Governor's few yardswere just his characteristic wayofputting down yards whichhewell knew weretobe countedbyhundreds.Then,again, we havetheso calledSanFernandoWaterworks,anabortion, ascandal for whichthere is no excuse, asthehead of the PublicWorksDepartmentwenthisown way despitetheexperienceof those whoknewbetterthanhe,andtheprotestsofthose who would havehadto pay. SeventeenThousan'd Pounds representtheamountofdebtwithwhich Governor Irving'spetdepartmenthassaddledthe town ofSanFernandoforwater,which halftheinhabitants cannot get,andwhich fewofthehalf who dogetit dare venture to drink.Summa fastz'gz'arerumsecutz' sumus.Ifintheworksthatwere so prominentbeforethe public gaze these enormous abusescouldflourish, defiantofprotest and opposition,whatshall we thinkofthenooksandcornersofthat same squandering department, whichof

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68FROUDACITY.course must have been meregnatsintheeyesofaGovernor who had swallowed so many monstrous camels!TheGovernor was callous. Trinidad was a battening ground for his friends;butshe had inherbosom men who wereherfriends,andthe struggle began, constitutionallyofcourse, which, under the leadershipofthe MayorofSanFernando, has continued up to now, culminatingatlast in the Reform move ment which Mr.Froudedecries,andwhich his pupil, Mr. S.H.Gatty,is,from what has appeared intheTrinidad papers, doing his"levelbest"to render abortive. Sir Sanford Freeling,bythewillandpleasureofDowning Street, was thenextsuccessor, after Governor Irving, to the chief ruler-shipofTrinidad. Incredible as it may sound, he was ayetmore disadvantageous bargainforthe Colony'sa year. A better maninmany respects than his predecessor, he wasinmany more a much worse Governor.Thepersonal affabilityofa man can be known onlytothose who come into actual contact withhim-thepublic measuresofa ruler over acommunity touchesit;mediatelyorimmediately, throughout all its sections.Thebad boldnessof

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REFORMINTRINiDAD.69Governor Irving achieved muchthatthepeople, especially intheoutlying districts, could seeandappreciate.Forexample, he erected Rest-housesallovertheremoter and more sparsely peopled quartersoftheColony, after mannerofsuch provisions in Oriental lands.Thepopulationwhocame in contact with these conveniences, and to whom access tothem-fora consideration-hadnever been denied, saw with theirowneyes tangible evidenceoftheGovernor's activity, and infe!red therefrom a solicitude on hispart forthepublic welfare..Hadthey, how ever, been given a notionofthebill whichhadhad to be paid for those frail, though welcome hostelries,theywould have stood aghastattheimbecility, or, if not logically that,thesome thing very much worse,throughwhich five times the actual worthofthese buildingshadbeen extracted fromtheTreasury.SirSanford Freeling, ontheotherhand, while being no screener ofjobberyand peculation,hadnotthestrengthofmind whereof jobbersandpeculatorsdostand in dread. In evidence ofthatpoor ruler's infirniity ofpurpose, we would only cite the double fact that, whereas in 1883hewasthefirsttoentera practical protest ,againstthehous-

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FROUDACITY.ingofthediseased and destitute inthethennewly finished,butmost leaky,HouseofRefuge ontheSt. Clair Lands,byhavingthepoor saturated inmates carried off in his presence tothe.Colonial Hospital,yetHisExcellency was the very man who, intheverynextyear,1884,not only sanctionedtheshooting downofIndian immigrantsattheir festivpJ, but actually directedtheuse of buck-shot forthatpurpose! Evidently,ifthese two foregoing statements are true, Mr.Froudemustjoin us in thinkingthata man whose mind could be warped by external influences fromthesoftest commiseration forthesufferings of his Kind, one year, into beingthecold-blooded deviserofthereadiest method for slaughtering unarmed holiday-makers,thevery next year, is not the kindofruler whom heandwe so cordially de siderate.Wehave already mention.ed above how ignominious Governor Freeling's failure was in attempting to meddle with the colossal abusesofthePublicWorksDepartment.SirArthurElibankHavelocknexthad the privilege ofenjoyingtheparadisaic sojourn atQueen'sHouse, St. Ann's,aswellasthe four thousand pounds a year attached to the

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REFORMINTRINiDAD.71rightofoccupyingthatprincely residence.Saveas a dandy, however, andtheharrierofsub ordinate officials,thewriteroftheannalsofTrinidad may well pass him by.Sothen it may be seen what, py mere freaksofChance-theruling deityatDowningStreet-theadminis trative experienceofTrinidadhadbeen from the departureofthattrue king in Israel;SirArthur Gordon, up tothevisitofMr. Froude. First, a slavetored.tape, procrastination,andthe capricesofpretentious colonialists; next, a daring schemer, confidentofthesupportofthethen dominantSugarI nterest,andregarding and treatingtheresourcesoftheIsland as free booty for his friends, sycophants,andfavourites; then,anold woman, garbed in male attire, havinganin6rmityofpurpose only too prone tobeblown about by every wind of doctrine, alternating helplessly between ten derness and truculence,thecharityofaFryand the tragic atrocityofMedea. After this dismal ruler, Trinidad, bythegrace of the Colonial Office, was subjected tothemanipulation of an unctuous dandy.Thissuccessor of Gordon, of Elliot,andofCairns,durstnot oppose high-placed official malfeasants,but

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FROUDACITY. wC!-s inexorable with regardtominor delin quents.Inthe retrospect we have purposely omitted mentioning such transient rulers as Mr. Rennie,SirG. W. DesV ceux, and last,butby no means least,SirF.Barlee, a high-minded Governor, whom death. so sud denly and inscrutably snatched away fromthegoodwork hehadloyally begun.Everyoneofthe above temporary administrators was a right good man fQr a post in which brain power and moral back-boneareessential quali fications. ButtheFatesso willed itthatTrinidad should never enjoythepermanent governanceofeither.Inview ,of theabove factsjin view alsoofthe lessonstaughtthe inhabitantsofTrinadadso frequently, so cruelly, what wonderistherethat, failing of faith in a probability, which stands one against four, of theirgettinganotherworthy ruler when Governor Robinson shallhaveleft them,theyshould seek to makehaywhilethesun shines, by providing againstthecontingency of such Governors as they know from bitter ex periencethatDowningStreetwould place over their destinies, shouldtheconsiderations de tailed by Mr.Froude or anyotherequally

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.73unworthy counsellorsupervene?Thattheleading mindsofTrinidad should believe in an elective legislature is a logical consequence of the teachingsofthepast,whentheColonywasunderthemanipulationofthe"sortofGovernors above mentioned as immediately succeedingSirArthurGordon. This brings us tothemotives,thesordid motives; which Mr. Froude, obliviousoftheresponsibilityofhis high literary status, has permitted himself gratuitously, and we may add scandalously, to impute to the headsoftheReform movement in Trinidad.It was per fectly competentthatourauthor should decline,ashe did decline, to haveanythingto do, evenasa spectator,ata meeting withtheobjectofwhichhehadno sympathy.Butour opinionisequally decidedthatMr.Froudehas trans gressedtheboundsofdecent political an tagonism, nay, even of common sense, whenhepresumes tostatethatitwas not foranyother objectthanthelarge salariesoftheCrown appointments," whichtheycovet for themselves,thattheReform leaders' are con tending.Thisis not criticism: it is slander. To make culpatory statements against others,

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74FROUDACITY.without ability to prove them,IS,to say the least, hazardous;butto make accusations to formulate which the accuser is forced, not only to ignore facts,butactually to deny them,is,to our mind, nothing shortofrankdefamation. Mr.Froudeis not likely to impress the world (oftheWestIndies,atany rate) withthetrans parently silly,ifnot intentionally malicious, ravings whichhe indulged in onthesubjectofTrinidadand.its politics.Hereare someofthe things which this"championofAngloWestIndians"attemptstoforce downthe throatsofhis readers.HewouldhaveusbelievethatMr. Francis Damian,theMayorofPortofSpain, andoneofthewealthiestofthenative inhabitantsofTrinidad, a man who has retiredfromanhonourable and lucrative legal practice,and devotes his time, his talents, and his moneytotheserviceofhis nativecountry;thatMr.RobertGuppy,thevenerable and venerated MayorofSan Fernando, with his weightofyears apd hissufficing competence,andwith his long recordofself-denying services tothepublic;thatMr. George GoodwiIIe, oneofthemost successful merchants intheColonies;thatMr. Conrad

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.75F.Stollmeyer, a gentleman retired, In theeveningofhis days, on his well-earned ample means,areopen totheabove sordid accusation. In short,thatthoseandsuch-like individualswho,on accountoftheirprivate resources and mental capabilities, as well as the public influence resulting therefrom, are,bythesheerlogicofcircumstances, forced tobeatthehead of public movements,areactuatedbya cravingforthe fewhundredpounds ayearfor which there is such a scrambleatDowningStreetamongthefuture officialgrandeesoftheWestIndies!But,grantingthatthis allegationofMr. Froude's wasnotas baseless as wehaveshown it to be,andthattheleadersoftheReform agitation were impelledbythedesire whichourauthorseeksto discreditthemwith, whatthen?Havetheywhohavebornetheheat andtheburdenoftheday in makingtheColonieswhattheyarenorighttotheenjoy mentofthefruits of theirlabours?Thelocal knowledge,theconfidenceandrespectofthepopulation, which such men enjoy,andcanwieldfor goodorevil inthecommunity,arethese mattersofsmall account intheefficient governmentoftheColony?Ourauthor, in

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FROUDACITY.specifying the immunities of his ideal Governor, who is also ours, recommends; amongst other things,thatHisExcellency should be allowed to choose his own advisers.Bythis Mr.Froudecertainly does not meanthatthe advisers so chosen mustbeall pure-blooded Englishmen who have rushed from-thedesti_tutionofhome tobattenonthecheaply obtained flesh-potsofthe Colonies.Atany'rate, whatev.er political fate Mr. F roude may desire forthe Colonic;:s in general, and forTrinidadin particular, it is nevertheless unquestionablethatheandthe thathemay have for our future governance, in this year of grace1888,have both come into view entirelyoutofseason.Thespiritofthetimes has rendered impossible any further tolerationofthearrogance whichisbased on historical self-glorification.ThegentlemenofTrinidad, whoarestruggling for political enfranchisement, are not likely to heed, exceptasamatterforindignant contempt,theobtrusion byourauthorofhis opinionthat "they hadbest letwellalone."Onhis own showing,thepersons appointed to supreme authority intheColonies are, more usually than not, entirely unfitfor

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.77holding any responsible position whatever over their fellows. N ow, canitbedoubtedthatless care, less scruple, less consideration, wouldbeexercised inthechoiceofthesatellites appointedtorevolve, in these far-off latitudes, aroundthecentral luminaries?Havewe not found,arewe not still finding every day,thatthebrain dizzinesss-"Xenophon calls it "eepa'A.a)vyea induced by sudden promotion has transformed the abject suppliantsattheDowningStreetbackstairs intothearrogant defiers oftheopinions,andviolatorsoftherights,ofthepopulations whose subjectiontotheBritish Crown alone could have rendered possibletheelevationofsuch folkandtheir impunity in malfeasance?Thecupofloyal forbearance reachedtheoverflowing point sincethetrick stering daysofGovernor" irving,anditis useless now to believe inthepossibilityofa return oftheleading minds ofTrinidadto a tame acquiescence as regardstheprobabilitiesoftheir government accordingtotheCrown system. Mr. Froude's own remarks pointoutdefinitely enoughthata community so governedisabsolutelyat"the mercy, forgoodorfor evil, of the man who happens to be invested with

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FROUDACITY.thesupreme authority.Hehas also shownthatinourcasethatsupreme authorityisveryoften disastrously entrusted.Yethas he nothingbutsneers fortheeffortsofthose who strive tobeemancipated from liability to such subjection. Mr.Froude'sdeftly-worded sar casmsabout" degradingtyranny,""thedignityofmanhood," &c.,arepowerless to alter the facts. Crown ColonyGovernment-denying,as it does, to eventhewisestandmost interestedinacommunity..cursed with it all participation intheconductoftheirown affairs, while in vesting irresponsibleanduninterested"birdsof passage (asourauthoraptly describes them) withtherightofmakingducksanddrakes oftheresourceswrungfromtheinhabitants-zsadegradingtyranny, whichthesneersofMr. F roude cannot make otherwise.Thedignityofmanhood, ontheotherhand, weareforced to admit, runs scanty chanceofrecognition by any being, however masculine his name, who could perpetrate such a literaryandmoral scandal as"TheBowofUlysses."Yetthe dignityofmanhood stands venerable there,andwhilsttheworld lasts shall gain for its possessorstherightof record ontheroll of

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REFORMINTRINIDAD.79those whomtheworthyoftheworld delight to honour. Alfof a piece, as regards veracityandpru dence, isthefurther allegationofMr.Froude's,tothe effectthattherewasneveranyagitationforReform inTrinidadbeforethat which hepassesunderreview.Itis,however, a melan choly fact, which we 'are ashamed to state,thatMr.Froudehaswritten characteristicallyherealso,eitherthroughcrass ignoranceorthrough deliberate malice.Anyrespectable, weIl informed inhabitantofTrinidad, who hap pened not tobeanofficial"birdofpassage," might, onourauthor's honest inquiry,haveinformed himthatTrinidadisthelandofchronic agitation for Reform. Mr.Froudemight also have been informed that,evenforty-five years ago,thatis in 1843,an elecdve constitution, with alltheelectoral districts duly marked out, was formulatedand bythe leading inhabitantsofTrinidadto thethenSecretaryofStatefortheColonies.Hemightalsohave learntthatoneveryoccasionthatanyof the shady Governors, whomhehas so well depicted, manifestedanyexcessofhis un desirable qualities, there has been a movement

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80FROUDACITY.amongtheeducated people in behalf of changing their country's political condition.Weclose thispartofour reviewbyreiteratingour conviction that, comewhatwill, the CrownColony system, asatpresent managed, is doomed. Britain may, in deference to the alleged' 'wishesofherimpalpable"Anglo-WestIndians"-whoseexistence restsontheau thorityofMr.Froudealone-denyto Trinidadandother Colonies even thesmall modicum prayed forofautonomy,butin doing so the Mother Country willhaveto sternly revise her present methodsofselectingandappointing Governors.Astothesubordinate lot, they will have tobeworth their salt whenthere is attheheadoftheGovernment a man whoistruly deserving of his.

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NEQRO FELICITY Ij't THE WEpTIj'tDIEp. I:IWE corne now tothe ing-enious and novelfashionin which Mr. Froude carriesouthis investigations among the black andtohisdogmatic conclusions concerning them. Hesays:-"InTrinidad, as everywhere else, my ownchiefdesire was to see the human inhabitants,tolearn what they were doing, how they wereliving,and what they were thinking about, andthiscould best be done by drives about thetownand neighbourhood." "Drives about the town and neighbourhood," indeed 1Tolearn and be able to depict withfaithfulaccuracy what people "were doing, how. they were living,andwhat. they were thinking about"-allthis beingbestdone (domestic circumstances, nay, soul-workingsandallI)through fleeting glimpses of shifting6

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FROUDACITY.panoramasofintelligent human beings!Whata bright notion!Wehave here the suggestionofa capacity too superhuman to be acceptedontrust, especially when, as in this case,itisbyimplication self-arrogated.Themodestyofthis thaumaturgic traveller in confining the executionofhis detailed scrutinyofa whole communitytothemoderate progressionofsome conventional vehicle, drawn by some conventional quadrupedortheother,doesinjustice to powers which, if possessedatall, might have compassedthesame achieve ment intheswifter transitofanexpress train, or,better,still perhaps, from theempyrean elevationofa balloon !YetisMr.F roude confidentthatdata professed tobethus collected would easily pass musterwiththe readersofhis book! A confidenceofthis kind is abnormal, and illustrates, we think most fully, all the special characteristics oftheman.Withhis passion for repeating,ourauthor tells us in continuationofa strange rhapsody onNegrofelicity:" Once more, theearthdoesnotcontainanypeasantry so well off, so well-cared for,sohappy, so sleek and contented,asthesons

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES..83and dCl-ughters ofthe emancipated slaves m the WestIndian Islands." Again:II Undertherule of England, in these islands, the two millionsofthese brothers-inlawof oursarethemost perfectly contented specimens of the human race to be found upon the planet. ...Ifhappiness bethesatisfac tion of every conscious desire, theirs is a condition that admits of no improvement:werethey independent, they might quarrel among themselves, andtheweaker become the bondsmen of the stronger; under .thebeneficent despotism oftheEnglish Government,which knows no difference of colourandpermits no oppression, they can sleep,lounge,and laugh away their lives as theyplease,fearing no danger," &c. Now,then, let us examine for a while this roseate pictureofArcadian blissfulnesssaidto be enjoyed by BritishWestIndian Negroes in general, and bytheNegroesofTrinidad in particular. "Nodistinction of colour" undertheBritish rule, and, better still, absolute protection oftheweaker againstthestronger!Thislatter consummation especially,

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FROUDACITY.Mr.Froudetellsus,has been happily secured underthebeneficentdespotism"ofthe Crown Colony system. However, let the above vague hyperbolesbesubmitted to the testofpractical experience,and -the. abstract government analysed in its concrete relations withthepeople. Unquestionablytheactualanddirect inter positionoftheshielding authority above referred to, between man and man, is the immediate provinceoftheMAGISTRACY.AllotherbranchesoftheGovernment, havinginthemselves no coercive power, must, from the supreme executive downwards, in cases of irreconcilable clashingofinterests, have ulti mate recoursetothemagisterial jurisdiction.Puttingaside, then, whatever culpable remiss ness may have been manifestedbymagistrates in favourofpowerful malfeasants, we wouldsubmitthatthefactofstipendiary justices convertingthetremendous, far-reaching powers whichtheywield intoanengineofsystematic oppression,oughtto dimbymany a shadetheglowing lustreofMr. Froude's encomiums. Facts, authentic and notorious, mightbead duced in hundreds, especially with respectto

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.85thePortofSpainandSanFernandomagis stracies (both of which, sincetheadministration of SirJ.R.Longden, have been exclusively the prizesofbriefless English barristers I), to provethatthese gentry, far from being bul warks totheweaker as againstthestronger, have, in their own persons, beenthedirest scol,.:trges thatthepoor, particularly when coloured, have been afflictedbyin aggravation of the difficultiesoftheir lot. Only typical examples can here be given out of hundreds upon hundreds which might easilybecitedandproved againsttheincumbentsoftheabove mentioned chief stipendiary magistracies.Onesuch example was amatterofeveryday dis cussionatthetimeofMr.Froude'svisit.Theinhabitants were even backed in their com plaints bytheGovernor, who .had, in response to their cryofdistress, forwarded theirprayerIA West Indian official superstition professes to believe that a British barrister must make an exceptionally good colonial8.J.P., seeing that heisignorantofeverything, save general Englishlaw,that would qualify himforthepost!In this, to acquit oneself tolerably, some acquaintancewiththe language, customs,andhabitsofthought ofthepopulationiseverywhere else held to beofprime importance,-nativeconscientiousness and honesty of purpose being definitively presupposed.

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86FROUDACITY.tothehome authorities for relief from the hard treatment which they alleged themselves tobesufferingatthe hands ofthe then magistrate.Ourallusion here is to the chief town,PortofSpain,themagistracyofwhich embraces also the surrounding districts, con taining a total populationofbetween60,000and70,000souls. Mr.R.D.Mayne filled this responsible office during the latter yearsofSirJ.R. Longden's governorship.Hewas reputed, soon after his arrival, to have announced fromthebenchthatin every case he wouldtakethewordofa constable in preference tothetestimonyofanyone.else.TheBarbadian rowdies who then formed the majorpartoftheconstabularyofTrinidad, and whose bitter hatredoftheolder residents had been not only plainly expressed,butoften brutally exemplified, rejoiced in the oppor tunity thus afforded for giving effect to their truculent sentiments.Atthattime the bulkoftheimmigrants from Barbados were habitual offenders whom the Governmenttherehad provided with a free passage to wherever they elected to betake themselves.Themore intelligentofthe men flocked totheTrinidad

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NEGROFELICITYINTHE WEST INDIES.87police ranks, into whichtheywere admitted generally without much inquiry into their ante cedents.Onthis accounttheywere shunned by the decent inhabitants, a course whichtheyrepaid with savage animosity. Perjuriesthemost atrocious'andcrushing, especially totherespectable poor, becametheorderoftheday. Hundredsofinnocent persons were committedtogaol andtheinfamyofconvict servitude, with out the possibilityofescape from,oreven mitiga tionof,their ignominious doom. A 'respectable woman (a nativeofBarbados, too, who inthetime ofthefirst immigrationofthebettersortof her compatriotshadmadeTrinidadherhome) was oneofthefirst victimsofthis iniquitous stateofaffairs.Theclass.ofpeople to whichshebelongedwasnoted as orderly, industriousandlaw abiding, and, being so,ithadidentified itself entirely withthenativesofthelandofits adoption.Thisfact alone was sufficient to involve these immigrants inthesame lotofpersecution which their newly arrived countrymenhad organized and were carryingoutagainsttheTrinidadians proper.Ithappened that, ontheoccasiontowhich we wish par-

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88FROUDACITY.ticularly to refer,thewoman in question wasathome, engaged inherusual occupation of ironing for her honest livelihood. Suddenlysheheard a heavy blow inthestreetbefore her door,andalmost simultaneously a loud scream, which, on looking' hastily out, she perceivedtobethecryofaboy,ofsometenortwelve years of age, whohadbeen violently struck withthefist by another youthoflarger size and evidently his senior in age.Thesmaller fellow had laid fast holdofhis antagonist bythecollar,andwouldnotlet go, despite the blows which, to extricate himselfandin retalia tion ofthepuny buffetsofhis youthful detainer,he"showeredthick as wintry rain."Thewoman, seeingthepostureofaffairs, shouted tothecombatants to desist,buttonopurpose, rageandabsorption in their wrathful occupation having deafened both to all external sounds. Seized with pity fortheyounger lad, who was getting so mercilesslytheworstofit,thewoman, hastily throwing a shawloverher shoulders, sprang intothestreetandrushed between the juvenile belligerents. Dexterously extricatingthehand ofthelittle fellow from the collarofhis antagonist, she hurriedtheformer

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.89into her gateway, shoutingoutto himatthesame time to fastenthedoor ontheinside. Thisthelittle fellow did,andno doubt gladly, as this surcease from actual conflict,shortthough it was, musthaveafforded space forthenatural instinctofself-preservation to reassert itself.Hereupontheelderofthetwolads, like a tiger robbedofhis prey,sprangfuriously tothegate, andbeganto use frantic effortstoforce an entrance. Perceiving this,thewoman (who meanwhile had not been idle with earnest dis suasionsandremonstrances, which had all proved futile) pulledtheirate youngster back, and interposedherbody between himandthegate, warding him off withherhandseverytimethatherushedforwardto'renewtheassault.Atlength a Barbadian policeman hoveinsight, and was hastily beckoned tobythepoor ironer, who,bythis time,hadnearly come to theendofherstrength.Theuniformed "Bim"was soon onthespot;but, without askingorwaiting tohearthecauseofthedis turbance,heshouted tothevolunteer peace maker, "l see youarefighting: youaremyprisoner!"Sayingthis,heclutchedthepoor thunderstruck creaturebythewrist,andthere

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goFROUDACITY.andthenset about hurryingheroff towardsthepolice station. It happened, however,thatthewhole affair had occurred inthesightofa gentlemanofwell-known integrity.He,seatedata window overlooking the street,hadwitness.edthewhole squabble, from its begin ning in words to its culmination in blows; so, seeingthatthewoman was most unjustly arrested, he wentoutand explainedthecir cumstances totheguardianoforder. But to nopurpose;thepoor creature was takentothestation, accompaniedbythegentleman, who most properly volunteeredthatneighbourly turn.Thereshewas charged with"obstructingthepoliceman inthelawful executionofhis duty."Shewas letouton bail, and nextdayappeared to answerthecharge. Mr. Mayne,themagistrate, presided.Theconstable told his tale withoutanymaterial deviation fromthetruth, probably confident, from previous experience,thathis accusation was sufficient to secure a conviction.Onthedefendant's behalf,thegentleman referred to, who was well known tothemagistrate him self, was called, andherelatedthefacts as we have above given them.EvenMr. Mayne

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.91 see no proofoftheinformation, and thisheconfessed inthefollowing qualified judgment:-" You are indeed very lucky, my good woman, that the constable has failed to prove his case againstyou;otherwise you wouldhavebeensent to hard labour, astheordinance provides, withouttheoptionofa fine.Butasthecase stands, you must pay a fineof2"!!!Comment on this worsethanscandalous decision woulabesuperfluous. typical case, illustrativeofthetruthofMr.Froude'sboastoftheeminent fair play, nay, eventhestout protection,thatNegroes,andgenerally,"theweaker,"havebeen wont to receive from British magistrates, may be related.Anhonest, hard-working couple, living in oneoftheoutlying districts, cultivated aplotof ground, upontheproduceofwhichtheydepended for their livelihood. After a time these worthy folk, ongetting to their holdinginthe morning, used to find exasperating evidence of theplunder overnightoftheir marketable provisions. Determined dis coverthedepredator,theyconcealed them-

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FRO lTDA CITY.selves inthegarden lateonenight,andawaitedtheresult. Bythatmeansthey in capturingthethief, a female, who, not suspecting their presence,hadenteredthegarden,dugoutsomeoftheprovisions,andwas about to make off withherbooty.Inspiteofdesperate resistance, she was takentothepolice station andthereduly charged with larceny'Meanwhileherson,onhearing.ofhis mother's incarceration, hastenedtofindher inhercell, and, after briefly consulting with her,hedecidedonentering a counter chargeof andbatteryagainst both her captors.Whetherornot this bold proceeding was promptedbytheknowledgethatthedis pensingofjustice inthemagistrate's court was a mere gameof.cross-purposes, a cynical disregardofcommon senseandelementary equity, we cannotsay;buttheultimate result fully justified this abnormal hardihoodoffilial championship.Onthedayofthe. trial,themagistrateheardthe evidence on both sides,thecase of larceny having beengoneinto first.Forher defence,theaccused confined herself to simple denialsoftheallegations against her,atthe

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.93same time entertainingthecourt with a lachry mose harangue about her rough treatmentatthe handsofthe accusing parties. Finally, the decisionofthemagistratewas;that the prisoner' be andtheplundered goods restored toher;and, as tothecountercharge, that the husband and wifebeimprisoned,theformer for threeandthe latter for two months, with hard labour!Whenwe addthattherewas,atthat time, no GovernororChief Justice accessible tothepoorer and less intelligent classes, as is nowthecase (Sir Henry T.IrvingandSirJoseph Needham having been respectively superseded bySirWilliam Robinson andSirJohnGorrie), one can imagine what scope there was for similar exhibitions of the protecting energyofBritish rule. As we have already said, during Mr. Froude's sojourn in Trinidadthe"sleek,happy, andcontented"people, whose con dition"admittedofno improvement," were yet groaning in bitter sorrow, nay, in abso lute despair, underthecrushing weightofsuch magisterial decisions as those which I havejustrecorded.Letme add two more

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94FROUDACITY.typical cases which occurred during Mr. Mayne's tenureofoffice intheisland.L.B. was a memberofoneofthose brawling sisterhoodsthatfrequently thepeace ofthetownofPortofSpain. -Shehada"pal"orintimate chum familiarly known as Lady," who staunchly stoodbyherin all the squabblesthatoccurred with their adversaries. One particular night, the police were called to a street intheeast ofthetown, in consequence of affray between some womenofthesort referred to. Arriving onthespot, they foundthefight already over,buta warofwords was still proceeding amongthelate combatants,ofwhomtheaforesaid"Lady"was one ofthemost conspicuous. A list was duly madeoutoftheparties found so engaged,andit includedthenameof B.,who happened nottobe there,orev'en inPortofSpainatall, she having some days beforegoneinto the country to spend a little timewith some relatives.Theinsertingofhername was an inferential mistake onthepartofthepolice, arising fromthepresenceof"Lady"atthe brawl,shebeing well known by them to betheinseparable allyofL.B.onsuch occasions.

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.NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.9SIt was unnaturalthatintheobscuritytheyshould have concluded-thatthelatter was present withheratteraego,when in reality she was not there.Theparticipants inthebrawl were charged atthestation,andsummonses, including one toL.B., were duly issued.Onherreturn toPortofSpain a dayortwo aftertheoccurrence,thewrongly incriminated woman received fromthelandladyherkey, along with the magisterial summonsthathad resulted from the error oftheconstables.Thedayofthetrial came on,andL.B:stood before Mr. Mayne,' strong inherinnocence,andsupported bythesworn testimonyofherlandlady as well as ofheruncle fromthecountry, with whom and with his family she had been uninter ruptedly stayingupto oneortwo days after' the occurrence in whichshehadbeen thus implicated.Theevidenceoftheold lady,who,like thousandsofheradvancedagein the Colony,hadneverevenon.cehadocca sion to be present in any courtofjustice, wastothe following effect:Thatthedefendant,whowas atenantofhers, had, on a certain morning (naming days beforetheaffray oc-

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FROUDACITY.curred), come up toherdoor well dressed, and followed by a porter carryingherluggage.L.B.,she continued,thenhandedherthekeyoftheapartment, informingheratthesame timethatshe was going for some days intothecountry toherrelatives, for a change, and requesting alsothatthewitness should on no account deliverthekey to any person who should ask foritduringherabsence.Thiswit ness further deposed to receivingthesummons fromthepolice, whichsheplaced along withthekey for delivery toL.B. onthelatter's return home.Thetestimonyofthe uncle was also decisively corroborative ofthatofthepre cedipg witness, as, totheabsence fromPortofSpainofL.B. duringthedays embraced inthedefence.Thealibiwas therefore unquestionably made out, especiallyasnoneofthepolice witnesses would venture to swear to having actually seenL.B.atthebrawl.Themagistrate had no alternativebutthatofacqui escing inthe.proofofherinnocence; so he dismissedthecharge againsttheaccused, who stood down from amongtherest, radiant with satisfaction. Theotherdefendants were duly

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.97convicted, and sentenced to a termofimprison ment with hard labour. All this was quite correct;butherecomesmatterfor considera tion withregardtotheimmaculate dispensation of justice as vaunted so confidentlybyMr. Froude. On receiving their sentencethewomen all stood down fromthedock, tobeescorted to prison, except"Lady,"who,bytheway, had preserved a rigid silence, while someofthe other defendantshad voluntarily and, itmaybe added, generously protestedthatL.Rwasnot present ontheoccasionofthis par ticular row. Lady,"whetheroutofaffectionorfrom a less respectable motive, criedouttothe stipendiaryjustice:"But,sir,itain't fair. Howisitevery timethatL.Randme.comeupbefore you, you either fineorsend upthetwoof us together,andto-day you are sendingmeupalone?"Moved eitherbythelogicorthe pathosofthis objurgation,themagistrate, turning towardsL.R,whohadlingered after her narrow escapetowatchtheissueoftheproceedings, thus addressedher:-"L.R,upon second thoughts Iorderyou tothesame termofhard labourattheRoyal Gaol withthe 7

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FROUDACITY.others."Thepoor girl, having neither money nor friends intelligent enough to interfere onherbehalf, had to submit,andshe underwentthewholeofthis iniquitous sentence.Thelast typical case thatwe shall give illustratesthesingular application by this more than singularjudgeofthelegal maxim caveat emptor. A free coolie possessedofa donkey .resolved to utilize the animal in carting grass tothemarket.Hetherefore called on another coolie livingatsome distance from him, whomheknew to own two carts, a small donkey-cart and an ordinary cart for muleorhorse. He proposedthepurchaseofthesmaller cart, stating his reason for wishing tohaveit. The donkey-cart wasthenshown totheintending purchaser, who, along with two Creole witnesses broughtbyhim to makeoutand attest the receipt ontheoccasion, found someoftheironfittings defective,anddrewthevendor's atten tion thereto.He,on his side, engaged, onreceivingtheamount agreed to for the cart,tosend it off totheblacksmith for immediate repairs, to be delivered tothepurchaser next morningatthe Onthis understandingthepurchase moneywas paid down, and the

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.99receipt, specifyingthatthesum therein men tioned was for a donkey-cart, passed fromthevendor tothepurchaserofthelittle vehicle. N ext dayatabout noontheman went withhisdonkey forthecart. Arrived there, his countryman hadthelargerofthetwo carts brought out, and in pretended innocence saidtothe purchaserofthedonkey-cart,"Hereisyour cart."Onthis a warm dispute arose,whichwas not abated bythepresenceandprotestsofthetwo witnessesoftheday before,whohad hastily been summoned bythevictimtobear out his contentionthatit wasthedonkey-cart and notthelarger cart whichhadbeenexamined, bargainedfor,purchased, and promised to be delivered,theday before.Thematter, on account ofthesturdinessofthe rascal's denials, had to be referred to a court of law.Thecomplainant engagedarablesolicitor, who laidthecase beforeMr.Mayne in all its transparent simplicity and strength.Thedefendant, although he had, andas a matteroffact could have, no meansofinvalidatingtheevidence ofthetwo witnesses,andabove allofhis receipt with his signature, relied uponthefactthatthecartwhichhe

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100FROUDACITY.offered was much larger than the one thecomplainant had actually bought,andthat therefore complainant would bethegainer bythetrans action. Incredible as it may sound, this view ofthe case commended itself to the magistrate, who adopted it in giving his judgment against the complainant. In vain did. the solicitor protest that all the factsofthecase were centred inthedesire and intentionofthe prosecutor to have specifically a donkey-cart, which was abundantly proved by everything that had come outinthe proceedings. In vain also was his endeavour to show that amanhaving only a donkey would be hopelessly embarrassed by having a cart for it whichwasentirely intended for animals of much largerSize.Themagistrate solemnly reiteratedhisdecision, and wound up by sayingthatthe victim had lost his case through disregard of the legal maximcaveat emptor--Iet the purchaser be careful.Therascally defendant thus gained his case, and leftthecourt in defiant triumph.Thefour preceding cases are thoroughly significantofthe original method inwhichthousandsofcases were decided by this model magistrate, to the great detriment; pecuniary,

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.101 soCial, and moral, during morethanten years,ofbetween60,000and70,000ofthe popula tion withinthecircleofhis judicial authority: \Vhat shall we think, therefore,ofthefairnessofMr.Froudeorhis infqrmants, who,promptand eager in imputing un,worthy motives to gentlemen with characters above reproach, have yet been so silent with regard totheflagrant and frequent abusesofmorethanoneof their countrymen by whomthehonou,r and fair fameoftheir nation were for years draggled inthemire,and .whose misdeeds were the themeofevery tongue and thousandsofnewspaper-articles in theWestI ndian Colonies?MR.ARTHURCHILD,S.J.P.WenowtakeSanFernando,the next most important magisterial district afterPortofSpain.AtthetimeofMr.Froude'svisit, andforsome time before,thedutiesofthemagis tracy there were discharged by Mr. Arthur Child, an"Englishbarrister"who,of cOlirse, had possessedtherequisite qualificationofbeing hopelessly briefless.Fortheideal justice whichMr.Froudewould have Britons believe ismeted out tothe weaker classes by their fellow-country-

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FROUDACITY.men intheWestIndies,wemay referthereader to the conductoftheabove-named functionary on the memorable occasion of the slaughterofthe coolies under Governor Freeling, in October, 1884. Mr. Child, as Stipendiary Justice, hadthedutyofreadingtheRiotActtotheimmi grants, who were marching in procession to the townofSanFernando, contrary, indeed, to the Government proclamation whichhadforbidden itjandheitwas who gave the order to "fire," which resulted fatally to manyoftheunfortu nate devoteesofHosein.Thismandateandits lethal consequences anticipatedbysome minutesthesimilarbutfar more death-dealing actionoftheChief of Police, who was stationed at another post inthevicinityof'SanFernando.Theday aftertheshooting downofa total of morethanone hundred immigrants,thepro tecting actionofthis magistrate towards the weaker folk under his jurisdiction had a strikingexemplification,towhich Mr.Froudeishereby made welcome.Ofcoursetherewas a general cryofhorror throughouttheColony,andespecially intheSanF ernand6 district, atthefatal outcomeoftheproclamation, which had mentioned only"fine"and "imprisonment,"

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.103but not Death, asthepenaltyofdisregarding its prohibitions.Fornearly forty years, namelyfromtheirveryfirst arrivalintheColony, EastIndian immigrants had, accordingtospecific agreement withtheGovernment, invariably been allowedtheprivilegeofcelebrating their annual feastofHosein, by walking in procession with their pagodas throughthepublic roadsandstreetsoftheisland, without prohibitionorhindranceofany kind from the authorities, saveandexcept in cases where rivalestatepagodas were indangerofgetting into collisiononthe questionofprecedence.Onsuch occa sionsthepolice, who alwaysattendedthepro cessions, usuallygavethelead tothepagodas of the labourersofestates according to their seniority as immigrants. .Inno caseupto 1884, after thirty odd years' inauguration intheColony, wastheHoseinfestivaleverpretendedtobeanycauseofdanger, actualorprospective, to any town or building.Onthecontrary, business grew brisker and solidly improvedatthe approachofthe commemoration, owingtothevery con siderable saleofparti-coloured paper, velvet,calico,and similar articles used intheconstruc-

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1FROUDACITY.tionofthepagodas. Governor Freeling, how ever, was, it may be presumed, compelled to see danger in an institution whichhadhad nearly forty years' trial, without a single accident happening warrantanysudden interpositionofthe Government tending to its suppression.Atall events,theonly action taken in 1884, in prospect of their usual festival, was to notify the immigrants by proclamation, and,itis said, alsoi..hroughauthorized agents,thatthedetails oftheir. fete were not tobeconducted in the usualmanner;andthattheir appearance with pagodas inanypublic roadorany town, withoutspecial license from some competent local would entailthepenaltyofso many pounds fine,orimprisonment for so many months with hard labour.Theimmigrants, to whom this unexpected change onthepartofthe authorities was utterly incomprehensible, both petitioned and sent deputationstotheGover nor, offering guarantees for the, if possible, more secure celebrationoftheHosein, and prayingHisExcellency to canceltheprohibi tion as totheuseoftheroads, inasmuch as it in terfered with the essentialpartoftheir religious rite, which was the "drowning," or casting into

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NEGROFELICITYINTHEWESTINDIES.105the sea,ofthepagodas.Havingutterly failedintheir efforts with the Governor,thecoolies resolved tocarry.outtheirreligious duty ac cording to prescriptive forms, accepting,atthesame time,theresponsibility inthewayoffine or' imprisonment which they would thus inevit ably incur. A rumour was also currentatthe tirp,e that, pursuant to this resolution,thehead men ofthevarious plantations had autho rized a general subscription amongst their countrymen, for meetingthecontingencyoffinesin the police courts. All these thingswerethecurrenttalkofthe populationofSanFernando, in which town theleading immi grants, freeaswell as indentured, had beguntoraise funds for this purpose. Allthatthepublic, therefore, expected would have resulted fromtheintended infringementofthe Proclamation was anenormous influxofmoney in the shape of fines into the ColonialTreasuryjas noonedoubtedtheextreme facility which existed for ascertaining exactly, inthecaseofpersons registeredandindentured to specific plantations,thenames and abodes ofatleast the chief offenders against the proclamation. Accordingly, on the

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106FROUDACITY.occurrenceofthebloody catastrophe related above,everyonefeltthatthemere persistence in marching all unarmedtowardsthetown, without actually attempting to force their way into it, was exorbitantly visited upon thecoolies by a violent death or a life-long mutilation.Thissentiment few wereatany pains to conceal;butas the poorer'andmore ignorant classes can be handled with ,greater impunity than those whoareintelligentandhavethemeansofself-defence, Mr. Justice Child, the very day afterthetragedy,andwithout waiting for thepro forma official inquiry into the tragedy in whichhebore so conspicuous a part, q.ctually caused tobearrested,sattotryandsenttohardlabour, persons whomthepolice, in obedience to his positive inj unctions, had reported to him as having condemned the shooting downofthe immigrants!Thosewho were arrestedandthus summarily punished had,ofcourse, no meansofself-protection; andasthecase is typicalofothers, as illustrative of"justice-madelaw"applied to"subjectraces"in a British colony, Mr.Froudeis free to accept it,ornot, in corroborationofhis unqualified panegyncs.

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NEGROFELICIlYINTHEWESTINDIES.107MR. GROVEHUMPHREYCHAPMAN,S.J.P.AsStipendary Magistrateofthis self-same SanFernandodistrict,GroveHumphreyChapman, Esquire (another English barrister), wastheimmediate predecessorofMr. Child. More humanethanMr. Mayne, his colleague and contemporary inPortofSpain,thisyoung magistrate began his career fairly well. Buthespeedily fell a victimtotheinfluences immedi ately surrounding him in his new position.Hishead, which later events proved never to have been naturally strong, began to be turned by the unaccustomed deference whichhemetwith on all hands, from highandlow, officialandnon-official,andhehimself soon consummated the addlingofhis brain by persistent practical revolts against every. maximoftheancient N azarenes inthematterofpotations.Hisdecisionsatthecourt, therefore, became perfect emulationsofthoseofMr. Mayne,aswell in perversityasin harshness, and many in his case also weretheappeals for reliefmadetotheheadoftheexecutive bytheinhabitantsofthedistrict-butof course in vain.GovernorIrvingwasatthis time in office, andtheunfortunate

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108FROUDACITY.victims of perversejudgments-occasionallypronounced by this magistrate iIi hiscupswere only poor Negroes, coolies,orother persons whose worldly circumstances placed them inthecategoryofthe"weaker"inthecommunity.Tothese classesofpeople that excellent ruler unhappilydenied-wedarenot say his personal sympathy, buf-the official protection which, even through self-respect, he mighthave perfunctorily accorded. Bent, however, on running throughthewhole gamutofextravagance, Mr.Chapman-byinterpreting official impunity into implying a direct license forthewildestofhiscaprices-plungedhead long with ever accelerating speed, till the deliveranceoftheN aparimas became the welcome consequenceofhis own personal action.Onone occasionitwas credibly reported in the Colonythatthis infatuated dispenserofBritish justice actually stretched his official complaisance so far as to permit a lady not only to beseated near him on the judicial bench,butalso to take apart-loud,boisterousandabusive-inthelegal proceed ings oftheday.. Meanwhile, as the Governor could not be induced to interfere, things went

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NEGROFELICiTYINTHEWESTINDIES.109onfrom bad to worse, till one day, as above hinted,theunfortunate magistrate so publicly committed himself astobe obligedtobeborne for temporary refugetotheLunatic Asylum, whencehe'was clandestinely shippedfromtheColony on rlsix months' leaveofabsence," never more to resume his official station.Theremovaloftwo such magistratesasthose whose careers we have so briefly sketchedout-Mr.Maynehaving died, still a magistrate, siflce Mr.Froude'sdeparture-hasafforded opportunity fortherestoration of British protecting influence.Intheperson of Mr. Llewellyn Lewis, as magistrateofPortofSpain, this opportunity has been secured.He,it is generally rumoured, strives to justifytheexpectationsoffair play and even handed justice which are generally entertained concerning Englishmen.Itis,however, certain that with a Governor so prompttohearthecry of the poorasSirWilliam Robinson has proved himselftobe,andwith a Chief Justice so vigilant, fearless, and painstaking as Si,rJohnGorrie,theentire magistracyoftheColony must be so beneficially influenced as to preclude

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110FROUDACITY.the frequency of appeals being made to the higher courts, or it may be to the Executive, on account of scandalously unjust and senseless decisions. So long, too, asthenames ofT.5. Warner, Captain Larcom, and F.H. Hamblin abidein grateful remembrance of the entire popula tion, as ideally upright, just, and impartial dispensers of justice, each in his own jurisdiction, we can only sighatthe temporal dispensation which renders practicable the appointment and retention in office of such administratorsofthe Law as were Mr. Mayne and Mr. Chapman.Thewidespread and irreparable mischiefs wrought by these men still affect disastrously manyan unfortunate household; and the execration by the weaker in the community of their memory, particularly thatofRobert Dawson Mayne, is only a fitting retribution fot their abuseofpower.

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BOOKIII.

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POOIAL10 INEVERwastheKnightofLaMancha more convinced of his imaginary mission to re dress the wrongs oftheworld than Mr. James AnthonyFroudeseems to be of his ability to alterthecourseofevents, especially those bearing onthedestiniesoftheNegrointhe BritishWestIndies.Thedoctrinaire style of his utterances, his sublime indifferenceasto whatNegroopinion and feelingsmaybe,on account of his revelations, are uniquely charming.Inthat portionof his bookheaded "Social Revolution" our author,withthat mixture of frankness and cynicismwhichis so dear tothesoul oftheBritish esprit fortofto-day, has challenged a com parison between British Colonial policy onthe8

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FROUDACITY.one hand, andtheColonial policy of FranceandSpain on the other.Thishe does with an evident recklessnessthathis approvalofSpain andFranceinvolves a definite condemnationofhis own country. However, let us hearhim:-IITheEnglishWestIndies, likeotherpartsofthe world, are going through a silent revolu tion. Elsewhere the revolution,aswe hope,isa transition state, a newbirth;a passing awayofwhat is old and worn out,thata fresh and healthier order may rise in its place.IntheWestI ndiesthemost sanguineofmortals will find it difficult to entertain any suchhopeatall." AsMr.Froudeis speaking dogmaticallyhereofhis,orratherour,WestIndies, let ushearhim asheproceeds:-"Wehave been a ruling power there fortwohundred and fiftyyears;the whites whomweplanted as our rep1'esentativesaredrifting into ruin, and they regardEnglandandEngland's policy astheprincipal causeofit.Theblackswhom, in afitofvirtuousbenevolence,we eman cipated, do not feel parlicularly obligedtous.Theythink, if they thinkatall,thatthey were

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SOCIALBEVOLUTION.lISill-treated originally, andhavereceived nomorethan was due to them." Thus far. Now, as to the whztes whom we planted as ourrepresentatives,"and who, Mr. Froude avers, are drifting into ruin, we confesstoa total ignoranceoftheir whereabouts in these islands in this jubileeyearofNegroEmancipation.OftherepresentativesofBritain immediately beforeandafter Emanci pation we happen to know something, which,onthe testimony of Englishmen, Mr.Froudewillbe made quite welcome to beforeourtaskisended.Withrespect to Mr.Froude'sstate ment as totheingratitudeoftheemancipatedBlacks,ifitis aimedattheslaves who were actuallysetfree,itis utterlyuntrue;for no classofpersons, in their humbleandartless way,aremore attached totheQueen's majesty,whomtheyregardas incarnating inhergracious personthebenevolence which Mr. Froude so jauntily scoffs at. But if our censor's remarkunder'this head is intended forthepresent generationofBlacks,itis a pure andsimpleabsurdity.WhatareweNegroesofthepresentdayto be grateful for totheus, personifiedbyMr.FroudeandtheColonial

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II6FROUDACITY.Officeexportations?Wereally believe, fromwhatweknowof.Englishmen,thatvery few indeed would regard Mr.Froude'sre proach otherwisethanasa palpable addingofinsult to injury. Obliged to"us,"indeed!Why,Mr. Froude, who speaksofus as dogsandhorses, suggests that thesame kindlinessoftreatmentthatsecurestheattachmentof those noble brutes wouldhavethesame result inourcase.Withthesame consistency that marks his utterances throughout his book, he tells his readers"thatthereis no original or congenital difference betweenthecapacity of theWhiteandtheNegroraces."Headds, too, significantly:"Withthesame chancesandwiththesame I believethatdistinguishedmenwouldbeproducedequallyfrombothraces."Afterthis truthful testimony, which Pelion uponOssaof.evidence has confirmed, does Mr. Froude, inthefatuityofhis skin pride, believethateducated men, worthy of the name, wouldbeotherwisethanresentful, if not disgusted,atbeingshuntedoutofbreadintheir own native land, which their parents' laboursandtaxeshavemade desirable,inorderto afford room to blockheads, vulgarians,

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.II7orworse, imported from beyondtheseas?Does Mr. Froude's scornoftheNegroes' skin extend, inconsistently on his part, to their intelli gence and feelingsalso?Andifso, what has theNegroto care -iflet aloneandnot wantonly thwarted in his aspirations?Itsounds queer, not to say unnaturalandscandalous,thatEnglishmenshould in these daysoflight bethechampionsofinjustice towards their fellow-subjects, not for any intellectualormoral disqualification,butonthesimple accountofthedarkerskinofthose who aretobe assailedandthwarted in their life's careerandaspirations. Really, are we to be gratefulthatthecolour difference should bemadethe basis and justificationofthedastardly denialsofjustice, social, intellectual,andmoral,which have characterized the regime ofthose who Mr.Froudeboasts were left tobethe representativesofBritain's morality and fairplay?AretheNegroesundertheFrench flag not intenselyFrench?AretheNegroes undertheSpanish flagnotintensely Spanish? Whereforearetheyso?It is becausetheFrenchandSpanishnations, who are neitherofthem inferior in originorthe

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II8FROUDACITY.nobilityofthepartthey have each played onthehistoric stage, have hadthedignity arid sense to understandthelownessofmoraland,intellectual consciousness implied in the subordinationofquestionsofanimperial nature totheslaveholder's anxiety about the hueofthose who are tobebenefitedornot inthelong run. By SpainandFrance.every loyal and law-abiding subjectoftheMother Country has 'been a citizen deemed worthyalltherights, immunities, and privileges flowing from good and creditable citizenship. Those meriting such distinction were taken into the bosomofthesociety which their qualifications recommended them to share, and noofficeundertheGovernment has been thoughttoogoodortoo elevated for menoftheir stamp.Nowonder, then,thatMr.Froudeis silent regardingthescoresofbrilliant coloured officials who adornthecivil serviceofFranceandSpain, and whose appointment, in contrast with what has usually beenthecase in British Colonies, reflects an abiding lustre on those countries, and establishes their right to aforemost place among nations. Mr. Froude, in speakingofChiefJustice

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.Reeves, ventures upon asmarttruism whichwecan discuss for him,butofcourse not inthesense in which he has meant it. "Exceptions," our author remarks,"aresupposed proverbiallytoprove nothing,orto provethevery opposite of what they appear to prove.Whena par ticular phenomenon occurs rarely,thepro babilities arestrongagainsttherecurrenceofit."Now,isitin ignorance,orthrough dis ingenuousness,thatMr.Froudehas penned this argument regardingexceptions?Surely,inthevast areaofAmerican life,itis not possiblethathecould see Frederick Douglassaloneoutoftheclusterofprominent Black Americans who are doingtheworkoftheir country so worthily and so well in every official department. Anyhow, Mr. Froude's historyofthe Emancipation mayherebe amended forhimby a reminder that, in the British Colonies, it was not Whz"tes as masters, andBlacksas slaves, who were affectedbythatmomentous measure.Infact,1838found intheBritish Colonies very nearly as manyNegroandMulatto slave-owners as there were white. Well then, these black and yellow planters received their quota, it maybepresumed,of

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120FROUDACITY.the,000,000sterling indemnity.Theywerepartand parceloftheproprietary body in the Colonies, and had to meetthecrisis liketherest.Theywere very wealthy, someofthese Ethiopic accomplicesofthe oppressorsoftheir own race.Theirsons and daughters were sent, likethewhite planter's children, acrosstheAtlantic for aEuropeaneducation. These young folk returned to their various native Colonies as lawyers and doctors. Many of them were also wealthy planters.Thedaughters, of course, becamein'time the mothersofthenew generationofprominent inhabitants. Now, in America all this was different.No II nigger," however alabaster fair, waseverallowedtheprivilegesofcommon citizenship, let alonetherightto hold property in others.Ifpossessedbya weakness to pass for white men, asverymanyofthem could easily have contrived to do, woe untothepoor impostors!Theywerehunteddown from citytocity asfewfelons would be, and finally done todeath-"serve themright!"beingthegrimcommentary regarding theirfatefor having sought to usurptheineffable privilegeofwhiteman ship!All this, Mr.Froude,was

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SOCIALREVOLUTION. IU the rule,thepractice, in America, with regardtopersonsofcolour up to twenty-five years ago. Now, sir, what isthephenomenon which strikes your vision inthatmighty Republic to-day,. with regard to those self-same despised, discountenanced, persecuted and harried de scendantsofHam?Weshall tell youofthechangethathas taken place in their condition, and also someofthereasonsofthatbene ficent revolution.TheProclamation of Emancipation onJanu aryIst, 1863, was, by President Lincoln, frankly admittedtohavebeen a war necessity.Noabstract principleofjustice orofmoralswas of primary consideration inthematter.ThesavingoftheUnionatanycost,-thatis,thestern political emergency forced forththedocument which was tobethesocial salvation of every descendantofHamintheUnitedStates of America. Close upontheheelsoftheir emancipation,theenfranchisementoftheNegroes was pushed forward bythethorough going American statesmen.Theyhadno sen timentality to defer to.Thelogicofeventsthe factnotonlyofthecoloured race being freedmen,butalsoof their. having been effec-

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122FROUDACITY,tive comrades onthefieldsofbattle, where the bloodofeager thousandsofthem had flowed on the Union side, pointedouttoo plainlythatmen with such claims should also be partners in the resulting triumph. Mr. FrOl.ide, being so deferentialto skin prejudice, wili doubtless finditstrangethatsuch a astheCivil Rights Bill should have passed a CongressofAmericans. Assuredly withthefeeling againstthecoloured race which custom and law had engrafted intothevery natureofthevast majority, this.wasa tremendous call to make onthenational susceptibilities. Butit.has been exactly thisthathas brought out into such vivid contrasttheconductofthe British statesman, loudly professing tobeunprejudiced as to colour, and fair and humane, ontheone hand, and, ontheotherhand,thedealingsofthepoliticians of America, who had, as a matteroffact, sucked in aversion and contempt towardstheNegrotogetherwith their mother's milk.Ofcoursenosane being could expectthatfeelings so deeply ingrained and nourished could be rooted out by logic or by any legislative enactment. But, indeed, itissublimely creditable ,to

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.123the American Government that, whatever might bethepersonalandprivate sentiments of its individual members as regards race,palmamferat qumerut-" let him bearthepalm who has deserved it"-hasbeen their motto in dealing generally withtheclaims of their Ethiopic fellow-citizens.Henceit is that in only twenty-five years Americacan showNegropublic officers as thIck as black berries, while Mr.Froudecan mention only Mr. Justice Reeves inFIFTYyears as a sample of the"exceptional"progress under British auspicesofa manofAfrican descent! Verily, if in fifty long years British policy can recog nize only one single exception in a race be tween which andthewhite race there is no originalorcongenital differenceofcapacity, the inference mustbethatBritish policy has been not only systematically,butalso too successfully, hostile totheadvancementoftheEthiopians subjectthereto;while the"fairfieldandno favour" managementofthestrong-minded Americans has, by its results, confirmedtheculpabilityoftheEnglish policy in its relation to subject races."Thevery suggestive sectionof" theEnglish

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124FROUDACITY.intheWestIndies," from which wehavealreadygiven extracts,andwhich bearsthetitle Social Revolution,"thusproceeds:-"Butit doesnotfollowthatwhatcanbedoneeventuallycanbedone immediately, andthegulfwhich dividesthecolours is no arbitraryprejudice, ,but hasbeenopenedbythecenturiesoftraininganddiscipline which havegivenusthe start intherace"(p. 125).Thereference intheopeningclauseoftheabovecitation,astowhatiseventuallypossiblenotbeing immediately feasible, istotheeleva tionofBlackstohigh official posts, such as those occupiedbyJudgeReevesinBarbados,andby Mr.F.Douglass intheUnitedStates.Wehavealready disposedbyanticipationoftheabovecontentionofMr.Froude's,byshowingthatin only twenty-fiveyearsAmericahasfoundhundredsofeminentBlackstofillhigh postsunderhergovernment.Ourau thor's futile mixtureofJudgeReeves'excep tional casewiththatofFred.Douglass, whichhecunningly singlesoutfromamongsomanyintheU States, isnothingbuta subter fuge,ofthesamequeerandflimsy description with whichtheliteratureofthecause now cham-

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.125pioned by his eloquence has madetheworld only too familiar.Whatcan Mr.Froudeconceive any sane man should see in common between the actionofBritishandofAmerican statesman ship inthematternowunderdiscussion?Ifhis utterance on this point isthatofa British spokesman, let him abidebyhis own verdict against his own case, as embodied inthewords,"thegulfwhich dividesthetwoCOLOURSis no arbitrary prejudice," which, coupled with his contentionthattheelevationoftheBlacksisnotimmediatelyfeasible, disclosesthewideness of divergence between BritishandAmerican political opinion on this identical subject. Mr.Froudeis pathetically eloquent onthecolour question. He tellsofthewide gulf betweenthetwocolours-wesupposeitis as wide as exists between his white horseandhis black horse. Seriously, however, does not this kindoftalk savour only too muchoftheslave penandthe auction-blockoftherice-swamp andthecotton-field ;ofthesugar-plantation andthedriver'slash?IntheUnitedStatesalone, among alltheslave-holding Powers, was the difference of raceandcolour openly and boldly to justify alltheenormitiesthat

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126FROUDACITY.werethenatural accompanimentsofthose institutions"ofthePast.Butis Mr.Froudeserious in invoking the ostracizingofinno cent, loyal, and meritorious British subjects on accountoftheir mere colour? Physicalslavery-whichwas no crime per se,Mr.Froudetellsus-hadatleast overwhelming brute power, andthatsilent, passive force whichiseven more potential as an auxiliary, viz., unen lightened public opinion, whose neutrality is too often a positive support totheempireofwrong. But has Mr. Froude, in his present wild pro paganda on behalfof.politicaland,therefore,ofsocial repression, anything analogous to those two above-specified auxiliaries to relyon?Wetrow not.Thenwhy this frantic bluster and shouting forthofiridiscreet aspirations on be halfofa minority to whom accomplished facts, when not agreeable to or manipulated by them selves, are a perpetual grievance, generating life-long impotent protestations? Presumablytherearepossibilitiesthethoughtsofwhich fascinate our author and his congeners in this; to our mind, vain campaigninthecause of social retrogression. But, betheincentives whattheymay,itmight not be amiss on our

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.127part to suggesttothose impelled by themthatthe ignoringofNegroopinion in their calcula tions, though not only possiblebuteasily prac tised fifty years ago, is a portentous blunderatthe present time.Verbum sajJenti. Mr.Froudemust seethathehassetabout his Negro-repressioncampaignin too blundering a fashion.Heevidently expects tobeable to throw dust intotheeyes oftheintelligent world, juggler-wise,throughtheagencyofthemighty pronounUS,as representingtheentire Anglo Saxon race, in his advocacyofthenow scarcely intelligible pretensionsofa little coterieofHerMajesty's subjects intheWestIndies.Thesegentry are hostile,heurges, tothepresence of progressive Negroes onthesoilofthetropics!Yetare these self-same Negroesnot natives,butactive improversandembellishersofthatvery soil.Wecannot help concluding that this impotentgrudgehassprungoutoftheadditional factthatthese identical Negroes con stitutealsoa living refutation ofthesinister predictions ventured upon generally against theirrace,with frantic recklessness, even within thelastthreedecades, by affrighted slave-holders,ofwhose ravings Mr. Froude's book is only a

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FROUDACITY.diluted echo,outofseasonandoutrageous totheconscienceofmodern civilization.Itis patent, then,thatthematters which Mr.Froudehas sought to force up to the dignity of genetic rivalship, has nothingofthatimportance about it.Hisus, between whomandtheNegrosubjects of GreatBritainthegulfof colour comprises, as he himself owns, an outnumbered and, as we hope to prove later on, a not over-creditable little cliqueofAnglo-Saxon lineage.TherealUSwho havestartedaheadoftheNegroes,"throughthetraining and disci pline of centuries," are assuredly not anythinglike"represented"bythefew pretentious incap abIes who, insteadofconquering predominance, as they who deserveitalways do, like men, are whimpering like babies after dearly covetedbututterly unattainableenjoyments-tobehadattheexpenseoftheinterestsofthe Negroes whom they, rather amusingly, affect to despise.WhenMr.Froude shall have become able to present fortheworld's contemplation a question respecting whichtheAnglo-Saxon family, in itsgrandworld-wide predominance,andtheAfrican family, in its yet feeble, albeit promising, incipienceofself-adjustment, shall

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.129actually be competitors, then,andonly then,willit be time to accepttheoutlook as serious.Butwhen, as inthepresent case,heinvokesthewhole prestigeoftheAnglo-Saxon race infavouroftheuntenable pretensionsofa few bIases ofthatrace,andthattothesocial and political detriment of tensofthousandsofblack fellow-subjects,itis high timethatthecommonsenseofcivilization should laugh him outofcourt:Theus who are flourishing,orpining,asthe case may be, intheBritishWestIndies-byfavourofthe Colonial Office ontheforiner hypothesis, or, onthesecond, throughthemis directionoftheir ownfacuIties-donot, and, inthevery natureofthings, cannot in any racetakethelead ofanysetof men endowed withvirileattributes,theconditionsofthecontestbeingon all sides. identical. Pass we onward to extract and commentonotherpassages in this very engaging section ofMr.Froude'sbook.Onthesamepage(125)hesays:-"TheAfrican Blacks have been free enoughtorthousands, perhaps for ten thousandsofyears,andit has beentheabsenceofrestraint whichhasprevented them from becoming civilized."9

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FROUDACITY.All this, perhaps,isquite true, and, in the absenceofpositive evidence tothecontrary of our author's dogmatic assertions, we save time by allowing him allthebenefithecan derive from whatever weighttheymight carry."Generationhas followed generation,andthe children are as liketheirfathers asthesuc cessive generationsofapes."Tothis we can have nothingtoobject;especially in viewofwhatthewriter goes. on to say, andthatonhisown sideofthehedgesomewhat qualified though his admission maybe:-"Thewhites,itis likely enough,succeeded one another withthesame similarity for a seriesofages." .Ourspeculator grows profoundly philosophichere;andin this mood thus enter tains his readers in a strain which,thoughdeep, we shall strive to find clear:-"Itisnow supposedthathuman race has been ontheplanet for a hundred thousand yearsatleast;andthefirst traces of civilization cannot be thrown backatfurthest beyond six thousand.Duringall this time mankind went on treading inthesame steps, century after century making no more advancethanthe birdsandbeasts."

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.1nall thisthereis nothingthatcan usefully be taken exceptionto;for speculationandcon jecture, if plausibleandattractive,arefree to revel whenever written documents andtheunmistakable indicationsoftheearth's crust are both entirelyatfault.Warmingup with his theme, Mr.Froudegetssomewhat ambiguousinthe verynextsentence.Sayshe:-"InEgyptorIndiaorone knows not where,accdentornaturaldevelopmentquickened intolifeour moralandintellectual faculties;andthese faculties have grown into what we now experience, not inthefreedom in whichthemodern takes delight,butunderthesharp rule of thestrongovertheweak,ofthewise over the unwise." Our author, as we see, begins his above quoted deliverance quiteata loss with regardtothe agency to whichtheincipience, growth, and fructificationofman's faculties should be attributed. "Accident,"-" natural development,"hesuggests, quickenedthehumanfaculties into the progressive achievements which they have accomplished. But then, whereforeisthis writersoforcible, so confident in his prophecies regard ing Negroesandtheir future temporal condition

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FROUDACITY.andproceedings, sinceitis "accident,"and"accident"only, that must determine their fulfilment?Hashe so securely bound the fickle divinity to his service as to be certainofits agency in the realizationofhisforecasts?Andifso,where then wouldbethe j"ortutousness that is the very essence of occurrencesthatglide, undesigned, unexpected, unforeseen, into the domain of Fact,andbecome material for History?Sofar as we feel capableofintelli gently meditating on questionsofthis inscru table nature, weareforced to conclude that since"naturaldevelopment"couldbeso re gular, so continuous,andwithal so efficient,intheproductionofthemarvellous results that we daily contemplate,theremustbeexistentandinoperation-as,for instance, inthecaseoftheuniformity characterizing for ages suc cessive generationsofmankind, as above ad ducedbyourphilosopherhimself-somecon trollingLAW,accordingandsubject to whichnocheck has marredtheharmonious progression,orpreventedtheconsummationsthathave crownedthenormal exerciseofhuman energy, intellectual as well as physical."The sharp ruleofthestrongoverthe

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.133weak,"isthefirst clauseoftheCarlylean sounding phrase which embodiestherequisite conditions for satisfactory human development.Theterms expressiveofthese. conditions, how ever, while certainly suggesting and embracing the beneficent, elevating influenceanddisciplineofEuropean civilization, such as we knowandappreciate it, do notbyany means excludethedominationofMr.Legree or anyothertypical man-monster, whose power over his fellow creatures isatonce a calamity to the victims and a disgrace tothecommunity tolerating not only its exercise,butthevery possibilityofits existence.Thesharpruleof"thewiseovertheunwise,"istheclosing sectionoftherecommendation to ensure man's effective de velopment.Noteven savages hesitate to deferinalltheir important designs tothesought-for guidanceofsuperior judgments.ButinthecaseofusWestIndian Blacks,towhom Mr. Froude's doctrine here has a special reference,isit suggestedby'himthatthebidders for pre dominance over us onthepurely epidermal,the skin, are ipso factothemonopolistsofdirecting wisdom? It surely cannotbeso ; forMr.Froude's own chapters regarding boththe

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134FROUDACITY.nomination by DowningStreetof future Colonial office-holders andthedisorganized mental and moral conditionofthe indigenous tives-ashe callsthemI-ofhis country in these climes, precludethepossibilitythatthereference regardingthewise can be to N ow since this is so, we really cannot see why the pains should have been taken to inditetheabove ,truism,to.thetruthwhereof,under every normal orlegitimate circumstance,theveriest barbarian, by spontaneously resorting to and cheerfully abidingbyit, is amongthefirst to secure practical effect. "Ourown Anglo-Saxon race," continues our author,"hasbeen capableofself-government only after a thousand yearsofcivilandspiritual authority.Europeangovernment, European iJ;lstruction, continued steadily till his natural tendencies are superseded by higher instincts, may shortentheprobation periodofthenegro. Individual blacksofexceptional quality, like Frederick Douglass in America,ortheChief JusticeofBarbados,willavail themselves'of opportunities to rise,andthefreest opportunityOUGHTTOBE offend them."Herewe are re mindedofthedogma laid down by a certain

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SOCIALREVOLUTION. 135 cla!!s ofethnologists, to the effectthatintellec tuality, when displayed by a personofmixed EuropeanandAfrican blood, must alwaysbeassigned totheEuropeansideoftheparentage;and intheforegoing citation our author speaks of two personages undoubtedly belonging totheclass embraced intheabove dogma.Threespecific objections may, therefore,beurgedagainstthestatements which we have indicatedinthe above quotation.Firstand foremos.t, neitherJudgeReeves nor Mr.FredDouglassisablack man,asMr.Froudeinaccurately represents eachofthem to be.Theformer isofmixed blood, to what degreeweare not adepts enough todetermine;andthelatter, if his portrait and those whohavepersonally se_en himmislead us not, is a decidedly fair man. We,ofcourse, donotfor a moment imagine that eitherofthose eminent descendantsofHam cares ajotabout the settlementof thi$ question, which doubtless would appearverytrivial to both.Butas our author's crusade is againsttheNegro-bywhich we understandtheundilutedAfrican descendant,thepureNegro,ashe singularly describes Chief JusticeReeves-ouranxiety is to showthatthereexist, both

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FROUDACITY.intheWestIndies and intheUnitedStates, scoresofgenuine black men to whom neitherofthese two distinguished patriots would, for one instant" hesitate to concede any claim to equality in intellectualandsocial excellence.Thesecond exception which we takeis,aswehave already shown in a previous page, tothepersistent lugging inofAmericabyMr. Froude, doubtless to keep his political country men in countenance with regard totheNegro question.Wehave already pointedoutthe futilityofthis proceeding on our author's part, and suggested how damaging it might prove tothecauseheis striving to uphold."Blacksof exceptional quality," likethetwo gentlemen he has specially mentioned,"willavail themselvesofopportunitiestorise." Most certainly they wz'll, Mr.Froude-but,forthepresent, only in America, where those opportunities arereally free and open to all.Thereno parasitical non workers are tobefound,eagertoeatbread,butinthesweatofotherpeople'sbrows;noimpecunious title-bearers;' no importunate bores, norothersimilar characters whomtheGovernmenttherewouldregardit as theirduty"to provide for"-byquartering them onthereve-

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.137nuesofColonial dependencies. But intheBritishCrown-orrather Anglo-WestIndian"-governedColonies, hasiteverbeen, can it ever be, thusordered?Ourauthor's descrip tionoftheexigenciesthatcompel injustice tobedone in order to requite,orperhaps to secure, Parliamentary support, coupled with his account ofthebitter animus againstthecoloured race that rankles inthebosomof his" EnglishmenintheWestIndies," sufficiently provestheutterhypocrisy of his ,recommendation,thatthefreestopportunities should beofferedto Blacksofthesaid exceptional order.Thevery wordingofMr. Froude's recommendation is disingenuous. Itisone stone spedattwo birds, and which, most naturally, has missed them both. Mr.Froudeknew perfectly well that, twentyfiveyears before he wrote his book, America had thrown openthewayto,public advance ment totheBlacks, asithadbeen previously free toWhitesalone.Hisuseof"shouldbeoffered,"insteadof"areoffered," betrays his consciousness that, at thetime he was writing, the offeringofany opportunitiesofthe kind he suggests was athingstill tobedesired under British jurisdiction.Thethird objec-

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FROUDACITY.tion which we shall take to Mr.Froude'sbracketingofthecasesofMr.FredDouglass and ofJudgeReeves together, is that, when closely examined,thetwo cases can be distinctly seen to benotin any way parallel.Theapplause which ourauthorindirectly bids for on behalf of British Colonial liberality intheinstanceofMr. Reeves would bethegrossest mockery, if accorded in any senseotherthanwe shall pro ceed to show.FredDouglass was born and bred a slave in oneoftheSouthernStatesoftheUnion,andregained his freedom by flight from bondage, a grown man, and, of course, underthecircumstances, solitaryanddestitute.HereachedtheNorthata period whentheprejudice ofthe against menofhis race was so rampant as to constitute a positive mama.Thestern and cruelly logical doctrine,thataNegrohad no rights which white men were bound to respect, was in full blast and practical exemplification.Yetamidst it all, and despiteofit all, this gifted fugitive conquered his way intotheTempleofKnowledge, and became eminent as an orator, a writer,anda lecturer on political and general subjects. Hailed abroad

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.139asa prodigy, and received with acclamation into the brotherhoodofintelligence, abstract justice and moral congruity demandedthatsuch a man should no longerbesubject totheshameandabasementofsocial, legal, and political proscrip tion.Theland of his birth proved herself equal to this imperative callofcivilized Duty, regardlessofcustoms and thelaws, written aswellas unwritten, whichhaddoomed to life-long degradation every memberoftheprogenyofHam. Recognizing intheerewhile bondman a born leaderofmen, America, withtheun flinching directnessthathas markedhercourse, whether in goodorin evil, responded with spontaneous loyalty totheinspirationofherhighest instincts.Shamedinto compunction and remorseatthesolid fa,me andgeneral sympathy secured for himself by a sonofhersoil,whom, inthewantonnessofpride and power, she had denied all fostering care (not, indeed, foranyconscious offending on his part, but by reasonofa natural peculiarity which she had decreed penal), America, like a repentant mother, stooped fromheraugust seat, and giving with enthusiasm both hands totheout cast, she helped him to stand forward and erect,

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14FROUDACITY.inthedignityofuntrammeled manhood, making him,.atthe same time, welcome to a place of honour amongstthemost gifted,theworthiest and most favoured ofherchildren. Chief JustiCe Reeves, on the other hand, did not entertheworld, as Douglass had done, heir to a lot of intellectual darkness and legalized social and political proscription. Associated from adolescence withS.J. Prescod,thegreatest leaderofpopular opinion whom Barbados hasyetproduced, Mr. Reeves possessed. in his naturethematerial to assimilate and reflectinhis own principlesandconductthesalient characteristicsofhis distinguished Mentor. Arrived inEnglandtostudyla.w,hehad theretheprivilegeofthepersonal acquaintance ofLordBrougham,thenoneoftheN estorsofthegreatEmancipation conflict.Onreturning to his native island, whichhedid immediately after his call tothebar, Mr. Reeves sprungat once into the foremost place, and retained his precedence till his laboursandaspirations were crowned by his obtainingthehighest judicial post inthatColony.Forlong years before becoming Chief Justice, Mr. Reeves had con quered for himselftherespect and confidence

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.of allBarbadians-evenincludingtheultra exclusive"Anglo-West-Indians"ofMr.Froude --:-by themanful constitutionalstandwhich, sacrificing official place, hehadsuccessfully made againstthethreatened abrogationoftheCharteroftheColony, which every classandcolourofnati ves cherish and revere as a most precious, almost sacred, inheritance.Thesuc cessful championoftheir menaced found clusteringaround himthegrateful hearts of all his countrymen, who, in their hourofdreadatthedangeroftheir time-honoured constitution, had clungindespair to him astheonly leader capableofheadingthestruggleandleadingthepeople,bywiseandconstitutional guidance, tothevictory whichtheydesiredbutcould-not achieve for themselves .. Sir William Robinson, who wassentoutas pacificator, saw and, took inata glancethewhole significanceofthecondition of affairs, especially in their relation to Mr. Reeves,and vceversd. Withtheunrivalled pre-eminence and predominantpersonal influence ofthelatter, the Colonial Officehadpossessedmorethanample meansofbe'ing perfectly familiar.What,then, couldbemore natural and consonant with

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FROUDACITY.sound policythanthatthethen acknowledged,butofficially unattached, headofthepeople (being. an eminent lawyer), should, on the occurrenceofa vacancy inthehighest juridical post, be appointed to co-operate with the supreme headoftheExecutive?'Mf.Reeves was alreadythechief ofthelegal bodyofthe Colony; his appointment, therefore, as Chief Justice amounted to nothing morethanan official ratificationofan accomplished and unalterable fact.Ofcourse, it was no fault of England'sthattheeminent culture, political influence, and unapproached legal status of Mr. Reeves should have coincided exactly with her political requirementsatthatcrisis, noryetthatsheshould have utilized a coincidence which had the double advantageofsecuringthepermanentservices, whilst realizingatthesame timethelife's aspiration,ofa distinguished British subject.ButthatMr.Froudeshouldbedin ning in our ears this caseofbenefited self interest, gainingtheamplest reciprocity, both as to service and serviceableness,with the disinterested spontaneityofAmerica's eleva tion of Mr. Douglass,is but anotherproofof the obliquityofthe moral medium through

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.143whichheis wont to survey mankind and their concerns.Thedistinction betweenthetwo marvellous careers which we have .. been discussing de mands, as it is susceptibleof,still ,sharper accentuation. Inthefinal successofReeves, itistheman himself who confronts one intheunique transcendency' and victoriousnessofpersonal merit.Ontheother hand, a million times the personal' meritofReeves combined with his couldhaveavailed Douglass absolutely nothing intheUnitedStates, legal and social proscriptthathewas, with public opinion generally onthesideofthe lawsandusages against him.Thevery little countries oftheworld are proverbial fortheproduction' of verygreatmen. But, ontheotherhand, narrownessofspace' favourstheconcentra tion and coherenceoftheadverse forcesthat impede, iftheyfailofutterly thwart ing, the success which may happen tobegrudged by those possessingthewillandthepower for its obstruction.InBarbados, so faraswehave heard, read"andseen ourselvesofthe social ins and outsofthatlittle sister colony, the operation of the above mentioned

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144FROUDACITY.influences has been, may stillbe,toa cer tain extent, distinctly appreciable. Although in English jurisprudence there is no law ordainingtheproscription, onthegroundofrace or colour,ofany eligible candidate for social or political yetis it notoriousthatthe ethics and practicesofthe'.'Anglo-WestIndians"who, our author has dared to say, representthehigher type of Englishmen-have,throughout successive generations, effectually and of course detri mentally operated, as though by a positive Medo-Persian edict, in a proscriptive sense.Ittherefore demanded extraordinary toughnessofconstitutional fibre, moral, mental,' and, let us add, physiCal too, to overcometheobstacles opposed totheprogressofmerit, too often by persons in intelligence below contempt, but, in prosperity and accepted pretension, formidable indeed to fight againstandover come.Weshudder to think ofthepetty cabals,theunderbred indignities, direct and indirect, whichthepresent eminent Judgehadto watch against, to brush aside, to smile at, in course of his epic strides towards the highest local pinnacleofhis profession. But

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.145with him, asTimehas shown,itwas allsureand safe. Providence had endowed him withthepowers and temperamentthatbreak'down, when opportunity offers, every barrier totheprogressofthegifted andstrongand brave.Thatopportunity, in his particular case, offered itself intheConfederation crisis. Distracted andhelpless"Anglo-WestIndians"throngedtohim in imploring crowds, prayingthattheir belovedChartershould be savedbytheexer tionofhis incomparable abilities.Saveand except Dr. Carrington,therewas not a single memberofthedominant section in Barbadoswhomit would flot beabsurd to name even as a near second to him whom all hailed astheChampionoftheir Liberties.Inthecontesttobe wagedthevictory was not, asitnever once has been, reserved totheSKINorpedi greeofthecombatants.Theabovetwoma'tters, which intheeyesoftheruling"Bims"had, throughout long decadesofundisturbed 'security, been placed before and above all pos sible considerations, gravitated down totheirin herent insignificance when IntellectandWorthwere destinedtofightouttheissue. Mr.10

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FROUDACITY.Reeves, whose possession oftheessential qualifications was admittedly greater than that of every colleague, stood, therefore, in unques tioned supremacy, lord of the political situation, with the result above stated.Towhatwehave alreadypointed out re garding the absolute impossibilityofsuch an opportunity 'ever presenting itself in America to Mr. Douglass, in a political sense, we may how add that, whereas, in Barbados, for the intellectual equipment neededatthe crisis, Mr. Reeves stood quite alone, there could, in the bosomofthe Union, even in respect of the gifts in which Mr. Douglass was most brilliant, be no"walkingover thecourse"by him. It was in the country and time of Bancroft, Irving, Whittier, Longfellow, Holmes, Bryaht, Motley, Henry Clay,DanWebster, and others of the laureled phalanx which has added sogreatand imperishable a lustre totheliterature of the English tongue.Weproceed here another step, and takeupa fresh deliverance ot our author's in reference tothegranting of the totheblack population of these Colonies."Itis," says Mr. James Anthony Froude, who isjustas pro-

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SOCIAL RE VOLUTION.147phetic as his prototypes, the slave-ownersofthe last half-century,'eit is as certain as any thing future can be, thatifwe give the negroesasabodythe political privileges whichwe claim forourselves, theythey will use them only to their own injury."Theforepart of the above citation reads very much as if its author wrote it ontheprinciple of raising a ghost for the mere purpose of laying it.Whatvisionary, what dreamerofimpossible dreams, has ever asked for the Negroesasabodythe same political privileges which are claimed for them selves by Mr. Froudeandothersofhis countrymen, who are presumably capable of exercisingthem?Noonein theWestIn dies has ever done' so silly a thing as to ask for the Negroes as a body that which has not, as everybody knows,andnever will be, concededtothe people of Great Britain as a body.Thedemand for Reform in the CrownColonies-ademand which our author deliberately misrepresents-ismade neither by nor for the Negro, Mulatto, White, Chinese, norEastIndian.Itisa putforwardbypromi nent responsible colonists -themajorityofwhomare Whites,andmostly Britons besides.

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FROUDACITY.Theirprayer, in whichthewhole population in these Colonies most heartily join,issimply and most reasonablythatwe,thesaid Colonies, being an integral portionoftheBritish Empire, and having, in intelligenceandevery form of civilized progress, outgrownthe stage ofpoliti cal tutelage, should be accorded some measureofemancipation therefrom.AndtherebyweWhite, Black, Mulatto, and allotherinhabitants be able to protect our selves against the self-seekingandboldindifferencetoour interests which seem to bethemost cherished expressionofour rulers' official existence.Itmay be possible (for. he has attempted it),thatour new instructorinColonial ethicsandpolitics,undertheimpulsionofskin-superiority,andalsoofconfidence in the probable successofexperiments successfully fifty years before, does really believeinthesensiblenessofseparatingCOLOURS,and representingthewearersofthem as being generally antagonistic to one another inHerMajesty'sWestIndian Dominions.Howisit then, we may be permitted to ask Mr. Froude,thatno complaintofthesortformulated by him as againsttheBlacks has

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.149forward bythethousandsofEnglishmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen,andotherEuropeanswhoare permanent inhabitants, proprietors, and tax-payersofthese Colonies?ThereasonisthatAnglo-West Indianism,orratherColonialism, isthecreed of a few residents sharply divisible into two classes intheWestIndies. Labouring conjointlyundeorrace madness,thefirst believes that, as beingofthe Anglo-Saxon race,theyhave a right to crow and dominate in whatever landtheychance to find themselves, though in their own countrytheyor their forefathershadhadto be very dumb dogs indeed.TheColonial Office has for a long time been responsible forthepresence in superior postsofhighly salaried gentryofthis category, who have delighted in showing themselves off astheunquestionable masters of those who supply them withthepaythatgivesthemthelivelihoodandposition they so ungratefully requite.Thesefortunatefolk,Mr.Froudeavers, are likely to leaveourshores in a huff, bearing off with themthecivilizinginfluences which their presence so surely guarantees.Gotell tothemarinesthattheseed of Israel flourishing intheborders of

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FROUDACITY.Misraim will abandon their flourishing district of Goshen through sensitiveness on account, oftheidolatry of the devotees of Isis and Osiris!Thesecond and less placable class of"Englishmenin theWestIndies," whosefinaldeparture our author would have us to believe would completethecatastrophe to progressinthe British Antilles, is very impalpable indeed.Wecannot feel them.Wehave failedtoeven see them. True, Mr.Froudescoutsontheir behalfthebare notionoftheir con descending to meet, on anything like equality,us,whom he and they pretend (rather ana chronistically,atleast) to have been their former slaves, or servants. But where, in the name of Heaven, where are these sortz'sde fa cuz'sse de J'upz'ter, Mr.Froude?Ifthey are invisible, mourning in impenetrable seclusion over the impossibility of having, as their fathers had before them,theluxuryoflivingatthe Negroes' expense, shall we Negroes who areinthesunshine of heaven, prepared to work and win our way, be anywise troubled in our Jubilee bythedrivelling ineptitude which insanelyreminds us of the miseriesofthose who went before us?Wehave thus arrivedatthecar

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SOCIALREVOLUTJON. lSIdinal, essential misrepresentation, outofscores which compose"TheBowofUlysses,"andupon which its phrases mainly hinge.Sempereadem-"Alwaysthesame"has beentheproud mottoofthemightiest hierarchythathas controlled human action and shapedthedestiniesofmankind, no less in materialthanin ghostly concerns.Yetis a vastandvery beneficial change, due totheimperious spiritofthetimes, manifest intheRoman Church. No longer do the stake,thesword, andthedismal horrorsofthe interdict figure as instruments for assuring conformityandsubmission toherdogmas. Sheisnow content to rest her claims onherbeneficence inthepast, as attested by noble and imperishable memorialsofhersolicitudeforthe poorandtheignorant,andin proclaim ingthegospel without those ghastly coercivestoits acceptance. Surely such a change, how ever unpalatable to those who have been com pelled to make it, is most welcome totheoutside worldatlarge. "Alwaysthesame"is also,orshould be,thedeviceofthe discrerited herd whose spokesman Mr.Froudeisso proudtobe.In nothing has their historical character,asshown inthepublished literatureoftheir

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FROUDACITY.cause up to 1838; exhibited any signofamelio ration; Itcannotbe affected bythespirit andthelessonsofthetimes. Mendacity and a sortofjudicial blindness seem tobethetwo most salient characteristics by which are to bedistinguished these implacable foes and wouldberobbersofhuman rights and liberty. But, gracious heavens! what cantemptmortalstoincur this weight Of infamy?WealthandPower?Tobe(very improbably) a Crcesusor(still moreimprobably) a Bonaparte, and to perishattheconventiona,l age, and ofvulgar disease, likeboth?Turpitudes on thepartof sane nien, involvingthesacrificeoftheprice less attributesofhumanity, can be rendered intelligible bythesupreme gains above indicated, but only if exemption from the common lotofmankind-intheshapeofcare, disease, anddeath-wereaccompaniments of those prizes.Infavourofslavery, which has for so many centuries desolatedtheAfrican family and blighted its every chanceofindigenous progress-ofslavery whose' abolition our author so ostentatiously regrets only one solitary permanent result, extending in every case over

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socrALREVOLUTION..153a natural human life, has been paraded by himasa respectable justification.Atpage246,speakingofNegroesmetbyhim during a stroll whichhetookatMandeville, Jamaica,hetellsus:-"Thepeoplehadblack faces;buteventheyhad shaped their manners intheold English models.Themen touched their hats respectfully(as they eminently did not in Kingston and its environs).Thewomen smiledandcurtsied, andthechildren lookedshywhen one spoke to them.Thenameofslavery is a horror tous;buttheremust have beensome thing humanand kindly about it, too, when it left uponthecharacter the marksofcourtesy and good breeding"!Alas for Africaandthesufferingsofherdesolated millions, in view of so light-heartedanassessment as this!Onlythink oftheagesofoutrage, misery, andslaughter-ofthecountless hecatombsthatMammon is hereby absolved from having directly exacted, since the sufficing expiatory outcomeofit all has beenonly"marksofcourtesyandgoodbreed ing"!Marksthataredisplayed, forsooth,bythe survivors oftheghastly experiencesorby

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154FRO UDA CITY.their descendants!Andyet, grantingtheap preciable ethical value ofthehat-touching, the smirking and curtseyingsofthose Blackstopersons whom they had no reason to suspectofunfriendliness,orwhose w4ite face they may inthewhite man's country have greeted with a civility perhaps only prudential, wefailto discoverthenecessityofthedreadful agency we have adverted to, for securing the results on manners whichareso warmly commended. African explorers, from MungoParkto Living stone and Stanley, have all borne sufficient testimony totheworld regardingthenatural friendlinessoftheNegroin his ancestral home, when not undertheinfluenceofsuspicion, anger,ordread.Itbehoves us to repeat (for our detractorisa persistent repeater)thatthecardinal dodgebywhich Mr.Froudeandhis few adherents expect to succeed in obtaining the reversalofthepro gressofthecoloured population is by misrepre sentingtheelements, and their real attitude towards one another,ofthesections composingtheBritishWestIndian communities. Every body knowsfullwellthatEnglishmen, Scotch men, and Irishmen (who are not officials),as

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.ISSwellas Germans, Spaniards, Italians, Portu guese, andothernationalities, work in' unbroken harmony and, more or less, prosper in these Islands.Theseare no cherishersofany vain hankering after a stateofthings in which menfeltnot the infamyofliving not only ontheunpaid labour,butattheexpenseofthesuffer ings, the blood, and eventhelifeoftheir fellowmen.Thesemen, honourablebyinstinct andofindependent spirit, depend on their own resources for self-advancement intheworldontheir capital eitherofmoneyin,theirpockets or of serviceable brains in their heads, energyintheir limbs, and on these alone, either singly or moreorless in combination.Thesereput able specimensofmanhoodhavecreated homes dear tothem'inthese'favoured climes;andthey,atany rate, being onthevery best terms with all sectionsofthecommunity in which their lot is cast,have a common cause asfellowsufferersunderthe regime ofMr. Froude's official"birdsofpassage."Theagitation inTrinidadtells its own tale.Thereisnot a single blackman-thoughthere should have beenmany-amongtheleadersofthemovement for Reform. Neverthelessthehonour-

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FROUDACITY.ableandtruthful author of"TheEnglish in the W est Indies," inorderto invent a plausible pretext for his sinister laboursoflove on behalfofthe poor pro-slavery survivals,anddespite his knowledgethatsturdy Britonsareatthe head,ofthe agitation, coolly tellstheworld that itisa struggle tosecure"negro domination."Thefurther allegationofour author respecting the black man is curious and,ofcourse, dismally prophetic.Asthereader may perhaps recol lect, itistotheeffectthatgranting political power totheNegroesasa body, equal in scope tothatclaimed byUs" ('i.e., Mr.Froudeand his friends), would certainly result inthe use of these powers bytheNegroes to their own injury.Andwherefore?If Froudeprofesses tobelieve-whatis afact-thatthereis"nooriginalorcongenital differenceofcapacity" between the whiteandtheAfrican races, where istheconsistencyofhis urging a contention which implies inferiority in natural shrewdness, as regards their own affairs, onthepartofblackmen?Does this blowerofthetwo extremesoftemperature inthesamebreathpretendthattheaverage Britishvoterisbetterinformed, can see more clearly what is for his own advan-

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SOCIALREVOLUTION. 157 tage, isbetterable to assess merits of persons to .be entrusted withthespendingofhis taxes, andthegeneral management ofhisinterests?IfMr.Froudemeans all this,heisatissue not only with his own specific declaratio.n tothecontrary,butwith factsofoverwhelming weight and showingpreciselythereverse.Wehave personallyhadfrequent opportunitiesofcoming into contact, both inandoutofEngland, with nativesofGreat Britain,notoftheagriculturalorderalone,butvery often.oftheartisan class, whose ignoranceofthecommonest matters was as dense asitwas discreditable tothelandoftheir birthandbreeding.Arethese people included(onaccountofhaving his favouritesnequa non of a fair skin) intheusofthis apostleofskin-worship, intheindefeasiblerightto political'power whichisdeniedtoBlacksbyreason,orrather non-reason,oftheir complexion?Thefact is, that, judgingby his own senti ments and thoseofhis Anglo-West Indian friends, Mr.Froudecalculated on producinganimpression in favour of their discreditable viewsbypurposely keepingoutofsightthenumerous European and other sufferersundertheyoke

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FROUDACITY.whichhesneersatseeing described by its proper appellationof"adegradingtyranny."Theprescriptive unfavourable forecastofour author respecting political power inthehandsofthe Blacks may, inouropinion,behailed as a warrant for its bestowalbythose in whose powerthatbestowal may be.As a pro-slavery prophecy, equally dismal and equally confident withthehundred'sthatpreceded it, this new vaticination may safelybeleft to be practically dealt with bytheRace, victimizedandmaligned, whose real geniusandcharacter are purposely belied by those who expect to be gainers bytheprocess. Invested with political power, the Negroes, Mr.Froudegoes on to assure his readers,"willslide back into their old con dition, andthechance willbegoneoflifting them tothelevel to which we have no righttosay they are incapableofrising."Howtouch ingly sympathetic!Howtranscendently liberal and righteous! But,tospeakthetruth, is not this solicitudeofour cynical defamer on our behalf, after all, a useless wasteofemotiononhispart?TimeoDanaos etdonaferentes.Thetearsofthe crocodile are most copiousinclose viewofthebanquet on his prey. This

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.159reiterated twaddleofMr.Froude,in futile and unseasonable echoofthecongenial predictions of his predecessors inthesame line, might be left to receive not onlytheanswerofhis own book totheselfsame talkoftheslavers fifty years ago,butalsothatoftheaccumulated refutations which America has furnished for the last twenty-five yearsastotheretrograde tendency so falsely imputed. But, takingitas a serious contention, we findthatit involves a suggestionthattheaccordingofelectoral votestocitizensofa certain complexion would, per seand ipso facto,produce a revulsion and collapseoftheentire prevailing organization and orderofa civilized community.Whattalismanic virtue this prophetofevil attributes to a vote inthehandofaNegrooutof Barbados, where for yearstheblack man's vote has been operating, harmlessly enough, Heaven knows, we cannot imagiIl:e. Atall events, as sliding back onthepartofa com munityisamatterwhich would require some appreciable time, however brief, letus.hope that the authoritiescharged "to seethatthestate receive nodetriment"wouldbevigilant enough and in timetoarresttheevil and vindi-

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160FROUDACITY.catetheefficiencyofthecivilized methods of self-preservation.Ourauthor concludesbyanother reference to JusticeReeves:"LetBritish autho rity die away,andtheaverage black nature, such as it now is,beleft free to assert itself, there willbeno more negroes like him in Barbadoesoranywhere."Howthedying awayofBritish authority in a British Colonyisto come to pass, Mr.Froudedoesnotcon descend here explicitly to state. But we are left free to infer fromthewhole driftof"TheEnglish intheWestIndies"thatit will come throughtheexodus en masse said to be threatened by his"Anglo-WestIndians." Mr. Froude sympathetically justifiesthedisgustandexas perationofthese reputable folkatthepresence and progressoftherace for whose freedom and ultimate elevation Britain was so lavish of the wealthofhernoblest intellects, besides payingtheprodigious money-ransomofTWENTYMILLIONpounds sterling.Withregard to our author's talkabout"theaverage black nature, such as it now exists, being left freetoassert itself," andthedire consequences therefrom to result,wecan only feel pityat 'the desperate straitsto

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SOCIALREVOLVTION.161which, in his search for apretextfor gratuitous slander, a manofour author's capacityhas beensoignominiously reduced. All we can saytohim with reference to this portion.ofhis violent suppositions isthat"theaverage black nature, such' as it now exists," should NOT, in a civilized community, be left free to assert itself, any more than the average white,theaverage brown,theaverage red,orindeed any average colourofhuman nature whatsoever.Asself-defence is the first lawofnature,ithas followedthatevery conditionoforganized society, however simpleorprimitive, is furnished with some recog nized meansofself-protection againstthefree assertionofitself bytheaverage natureofanyofits members.Ofcourse,ifthings shouldeverturnoutaccording to Mr.Froude'sdesperate hypo thesis, it may also happenthattherewill benomore Negroes like Mr. Justice Reeves in Barbados.Buttheadditionofthewords"oranywhere" totheabove statement isjustanotherofthose suppressionsofthetruthwhich,absolutely futile though they are, con theonly meansbywhichthepolicyhewrites to promote can possiblybemade toII

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FROUDACITY.appear even tolerable.Theassertion of our author, therefore, standing as it actually does, embracing the whole world, is nothing less than an audacious absurdity, for there stand the United States, the French and SpanishIslands-notto speakoftheCe"ntraland South American Republics, Mexico, andBrazil-allthronged with black, mixed blood,andeven half-breed high officials, staring him and the whole world in the face.Theabove noted suppression of the truthtothe detriment oftheobnoxious populationrecalls a passage wherein the suggestionofwhatis notthetruth has been resorted to forthesame purpose.Atpage123weread:"Thedisproportionofthe tworaces-alwaysdanger ouslylarge-hasincreased with ever-gathering velocity sincetheemancipation.Itisnowbeyond controlonthe old lines."Theuseofthe expletive "dangerously," as suggestiveofthe truculence ofthepeople to whom itrefers,is critically allowable in view ofthemain inten tion oftheauthor. But what shall we say ofthesuggestion contained inthevery next sentence, which we have italicized?Wearerequired by it to understand that in slavery-timethe

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SOCIALREVOLUTiON. plartters had some organized method, impracticablebytheEmancipation,ofcheck ing, fortheirown personal safety,thegrowthofthe coloured population. If we, in deference.. tothe superiQr ,mental capacityof author, admitthatself-interest was no irresistible motiveforpromotingthegrowthofthehuman"pro perty on which their prosperity depended, we are yetatliberty toaskwhat wasthenatureofthe"oldlines"followed for controllingtheincrease uncler discussion.Wasit suffocationofthe babesbymeansofsulphur fumes,theuseof beetle-paste, or exposure onthebanksofthe Caribbeanrivers?Inthelater case History evidently lost a chanceofself-repetitioninthe personofsome leader like Moses,theHebra-Egyptian Spartacus, arisingtoavengeanddeliver his people.Wenow shall note how he proceeds to descantonslavery itself:-"Slavery," says he, was a survival from a socialorderwhich had p'assedaway,and slavery could not be continued. IT DOESNOTFOLLOWTHAT per seITWAS A CRIME.The negroes who were sold tothedealers in the factories were most ofthemeither slaves already to worse mastersorwere se1'Vl, ser-

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FRO UDA CITY.vants intheoldmeaningoftheword,orelse criminals,servatiorreserved from death. They would otherwise have been killed, and since the slavetradehas been abolished, are again killed in the too celebratedcustoms.. ." Slavery, as Mr.Froudeandtherestofus are bound to discuss itatpresent, is by no means susceptibleofthegloss whichhehas endea voured, intheabove extract,toputonit.TheBritish nation, in 1834,hadto confront and deal with the only species ofslavery which wasthenwithinthecognizanceofpublic morals and practical politics. Doubtlessourauthor, learned and erudite asheis,would liketotransport us to those patriarchal ages when, under theocratic decrees,thechosen people were authorized to purchase (nottokidnap) slaves,andkeep them asaneverlasting inherit ance in their posterity.Theslaves so purchased, we know. became membersofthefamiliestowhich their lot was attached,andwere hedged in from cruel usagebydistinct and salutary regulations.Thisistheonly speciesofslaverywhich-withtheadditionoftheold Germanic se1f-enslavementsandthegenerally prevailing ancient customofpledging one's personalser-

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.vicesInliquidation ofindebtedness-canbecovered bythesingular verdictofnon criminality which our author has pronounced. He,ofcourse, knows muchbetterthan .... wedo whattheconditionofslaves wasinGreece as well as in Rome.Heknows,too,thatthe"wildand guilty phantasy that man couldholdproperty in man," lost nothingofits guiltorits wildness withthelapseoftime andthechangesofcircumstances which overtook and affected those reciprocal relations.Everypossibility of deterioration, every circumstance wherein man's fallen nature could revel in its worst inspirations, reached culminationattheperiod whentheinterferenceofthe world, decreed byProvidence, was ren dered imperative bythesufferingsofthe boIids men.It is this crisisofthehistoryofhuman enslavementthatMr.Froudemust talk about, if he wishes to talk toanypurpose onthesubjectatall.HisscoffsatBritish"virtuousbenevolence,"andhis imputationofingratitudetotheNegroin respectofthatself-same benevolence, do not refer to any theocratic, self-contracted, abstract,oridyllic conditionofservitude.Theypin his meaning down

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166FROUDACITY.to that particular phase when slayery had become notonly"thesum," butthevery quintessence, of all human villainies."Atits then phase, slavery had culminated into being a menace, portentous andfarencroaching, tonotonlythemoral life butthevery civilizationofthe higher typesofthe human family, so debasingandblighting were its effects on those who came into even tolerating contact with its details.Theindescribable atrocities practised ontheslaves, the deplorable sappingofeven respectable principles in owners of bothsexes-allthese stood forth in their ineffable hideousness before the uncorrupted gazeofthemoral heroes, sons of Britain and America, and alsoofother countries, who, buckling onthearmourofcivilization and right, fought forthevindi cation of them both, through every stern vicissitude, and wonthefirst grand, ever memorable victoryof1838,whereof wesorecently celebratedthewelcome Jubilee! Oh! it was a combat of archangels against the legionsthatMammon had banded together and incited to the conflict. But though itwasSharp, Clarkson, Wilberforce, and the rest

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.167oLthatillustrious hostofcultured, lofty-souled, just, merciful, and beneficent men, who were thusthesaviours, as well astheservants,ofsociety,yethave we seen it possible for an Englishman ,of to-day to mouth against their memorytheineptitudes of their long-van quished foes, and,to theconsecrated dead in their graves, as the Bceotian did the living Pericles inthemarket-placeofAthens!Whywaste words and time on this defamer of his own countrymen, who, on account ofthematerial gainandthequestionable martial glory oftheconquest, eulogizesWarrenHas tings,theviceregal plunderer of India, whilst,inthe same breath, he denouncesEdmundBurke for upholdingtheimmutable principles of right and justice!Theseprinciples once, and indubitably now, so precious in their fullest integrity tothenormal British conscience, must henceforth, say Mr. Froude and his fellow-colonialists, be scored off the moral code of Britain, sincethey"do notpay"in tangiblepelf,in self-aggrandisement, or in dazzling prestige. Thestatement that many negroes who were sold tothedealers in the factorieswere"slaves

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168FROTJDACITY. already to worsemasters"is, intheface of facts which could not possibly have been un known to him, a pieceofvery daring assertion.Butthis should excite no wonder, consideringthatpreciseandscrupulous accuracy wouldbefatal tothediscreditable cause to which he so shamelessly proclaims his adhesion. As being familiar since early childhood with mem bersofalmost every tribeofAfricans (mainly fromorarriving by wayoftheWestCoast) who were brought toourWestIndies, we are in a position to contradicttheabove assertionofMr. Froude's, its unfaltering confidence not withstanding.Wehave hadtheMadingoes, Foulahs, Houssas, Calvers, Gallahs, Karamen ties, Y orubas, Aradas,Can gas, Kroos, Timnehs, Veis, Eboes, Mokoes, Bibis,andCongoes, asthemost numerousandimportantofthetribal contributionofAfrica tothepopulationofthese Colonies. Now, from what We have intimately learnedofthese people (exceptingtheCongoes, who always appeared to us an inferior tribe to alltheothers), we unhesitatingly deny that even three intenofthe whole number wereeverslaves in their own country, inthesenseofhaving been born under any organized

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.sy.stemofservitude.Theauthentic records relating totheenslavement of Africans, as a regular systematized traffic, do notdatefurther backthanfive centuries ago. It istruethata great portionofancient literature and many monumentsbeardistinct evidence, allthemore impressive because' frequently only casuai, that,fromtheearliest ages,theAfricans had shared,incommon withotherless civilized peoples, the doomofhaving to furnishthemenial and servile contingentsofthemore favoured sectionsofthe human family. Now, datingfrom,say, fivehundredyears ago, which was long indeed afterthedisappearanceoftheold leading empiresoftheworld, we have (save and inthecaseofArabincursionists intotheEasternandNortherncoasts) no re liable authority for saying,oreven for sup posing,thatthetribesoftheAfrican interior suffered fromthemolestationsofprofessional man-hunters. It wastheorganizationoftheWestCoast slave traffic towardsthecloseofthesixteenth century, andtheexterminationoftheCarib bean aborigines by Spain, soon after Columbus had discoveredtheWesternContinent, which

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FROUDACITY.gavecohesion, system, impetus, and aggressive nesstothetradein African fleshandblood. Then thefactory dealers did not waitattheir seaboard mart, as our author wouldhaveus suppose, forthehuman merchandize to be brought down to them.The auri sacra fames,theaccursed craving for gain, was too im perious for that.FromtheAtlantic border to as far inland as their emissaries could penetrate, their bribes, in every. speciesofexchangeable commodities, were scattered amongthe ra pacious chiefs ontheriverbanks;while these latter, incited as wellbynative ferocity as by lust of gain, rushed forth to"makewar"ontheir neighbours,andto kidnap, for sale to the white purchaser, every man, woman, and child they could capture amidstthenocturnal flames, confusion, tumult,andterror resulting from their unexpected irruption.Thatthepoor people thus capturedandsold into foreign bondage were underworse mastersthanthoseunderwhom they, on being actually boughtandbecoming slaves, were doomed to ex perience alltheatrocitiesthathave thrilled with horrortheconscienceofthecivilized Christian world, is a statementofworse than

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SOCIALREVOLUTION. IF childish absurdity.Everyone,except Mr. Froudeandhis fellow-apologists for slavery, knowsthatthecruelty of savage potentates is summary, un calculating, and, therefore, merciful in its ebullitions. Aheadwhiskedoff,brains dashed out;orsome othershortformof savage dispatch,isthepreferential method of destruc tion.Withour author'sbettermasters, there wasthelong,drearyvicissitude, beginning from the horrorsofthecapture,andending perhaps years upon years after, in some bushorunder the lash ofthedriver.Theintermediate stagesofthestarvation lifeofhunger, chains, and hideous exposureatthebarancoon,the away like herrings on boardthenoisome ship,thesuffocation,the wrought intothebodybytheattritionofthebonier partsofthesystem againsttheunyield ingwood-allthese, says Mr. Froude, were more tolerablethantheswift doing aw'ay with lifeunderan Africanmaster!Undersuch, at all events,thecare and comfort suitable to age were strictll:' providedfor"and cheered the advanced yearsofthefaithful bondsman. After a good dealoftalk, havingthesame logical value, our author, in his enthusiasm for

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FROUDACITY.slavery, himselfthus:"Formyself, I wouldratherbetheslaveofa Shakespeareora Burghley, thantheslave of a majority in theHouseofCommons,ortheslaveofmy own folly."Ofthefour above specified alternativesofenslavement, it is toberegrettedthattemperament,orwhat is more likely, perhaps, self interest, has driven him to acceptthefourth,orthelatterofthetwo deprecated yokes, his book being an irrefutable testimony tothefact. For, most assuredly,ithas not beenatthe promptingofwisdomthata learned man of unquestionably brilliant talents and some measureofaccorded fame could have prosti tuted those talentsandtarnishedthatfame by condescending tobethe literary spokesmanoftheset for whose miserable benefit he recommendsthestatesmenofhis country to perjureandcompromise themselves, regardlessofinevitable consequences, whichthevalue ofthesectionalsatisfaction to be thereby given wouldbutvery poorly compensate. Possibly aHouseofCommons majority, whom this dermatophilist evidently rates far lower thanhis"Anglo-West Indians," might, ifhewere their slave, have protected their own self-

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SOCIALREVOLUTION.173respectbyrestraining him from vicariously scandalizing thembyhis effusions.Afterthiscurious boast about his prefer ences as a hypothetic bondsman, Mr.Froudeproceeds gravelytoinform his readersthat It there maybeauthorityyetnotslavery;a soldier is not a. slave, a wife is not a slave ..."andhecontinues, with a viewofutilizing these platitudes againsttheobnoxious Negro, by telling usthatpersons sustainingtheabove specified and similarrelations"may not livebytheir own wills,oremancipate them selvesattheir own' pleasure from positions in which nature has placed them,orinto which they have themselves voluntarily entered.ThenegroesoftheWestIndies are children, and notyetdisobedient children....Ifyou en force self-government upon them whentheyare not asking for it, you may ... wilfully drivethemback intotheconditionoftheir ancestors, from which the slave-trade. was the beginning ofther emancipation"! Thewords which wehavesignalized by italics intheabove extract couldhavebeen conceived only by abigot-suchanatrocious sentiment being possible only astheproductofmindormorals

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174FROUDACITY.wrenched hopelesslyoutofnormal action. Alltheremainderofthis hashing upofpointless commonplaces has for its double object a suggestz"b/alsz" against us Negroes as a body,anda divertingofattention, as we have proved before, fromthenumerous British claimants of Reform, whose personality Mr.Froudeand his friends would keepoutofview, provided their crafty policy hastheresultofeffectually re pressingthehitherto irrepressible, and, as such, tothe"Anglo-WestIndian," truly detestable Negro.

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WESTINDIAN INheedless formulation of his reasons, if such they should be termed, for urging tooth andnailthenon-accordingofreform totheCrown governed Colonies, our author puts forth this dogmatic deliverance(p.123):-"AWestIndian self-governing dominion is possible only with a full Negro vote.Ifthe whites are to combine, so will the btacks. Itwillbe a rule by the blacksandfor the blacks. "Thata constitution for any of our diversely populated Colonies which may be fit for it is possible onlywith"afullNegrovote"(to the extent withinthecompetenceofsuch voting), goes without saying, as must bethecase with every sectionoftheQueen's subjects eligibleforthe franchise.Theduly qualified Spaniard,

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FROUDACITY.Coolie, Portuguese,ormanofanyothernon British race, will each thus have a vote, the same as every Englishman 'or any.otherBriton. Why, then, shouldthevoteoftheNegrobeso especially abugbear?Itisbecause theNegroisthegame which our political sports manisin full chase of,anddetermined to hunt downat any cost. Granted, however, for the sake of arg-ument, thatblack voters should pre ponderateatany election, whatthen?Weare gravely told by this latter-day Balaamthat"Ifthewhites are to combine, so willtheblacks,"buthedoes not say for what purpose.Hissentence, therefore, maybelegitimately constructed in full for him intheonly sense which is applicable tothemutual relations actually existing between those two directly specified sectionsofBritish subjects who he would fain havetheworld believe live in a stateofactive hostility:-"Ifthewhites are to combineforthe promotionofthe general welfare,asmanyofthe foremostofthemhavedone before andare doing now,sowilltheblacks alsocombineinthe support ofsuch whites,andas staunch auxilaries equally interested in the furtheranceofthe. same ameliorative

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.177 Exceptinthesense embodied intheforegoing sentence, we cannot, in these days, conceive with what intent personsofone section should so specially combine as to compel combination on thepartofpersons of any other.Thefurther statementthata con federation having a full black voting-power wouldbeagovernment"bythe. blacks andforthe blacks," isthelogical converse ofthenow obsolete doctrineofMr.Froude'sinspirers"a government by whites should be only for whites."Butthis formula, however strenuously insisted on by those whogaveit shape, could never, since even before three decades from the first introduction of African slaves,bethoroughlyputin practice, so completelyhadcircumstances beyond man's devisingorcontrol compelledthe alteting ofmen's mindsandmethods with regard to the new interestswhichhadirresistibly forced themselves into importance as vital items in political arrange ments. Nowadays, therefore,thatMr.Froudeshould desiretocreate astateoffeelingwhichhad,and could have had, no existence' with regard tothecommon interests oftheinhabi tants for upwards of two full centuries. is12

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FROUDACITY.evidently an excess of confidence which can only be truly described as But, afterall, what does our author mean bythewords"a governmentbytheblacks"?Arewetounderstand him as suggestingthatvoting by black electors would be synonymous with electing black representatives?Ifso,hehas clearly to learn much more thanhebas shownthathelacks, in order to understand and appreciatethevital influencesatwork in West Indian affairs. Undoubtedly, beingthe manofthe few who (secretly) avow themselves to be particularly hostile to Ethiopians,hehas done no morethanreproduce their sentiments. F or, conscious, as these hankerers aftertheold institutions" are,ofbeing utterly ineligibleforthe furtheringofmodern progressive ideas, they revenge themselves for their supersessiononeverybody and everything, save and except their own arrogant stolidity.Whiteindividualswhohavepartand lot inthevarious Colonies,withtheir hearts and feelings swayed by affections natural to their birthandearliest associations; andWhiteswhohavecome to thinktheland of their adoption as dear to themselves as the land of their birth, entertain no such dreadof

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.179their fellow-citizensofany other section, whom they estimateaccording.to intelligence and probity, and not according to any accidentofexterior physique.Everyintelligent black isasshrewd regarding his own interests as our author himself would be regarding his inthefo119winghypothetical case:Some fine day, being a youth and a bachelor, he gets wedded, sets upanestablishment, and becomestheowner of a clipper yacht.Forhis own serviceinthe above circumstances we give himthecredit to believe that, onthepersons specifiedbelowapplying among others to him for em ployment, as chamber-maidandhouse-servant;andalso as hands for the vessel, he would, in preference to any ordinarily recommended white applicants,atonce engage the two black servantgirlsatPresident Churchill's in Dominica, the droghermen there as able seamen, and as cabinboythe lad amongst them whose precocious marine skill he has so warmly and justly extolled.It is not because all these persons areblack,but because ofthesoul-consciousness oftheselector,thatthey each (were they evenblue)had a title to preferential consideration,hisexperienceandsenseoffitness being

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180FROUDACITY.their most effectual supporters. Similarly, the Negro voter would elect representatives whom he knew he could trust for competency in the management of his affairs, and not persons whose sale recommendation to him wouldbethe possession of the same kind skin. Nor, from what we knowofmatters in the West Indies, do we believethatany white manoftheclass we have eulogized would hesitate to give his warmest suffrage to any black candidate who he knew would be a fitting representativeofhis interests.Wecould give examples from almost everyWestIndian islandofwhite and coloured men who wouldbeindiscriminately chosen as candidatebyeither section. Buttheenumeration is needless, as the fact oftheexistenceofsuch menistoonotorious to require proof. Mr.Froudestates plainly enough (p.123) 'that, whereas a whole thousand yearswereneeded to train and disciplinetheAnglo-Saxon race, yet"Europeangovernment, European instruction, continued steadily till his natural tendencies are superseded by a higher instinct, may shorten the probation periodofthe negro."Letit be supposedthatthis period of probation

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.181forthe Negro should extend, under such excep tionally favourable circumstances, to any period less than that which is alleged to have been needed bytheAnglo-Saxon to attain his poli ticalmanhood-whatthen aretheprospects held out by Mr. Froude to us arid our posterityonour masteringthetraining and discipline whichhespecially recommends for Blacks? Our author,inview, doubtless, oftherapidity of our onward progress, and indeed our actual advancement in every respect, thus answers (pp. 123-4):-"Leta generation or two passbyand carry away with them the old traditions,and an English governor-general will be found presiding over a black council, deliveringthespeeches made for him by a black prime minister; and how long could thisendure?NoEnglish gentleman would consent to occupy so absurd a situation." And again, more emphatically, the same point(p.285):-"NoEnglishman, not even a bankrupt peer, would consent to occupy such a position;theblacks themselves would despisehimif hedid;and if the governor is to be one of their own raceandcolour, how long would such a connectionendure?"

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FROUDACITY.It is plainly to be seen fromtheabove two extractsthatthe political ethics of our author, being based on race and colour exclusively, would, admit of no conceivable chanceofreal elevation to any descendantofAfrica,who,being Ethiopian, could not possibly change his skin.The"old traditions" which Mr. Frqude supposes to be carried away by his hypothetical (white) generations who have"passedby," we readily infer from his language, rendered impossible such incarnationsofpolitical ab surdity as those he depicts. But what should be thought of the sense,ifnot indeed the sanity,ofa grave political teacher who pre scribes" European government"and"European education" asthespecifics to qualify the Negro for political emancipation, and who, when these qualifications are conspicuously mastered bytheNegro who has undergone the train ing, refuses him the prize,becauseheisaNegro?Wesee further that, in spite of being fit for election to council, and even tobeprime ministers competent to indite governors' messages, the pigment under our epidermis dooms us to eventual disappointment and a life-long conditionofcontempt.Evensoisit

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UtEST INDIANCONFEDERATION.183desiredbyMr.Froudeand his clients, and not without a spiceofpiquancy is their opinion that for a white rulertopresideandrule over and accept the best assistanceofcoloured men, qualified as above stated, wouldbea self degradation too unspeakable for toleration by anyEnglishman-"even abankruptpeer." Unfortunately for Mr. Froude, we can point himtopage56ofthis his very book, where, speak ingofGrenadaanddeprecating the notionofits official abandonment, our author says:-'"Otherwise they[NegroesJ were quiet fellows, and ifthepoliticians wo'uld only let them alone, they would be perfectly contented, and might eventually,ifwisely managed, come to some good....Blacktheisland was,andblack itwouldremain. The conditions were never likely toarise which would bri1zg back a European population>" buta governor who was a sensible man, who would reside and use his natural influence, could manage it with perfect ease." Here, then,we.seethatthegovernorofan entirely black population may be a sensibleman,andyet,hold the post.Ourauthor, in deed, gives the Blacks over whom this sensible governor would hold rule as being in number

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FRO UDA CITY.just4,000souls; and we are therefore bound to accept the implied suggestionthatthe dis honour of holding supremacy over' persons of the odious colour beginsjustas their number begins' to count onward from40,000!'Thereis quite enough in the above verbal vagaries of our philosopher to provoke a volume ofcomment.Butwe must pass on to further clauses of this precious paragraph. Mr. Froude's talent for eating his own words neverhada more striking illustration than here, in his denial of the utilityofnative experience as the safest guide a governor could have intheadministra tion of Colonial affairs.Atpage 9Ihe says:"Amongthepublic servantsofGreat Britain there are persons always to be found fit and willing forpostsofhonourand difficulty, ifa sincereeffQrtbe made to find them." A post of honour and difficulty,weandallother persons intheBritish dominions hadallalong understood was regarded as such in the case of functionaries called' upon to contend with adverse forces intheaccomplishmentofgreat ends conceivedbytheir superiors.Butwe find that, according to Mr. Froude,allthe creditthathas hitherto redounded to those

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.185whohad succeeded in such tasks has beeninreality nothing more than a gilding over of disgrace, whenevertheexertionsofsuch officials had beenputforth amongst persons not wearing a European epidermis.Theex tension of British influence and dominion over regions inhabited by races not white is there fore. on thepart of those who promote it, a perverse openingofarenas for the humiliation and disgraceofBritish gentlemen, nay, even of those titled members ofthe"blacksheepIIfamily-bankruptpeers!Aswehave seen, however, ample contradiction and refutation have been considerately furnished by the same objector in this same volume, as in his praises of the governorjustquoted.Thecavil of Mr. Froude about English gentlemen reading messages penned by black prime ministers applies with double force to English barristers (who aregentlemenby statute) receivingthelaw fromthelipsofblack judges. F or all that, however, an emergency arosesopressing as to compel eventhecolonialism of Barbados to practically and completely refute this doctrine, by praying for, and submitting with gratitude to,thesupreme headshipofa

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186FROUDACITY.manofthe race which our author so finically depreciates.Inaddition it may be observed that for a governor to even consult his prime minister in the matterofpreparing his mes sages might conceivably be optional, whilst itisobligatory on all barristers, whether English or otherwise, to defer tothejudge's interpretationofthe law in everycase-appealafterwards being the only remedy.Asto the dictum that"thetwo races are not equal and will not blend," it is open tothefatal objection that, having himself proved, with sympathizing pathos, how theWestIndies are now well-nigh denuded of their Anglo-Saxon inhabitants, Mr. Froude would have us also understandthatthe miserable remnant who still complaininglyinhabit those islands must, by doing violencetothe understanding, be taken as the wholeofthe world-pervading Anglo-Saxon family.TheNegroes of the West, Indies number a good deal niore than two million souls. Does this suggesterofextravagances mean that the prejudices and vain conceitofthefewdozens whom he champions should be made to over rideandoverbear, in political arrangements, the serious and solid 'interests of so many

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.187hundredsofthousands?That"thetwo races are not equal is a statement which no sane man would dispute,butacquiescence in its truth involves also a distinct understandingthatthe word race, as applied inthepresent casebyour author, is a simple accommodation of terms-afashionofspeech having a very restricted meaning in this serious discussion.TheAnglo-Saxon race pervadesGreatBritain, its cradle, and theGreaterBritain. ex tending almost all overthefaceoftheearth, which isthearenaofits activitiesandmarvel lous achievements.Totell us, therefore, as Mr. Froude does,thatthehandfulofmalcontents whose unrespectable grievanceheholds up to public sympathy representstheAnglo Saxon race, is a grotesque fafon.deparler. Takingourauthor's"Anglo-WestIndians"and the peopleofEthiopian descent respectively, it would notbetoo much to assert, nor in any wise difficult to prove by facts and figures,thatforevery competent individualoftheformer section in active civilized employments,thecoloured section canputforwardatleast twenty thoroughly competent rivals.Yetarethese latterthepeople whom the classic Mr.

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188FROUDACITY.F roude wishes tobeimmolated, root and branch,iIiall their highestanddearest interests, inorderto securethemaintenanceof"old tra ditions" which,hetells us,guaranteedfor the dominant cuticlethesacrificeofthehappinessofdown-troddenthousands!Referring to his hypothetical confederation with its black office holders,ourauthorscornfully asks:" Andhow long would thisendure?"Theanswer must be. that,grantingtheexist enceofsuch astateofthings, its duration wouldbenotmore nor lessthanunderwhite functionaries. F oraccording to himself (p. 124): Thereis no originalorcongenital differenceofcapacitybetween"thewhiteandblack races,and"withthesame chancesandthesame treatment, ... distinguishedmenwould be produced equally from both races."If,therefore,theblack ministers whose hueheso much despises do possessthetraining and influence renderingthemeligibleandsecuringtheirelection tothesituations weareconsider ing,itmust followthattheirtenureofoffice wouldbeofequal duration withthatofindividualsofthewhite raceunderthesame conditions.Notcontentwith making him-

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.189self the mouthpieceofEnglish gentlemen in this matter, our author, with characteristic hardihood, obtrudes himself intothesame postonbehalfofNegroes;saying that, intheevent of even a bankrupt peer accepting the situation of governor-general over them,"Theblacks themselves would despisehim"!Mr.. Froude may pertinently,beasked herethe.source whence he derived his certainty on this point, inasmuch asitisabsolutelyatvariance with allthatis sensible and naturaljforsurely it is both foolish and monstrous td supposethateducated men would infer the degradationofanyonefromthefactofsuch a one consenting to governandco-operate with themselves for their own Hefurther asks on the same subject:-"Andif the governor is to be oneoftheirownrace and colour, how long could such a connectionendure?" Our answer mustbethe same as with regard tothedurationofthe black council and black prime minister carrying out the govern ment under the same conditions. It must be regretted that no indication in his book, sofarasitprofesses to deal with facts and with

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FROUDACITY.persons not within the circle of his clients, would justify a belief that its wanton misstate ments have filtrated through a mind entitledtodeclare, with the authority ofwhat a gentleman would or would not do under given circumstances.Inreiteration of his favourite doctrineofthe antagonism between the black and white races, our author continues on the same pagetosay:-"Noone,I presume, would advisethatthe whitesofthe island should govern.The rela tons between the two populations are em bittend, and equality once established bylaw,the exclusvejwvlege ofcolour overcolourcannot be restored. Whle slavery contnued, the whz'tes ruled effectively andeconomically,the blacks are now as they." As far as could possibly be endeavoured, every proof has been crowded into this bookinrefutationofthis favourite allegationofMr. Froude's.Itis only an idle wasteoftime to be thus harping on his colour topic.Noonecan deserve to govern simply because heiswhite, and no one is bound to be subject simply because heisblack.ThewholeofWest

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION. 191 Indian history, even after the adventofthe attorney-class, proves this, in spite of the efforts to secure exclusive white dominationata time when crude political power might have secured it. "Therelations betweenthetwo populations are too embittered," says Mr. Froude.Nodoubt his talk on this point would be true, had any such skin-dbminancy as he contem plates been officially established; but asatpresent most officials are appointed (locallyatleast) according to their merit, and not to their epidermis, nothing is known of the embittered relations so constantly dinned into our ears. Whatever bitterness exists is intheminds of those gentry who would like to be dominantonthe cheap condition of showing a simple bodily accident erected by themselves into an evidence and proofofsuperiority."Theexclusive privilegeofcolour over colour cannot be restored." N everinthe history of the BritishWestIndies-mustwe againstate-wasthere any law or usage estab lishing superiority in privileges for any sec tion of the community on accountofcolour. This of fact is alsoandagain an answer to, and refutationof,the succeeding alle-

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FROUDACITY.gation that,"Whileslavery continued, the whtes ruledeffectively and economically." It will be yet more clearly shown in a laterpartofthis essay that during slavery, in fact for upwards of two centuries after its introduction, the West Indies were ruled byslave-owners,who happened to beofall colours,themeansofpurchasing slaves and having a plantation beingtheone exclusive consideration in the case. Itis,therefore, contrary to fact to represent the Whites exclusively as ruling, andtheBlacks indiscriminately as subject.Hegoes on to say, Thereare two classes in the community; their interests are opposite as they are now understood."Asregards the above, Mr. Froude's attention may be calledtothe fact that classification in no department of science has ever been based on colour, but on re lative affinity in certain salient qualities. To use his own no horseordog is more or less a horse or dog because it happens tobewhiteorblack.Noteacher marshals his pupils into classes according to any outward physical distinction, but according to intellectual ap proximation.Inlike manner there has been wealth for hundreds of menofEthiopic origin,

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.193and poverty for hundredsofmenofCaucasian origin, andthereverse in both cases.Wehave, therefore, had :hundredsofblack as well as white men who, under providential dispensa tion, belonged totheclass, rich.men;while, .theotherhand, we have had hundredsofwhite men. who, under providential dispensa tion, belonged to class, poor men. Simi larly, inthecompositionofa free mixed community, we have hundredsofboth races belongingtotheclass, competentandeligible; and hundredsofboth races belonging, totheclass, incompetentandineligible:tobothofwhich classes all possible colours might belong.Itisfrom the first mentionedthatare selected those who aretobeartherule,towhichthelatter class is, intheverynatureofthings, bound to be subject.Thereis nogovernmentbyreason merelyofskins.Thediversityofindividual intelligenceandcircumstances is large enough to embracethepossibilityofeven children being, in emergencies,themost com petent influencersofopinionandaction. But let us analyse thismatterforjusta while more.Thefatal objection to all Mr. Froude's advocacyofcolour-domination is that13

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194FROUDACITY.ItISfutile from being morally unreasonable. In viewofthenaturalandabsolute impossi bilityofrevivingthe same external conditions under whichtheinordinate deference and sub mission to white persons were both logically and inevitably engenderedandmaintained, his efforts to talk people into a frameofmind favourable to his views on this subject are but a melancholy waste of well-turned sentences.Man'sestimateofhis fellow-man has not and never can have anyotherstandard, save and except what istheoutcomeofactual circum stances influencing his sentiment.Inthe primitive ages, when the fruitsoftheearth formedtheabsorbing objectofattention and interest,themen most distinguished for successfulculture ofthesoil enjoyed, as a consequence, a larger share than othersofpopular admiration and esteem. Similarly, among nomadic tribes,thehunters whose couragecoped victoriously withthewildandferocious denizensofthe forest becametheidolsofthose who witnessedandwere preservedbysuch sylvan exploits.Whenmen came.atlengthtoventurein shipsoverthetrackless deep in pursuitofcommerce and its gains,themarinergrewimportantin

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WESTINDiANCONFEDERATION.195public estimation.Thepursuitofcommerce and its gains led naturally tothepossession of wealth. This, fromthequasi-omnipotence with which it invests men enabling them not only to commandthebest energies,butalso,in many cases,tosubvert the very principlesoftheirfellows-has,inthevast majorityofcases, an overpowering sway on human opinion: a swaythatwill endure till the Millennium shall have secured fortherighteous alonethesovereigntyoftheworld. Likewise, as cities were founded and constitu tions established, those who were foremost as defendersofthenational interests,onthefieldofbodily conflictorintheintellectual arena, became intheeyes of their contemporaries worthiestofappreciation-andso onofother circumstances through which particular personal distinctions created claims to preference. Inthespecial caseoftheNegroeskidnapped out of Africa into foreign bondage,thecrowning item in their assessmentoftheir alien enslaverswastheuttersuperiority,overtheirmost re doubtable" big men," which those enslavers-dis played.Theyactually subjugatedandputin chains, likethecommonest peasants, native

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FROUDACITY.potentatesatwhose very names eventhewarrior hoodoftheir tribes had been wont to blench.But far surpassing even this. in awful effectwasthedoom metedouttothebush-handlers, the medicine-men,therain-compeIIers, erewhilesoinscrutably potent for working out the blissorthebaleoffriendorenemy."Lo,fromnomountain-top, from no ceiba-hollow intheforest recesses, has issued any interposing sign, any avenging portent, to vindicatetheSpirit of Darkness so fouIIy outraged inthehitherto inviolate personofhis chosen minister! Verily, eventhepowersofthemidnight are impotent against these invaders from beyondthemighty salt-water! Here, huddled together inconfused, hopeless miseryandruin, lie, fettered and prostrate, even priest as well as poten tate, undistinguishable victimsofcrude;unblenching violence, with its climaxofnefarious sacrilege.We,common mortals, therefore,canhope for no deliverance from,oreven succour in, woful plight thus dismally contrivedforus all bythefair-skinned race who havenowbecomeourmasters." Such was naturally the trainofthought that ranthroughthose forlorn bosoms.Theformidable death-dealing guns

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WESTINDIAN.CONFEDERATION.197of the invaders, the ships whichhadbrought them to the African shores,andmuch besides in startling contra,st to their own condition of utter helplessness, the Africansatonce inter preted to themselves asthemanifestation and inherent attributesofbeings of a higher order than man.Theirskin, too,thedifference whereof from their own had been accentuated by many calamitous incidents, washitupon as the reasonofso crushinganascendency.Whiteskin therefore became, in those dis consolate eyes,thesymbol of fearful irresistible power: which impression was notatall weakened afterwards bytheineffable atrocitiesofthe"middle-passage." Backed ultimatelybytheir absoluteandirresponsible masterhoodathome over the deported Blacks,theEuropeanabduc tors could easily render permanent intheminds of their captivestheabject terror struck into them bytheenormitiesofwhich theyhadbeen the victims. Now,.theimpressions we touched upon before bringing forwardthecaseoftheNegro slaves were mainly produced by plea surable circumstances.Butofa contrary nature and much more deeply graven are those senti ments which aretheoutcomeofhopeless terror

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FROUDACITY.andpain.Forwhilst impressionsoftheformer character glide intotheconsciousness through accesses no less normal than agreeable,theinfusionoffearbymeansofbodily suffering is a process too violent tobeforgotten by minds to!tured and strained to unnatural tension there by.Suchtension, oft-recurrentandscarcely endqrable, leaves behinditrecollections which are in themselves a sourceofsadness. But time,favouredbya successionofpleasurable experiences, is a sovereign anodyne to remem brancesof !his poignant class.Nowonder, then, from our foregoing detailoffacts, that whitenessofskin was both redoubted and tremblingly crouched to by Negroes on whom Europeanshadwrought such unspeakable calamities. Time, however,andtheactionofcircumstances, especially in countries subjecttoCatholic dominion, soon began to modify the conditionsunderwhich this sentimentofterrorhadbeen maintained. and, with those condi tions,thevery sentiment itself. Foritwasnot long inthelifeofmanyoftheexpa triated Africans before membersoftheirownrace obtained freedom, and, eventually, wealth sufficient for purchasing black slaves on their

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WESTINDIANCONFEDERATION.199own account.Inotherrespects, too (outwardly at least),theprosperous careerofsuch in dividual Blacks could not fail to induce a revulsionofthought, wherebytheattribution of unapproachable powers exclusively totheWhites became amatterearnestly reconsidered by the Africans. Centuriesofsuch reconsidera tionhaveproducedthenatural result ip. theWestIndies.Withthedaily competition in intelligence, refinement,andsocialandmoral distinction, which timeandeventshavebroughtabout between individualsofthetwo races, nothing, surely, has resulted, nor has even been indicated, to re-infuse the ancient colour-dread into minds whichhadformerly been forced to entertainit;and still lesstoengenderitin bosoms to which such a feeling cannot, inthevery natureofthings,beaninborn emotion. Now, can Mr.Froudeshow us by what process he would.beable to infuse inthesoulofan entire population a sentiment which is both unnaturalandbeyond compulsion?Theforegoing remarks roughly apply to pre eminence given to outward distinction, andtheconditions under which mainly it impressesandisaccepted by mennotyetarrivedatthe

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200FROUDACITY.essentially intellectual stage.Inthespiritual domain the conditions have ever been quite different.A belief inthesupernatural being inborn in man, the 'professorsofknowledge and powers beyond natural attainment were by common consent accorded a distinct and superior consideration, deemed proper to the sacrednessoftheir progression.Hencethe supremacyofthepriestly caste in every age and countryoftheworld. Potentate as well as peasant have bowed in reverence beforeit,as representing and declaring with authority the counsels ofthatBeing whom all, priest, poten tate and peasant alike, acknowledge and adore, each according to the measureofhis inwardillumination.

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THElaziness,theincurable idleness,oftheNegro, was, both immediately beforetheiremancipation in 1838,andfor long years afterthatevent,thecuckoo-cryoftheir white detractors.Itwas laziness, pure and simple, which hinderedtheNegrofrom exhausting himselfundera tropical sun, toilingatstarva tion wages to ensure for his quondam master the meansofbeinganidler himself, withtheadditionalluxuryofrolling in easily come,-by wealth.Withinthelast twenty years, however, the historyoftheBlack Man, both intheWestIndies and,betterstill, intheUnitedStatesofAmerica, has been a successionofachievements which have convertedthechargeoflaziness into a baseless and absurd calumny.Therepetitionofthecharge referred to is, in these

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202FRO UDA CITY.waning daysofthenineteenth century, a dis credited anachronism,which, however, has no deterring features for Mr. Froude.Asthe running downoftheNegrowas his cue) he went in boldly forthegame, with what result we shall presently see.Atpage239,our author, speakingoftheNegrogarden-farms in Jamaica, says:.-"Themale proprietors wereloungingaboutsmoking.Theirwives, asitwas market-day, were tramping intoKingstonwith their baskets on their heads.Wemetthemliterallyinthousands, all merryandlight-hearted, their little ones with little baskets trudgingattheir side.Ofthelords of the creation.we saw, perhaps, one to each hundredofthewomen,andhewouldberiding on muleordonkey, pipe in mouthandcarrying nothing.Hewould be generallysulkytoo, whiletheladies, young and old,hada civil word for us,andcurtsied under their loads. Decidedly ifthereis tobea black constitution I will givemy vote tothewomen."Totheabove direct imputationofindolence, heartlessness,andmoroseness, Mr. Froude appendsthefollowing remarks onothermoral characteristicsofcertain sable peasants at

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THENEGROASAWORKER.203Mandeville, Jamaica, given ontheauthorityofa police official, who,ourauthor says, described themas-"Good-humoured, but not universally honest.Theystole cattle,andwould not give evidence against each other.Ifbrought into Court, they held a pebble in their mouth, beingundertheimpressionthat when they were so provided, perjury did not count.Their education was only skin-deep,andtheschoolswhich the Govern ment providedhadnot touched their characters at all."Buthow couldtheeducation so provided be otherwisethanfutile whentheadministration of its details is entirely inthehandsofpersons unsympathizing with and utterly despisingtheNegro?Butofthis more anon and elsewhere.Weresume Mr.Froude'sevidence respecting the black peilsantry. Ourauthor proceeds to admit, onthesame subject,thathis informant's duties(as a police official)"broughthim in contact withtheunfavourable specimens."Headds:-"I received a far pleasanter impression from a Moravian minister. ...I was particularly glad to see this gentleman, for oftheMoravians

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2FROUDACITY.everyonehad spoken well to me.Hewas nottheleast enthusiastic about his poor black sheep,buthe said thatifthey were notbetterthan the average English labourer,hedid not think them worse.Theywere calledidle;they would work well enoughiftheyhadfairwagesandifthe wages werepaidregularly,.but what couldbe expected when women servantshadbut three shillings a weekandfoundthemselves, when themenhadbut a shillng a dayandthepaywas kept inarrearinorder thatiftheycamelatetowork, or iftheycameirregularly,itmaybe kept backor cut downto what the emfloyerchoosetogive?Under such conditz"ons ANYmanofANYcolour would prefe1' towork for himselfifhehada garde1z, orwouldbeidleifhehadnone."Take,again,thefollowing extract regardingtheheroismoftheemigrants totheCanal:" I walked forward" (onthesteamerbound to Jamaica),"afterwehaddone talking.Wehad five hundredofthepoor creatures on their way totheDarien pandemonium.Thevessel was rolling with a heavy beam sea. I found the whole massofthem reduced to the conditionofthepigs who used to occupythefore decks ontheCork and Bristol packets.Theywere

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THENEGROASAWORKER.205lying in a confusedheaptogether, helpless, miserable, without consciousness, apparently, save a sense in eachthathewas wretched. Unfortunate brothers-in-law! followingthelaws of political economy, and carrying their labour to thedearest market, where, before a year was out, halfofthem were to die.They had souls,too,some of them, and honest and kindly hearts." It surely is refreshing to read the revelation of his first learningofthepossessionofa soul by a fellow-human being, thus artlessly described by one who is said to beanex-parson.ButpiquancyisMr. Froude's,strongpoint, whatever else he maybefound wanting in. Still,apartfromMr.Froude'sdirect testi mony tothefactthatfrom year to year, during a long seriesofyears,therehas been a con tinu
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206FROUDACITY.andTrinidadby sable proprietors.Landcan notbebought without money, nor can money be possessed exceptthroughlabour,andthe factthatso many tensofthousand Blacks are nowthehappy ownersofthesoil whereon,inthe days so bitterly regretted by our author, their forefathers' tears, nay, very hearts' blood, had been caused toflow,oughtto silence foreveran accusation, which, wereiteven true, would be futile, and, being false, is worse than disgraceful, coming fromthelipsoftheEu molpids who would fain impose a not-to-be questioned yoke on us poor helots of Ethiopia. It is saidthatlying istheviceofslaves;buttheethicsofWestIndian would-be mastership assert, on its behalf,thattheyalone should enjoytheprivilegeofresorting to misrepre sentation to give colour, if not solidity, to pretensions.

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101MR.FROUDE'Spassing on from matters secular to matters spiritual and sacred was a transition to be expected inthecourseofthe grave and complicated discussion which he had volunteered to initiate. Itwas,therefore, not without curiositythathis views inthedirection above indicated were sought forandearnestly scru tinizedbyus.Butworsethanin histreatmentof purely mundane subjects, his attitudehereismarkedbya nonchalant levity which excites our wonderthatevenheshouldhavetouched uponthespiritual sideofhis thesisatall.Theideaofthedove sent forth fromthearkfluttering overtheheaving swellsofthedeluge, in vain endeavourtosecure a rest forthesolesofits feet, represents not inaptlytheunfortunate pre dicament of his spirit with regard to a solid

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208FROUDACITY.faith on which to repose amidthesurges ofdoubtbywhichitis so evidently beset. Yet although this is his obvious plight with regard to a satisfying belief, he nevertheless under takes, with characteristic confidence, to suggest a creed forthemoralizationofWestIndian Negroes. H is language is:-"A religion,atanyrate, which will keep theWestI ndian blacks from falling back into devil-worship is still to seek. In spiteofthe priests, child-murderandcannibalism have re appeared in Hayti,butwithoutthemthings might havebeenmuch worsethantheyare, andthepreservationofwhite authorityandinfluence inanyformatall maybebetterthan none."Wediscern intheforegoing citation the exercise of a charitythatis unquestionably bornoffetish-worship, which, whetheritbe obeah generally,orrestricted to a mere human skin, canbeso powerful anagentintheforma tionandretentionofbeliefs.Hencewe seethatourphilosopher relies here, inthedomainofmoralsandspiritual ethics, on a white skin as implicitly as he does on its sovereign potency in secular politics.Thecuriousness of thematterlies mainly in its application to natives

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.209of Hayti,ofall people intheworld.Asa matter of fact we have had our author declaring as follows, in climax to his pre dictions about West Indian Negroes degenera ting into theconditionoftheir' fellow-Negroesinthe"Black Republic" (p.28'S):-"Wereit worth while, one might draw a picture of an English governor, with a black parliament and a black ministry, recommending, by advice of his constitutional ministers, some measure like the HaytianLandLaw." Now,astheWestI ndies degenerating intosomany'white-folk-detestingHaytis, under our prophet's dreaded supremacy of the Blacks, is the burdenofhisbook;and astheLandLaw in question distinctly forbidstheowning by any white personofeven one inch ofthesoil of the Republic, it might,butfor the above explanation, have seemed unaccountable, in viewoftheimplacable distrust, not to say hatred, which this stern prohibition so clearly discloses,thatour author should, nevertheless, rely ontheefficacy ofwhiteauthority and influence over Haytians. In continuation of his religious suggestions, he goes on to descant upon slavery in the14

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210FROUDACITY.fashion which we have elsewhere noticed, but it may still be proper to add a word or two here regarding this particular disquisitionofhis.This we are happy. in being able to do under the guidanceofananteriorandmore reliable exponentofecclesiastical as well as secular obedience on thepartofall freeand en lightened men inthepresent epoch of the world'shistory:-" Dogma and Descent, potential twin Which erst could rein submissive millions in, Are now spent forces on the eddying surge Of Thought enfranchised. Agencies emerge Unhampered by the incubus of dread Which cramped men's hearts and clogged their onward tread. Dynasty, Prescription! spectral in these days When Science points to Thought its surestways,And men who scorn obedience when not free Demand the logicofAuthority!Theday of manhood to the worldishere, And ancient homage waxes faint and drear. Vision of rapture! See Salvation's plan-'Tisserving God through ceaseless toil for man I"Thelines above quotedareby a West Indian Negro, and explain inveryconcise form the attitude of the educated African mind

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RELIGIONFQRNEGROES.211with reference tothematters they deal with. Mr.Froudeis free to perceivethatno special religion patched up from obsolete creeds could be acceptable to those with whose s,entiments the thoughtsofthewriterjustquotedarein true racial unison. It is preposterous to ex pectthatthesame superstition regarding skin ascendency, which is now so markedly played out inourColonies in temporal matters, could have any weight whatsoever in matters so momentous as morals and religion..Bu.tgrant ing eventhepossibility of any codeofworldly ethicsorofreligion being acceptable onthedermal score so strenuously insisted on by him,itis to be feared that, through sheer respect forthefitnessofthings,theintelligent Negro in searchofguidance in faithandmorals would fail to recognize in our author a guide, philosopher,andfriend, to be followed without the most painful misgivings.TheCatholic andtheDissenting Churches whichhavedone so much forthetemporalandspiritual advance mentoftheNegro, in spiteofhindranceandactive persecution wherever these were possible, are, so far as is visible, maintaining their hold on the adhesion of those who belong to them.

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212 FROUDAC1TY.Anditcannot be pretended that, among en lightened Africans as compared with other enlightened people,therehave been more grievous fallings off fromthescriptural stan dardofdeportment. Possible it certainlyisthatconsiderations akin to, or even identical with, those relied upon by Mr.Froudemight, onthefirst reception of Christianity in their exile,haveoperated effectually uponthemindsofthechildrenofAfrica.Atthattime the evangelizers whose convertsthey.so readily became possessedtherecommendationofbe longing tothedominant caste. Therefore, with the humility proper to their forlorn condition,thepoor bondsmen requited with intense grati tude such beneficent interest on their behalf, as a condescension to which people in their hapless situation could havehadno right. But for many long years,thedistinction whetheroftemporalorofspiritual superiority has ceased tobethe monopolyofanyparticular class. The master and employer has for far more than a centuryanda halfbeenoften representedintheWestIndies by some born African orhisdescendantjand so also hastheteacher and preacher.Itis not too much to say that

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.213the behaviouroftheliberated slaves through outtheBritish Antilles, as well asthede portmentofthemanumitted four million slavesoftheSouthernUnitedStateslater on, bore glorious testimony tothehumanizing effects whichthereligionofcharity, clutchedatand grasped in fragments, and understood with childlike incompleteness,hadproduced within those suffering bosoms.Nothinghas occurred to call for a remodelling of the ordinary moral and spiritual machinery forthespecial behoofofNegroes. Religion, as understood bythebestofmen, is purely a matteroffeeling and action between man andman-thedoing unto others as we would they should do untous;andany creedoranydoctrine whiCh directlyor'indirectly subverts or even weakens this basis is in itself adangerto the highest welfareofmankind.,Thesimple conventional faith in God, in Jesus,andin a future state, however nowadays, has still a vitality which can restrainandennoble its votaries, provided itbeinculcated'andre ceived in a befitting spirit.Ourcritic, in the plenitudeofhis familiarity with such matters, confidently asks:-

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2 14FROUDACITY. U Whois now made wretched bythefear ofhell?" Possiblythebelief inthematerial hell, the decadenceofwhichhehere triumphantly as sumes to be so general, may have considerably diminished;but has shown that, withtheadvanceofrefinement,thereis a con current growth intheintensityofmoral sen sibility, wherebythewaning terrorsofa future material hell are more than replacedbythe agoniesofa conscience self-convictedofwilful violationofthe right. Thesame simple faith has, in its practical results, been rich in the records ofthehumble whom it hasexalted;of the poor to whom it has beenbetterthan wealth;oftherich whose stewardship of worldly prosperity it has sanctified; of the timid whom it has renderedbold;andofthe valiant whom it has raised to a divine heroism-infine,ofmiraclesoftransformation that have impelled to higherandnobler tendenciesandusesthepowers and gifts inherited or acquiredbyman in his natural state.Theywho possess this faith,andcherishitas a price less possession, may calmly oppose to the philosophic reasoning againsttheexistence of

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.215aDeityandtherationalnessofentreatingHimin prayer,thesimple and sufficient declaration, "I believe." Normal-minded men, sensibleofthe limitations of human faculties, never aspire to be wise beyond whatisrevealed.Whatevermight exist beyondthegraveis,so far as man and man in their mutual relations are concerned, not a subjectthatdiscussion can affectorspecu lation unravel.Tobelievers it cannotmatterwhethertheSermon ontheMount embodiesordoes not embody the qualityofethicsthattheesoteric votaries of Mr. Froude's newcreed"doacceptoreven can tolerate.Undertheold creed man's senseofdutykindled in sympathy towards his brother, urging him to achieve by self-sacrificeeverypossibilityof.bene ficence; hencetheold creed insured an inward joy as well as"thepeace which passeth all understanding." There, can beno,room for desiring left, when receptivenessofblessings overflows;anditistheworthiest directionofhuman energy to secure for othersthatfulnessoffruition.IsnotDutythefirst, the highest item ofmoral consciousness;andisnotpro moting, according to our best ability,thewelfare ofourfellow-creatures,thefirst and

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216FRO UDA CITY.mosturgentcall of humanduty?Canthe urgency of such responsibilityevercease but withthecapacity, onourownoron our brother's part, to doorbedone by respec tively? Contemptuously ignoring his share of this solemnresponsibility-solemn,whether regarded from a religiousora purely secular point ofview-toobserveatleastthenegative obligation never to wantonly dooreven devise any harm to his fellows,orindeed any sentient creature,ournew apostle affords, in his light hearted reversaloftheprescriptive methodsofcivilized ethics, a woful foretasteofthemoral resultsofthe."new,not as yet crystallized'> belief, whose trusted instrumentsofspiritual investigationarethetelescope and mental ana lysis, in order to satisfythecarpingsofthose who so impresstheworld with their super human strong-mindedness.Thefollowing is a profound reflection pre senting, doubtless, quite a new revelation to an unsophisticated world, whichhadso long submitted in reverential tameness to the self-evident impossibilityofexploring the Infinite:-"Thetendencyofpopularthoughtis against

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RELIGION,FORNEGROES. 217 the supernatural in any shape.Farinto space as the telescope cansearch, deep as analysis can penetrate into mind and consciousnessortheforces which govern natural things, popular thought finds only uniformity and connectionofcauseandeffect; no sign anywhereofa per sonal will which is influenced by prayerormoral motives."Howmuch tobepitied arethegifted esoterics who,insuch a quest, vainly point their telescopes intothestar-thronged firma ment, and plunge their reasoning powers into the abyssofconsciousness and such like mysteries!Thecommonplace intellectoftheauthorof l< NightThoughts"was, if we may so speak, awed intoanadoring rapture which forced from himtheexclamation (may believers hail it as a dogma!)-"Anundevout astronomerismad!"Most probably it was in weak submission to some such sentiment as thisthatIsaacNewtonnowhere in his writings suggestseventheghostof a doubtofthere being aGreatArchitect oftheUniverse astheoutcomeofhis tele scopic explorations intotheillimitable heavens.

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218FROUDACITY.It is quite possible,. too,thathe was, "on in sufficient grounds," perhaps, perfectly satisfied, as a host ofotherintellectual mediocrities like himself have been, and even uptonow rather provokingly continue to be, withthevery uniformity and connectionofcause and effect"asvisible evidenceoftherebeing not only "a personal will,"buta creative and controlling Power as well.Inthis connection comes to mind a certain old Book which, what ever damage Semitic Scholarship and Modern Criticism may succeed in inflicting on its contents, will always retain forthespiritual guidanceoftheworld enough and to spareofdivine suggestions.Withthe prescience which has beentheheritageoftheinspired in all ages, oneofthewriters inthatBook, whom we shall now quote, foresaw, no doubt,thedeplorable industryofMr.Froudeandhis protege" popular thought," whose mouth-piece he has so characteristically constituted himself, and asks in a tone wherein solemn warning blends with inquiry :"Canstthou by searching find outGod;canst thou findouttheAlmighty unto perfection!"Therational among the most loftily endowedofmankind havegrasped

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RELIGIo.NFORNEGROES.219the sublime significanceofthis query, ac quiescing reverently in its scarcely veiled in timationofman's impotence in presenceof the task to which it refers. But though Mr. Froude's spiritual plightbesuch as we havejustallowed him to state it: with regardtoanobject of faithanda motiveofworship,yetlet ushearhim, in his anxiety to furbish up a specialNegrocreed, setting forth the. motive for being in a hurry to antici patethe" crystallization"ofhis newbelief:-"Thenew creed, however, not having crystallized as ,yet into a shape which can be openly professed,andas withoutanycreedatallthefleshandthedevil might become too powerful, we maintaintheold names, as we maintainthemonarchy."Theallusiontothemonarchy seemsnota very obvious. one, asitparallelsthedefinitive rejectionofa spiritual creed withthetheo retical changeofancient notions regarding a concrete fact.Atany rate wehaveitthathis special religion, when concoctedanddis seminated, willhavetheeffectofpreventing the flesh andthedevil from having too much power over Negroes.Theobjection tothe

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220FRO UDA CITY.devil's sway seems to us to come with queer grace from one who owes his celebrity chiefly totheproduction of works teeming withthatpeculiar usageoflanguageofwhichtheEnemyofSoulsiscredited withthespecial father hood. No, sir, indienameoftheBeing regarding whose existence youandyour alleged"popularthought"areso painfully'in doubt, we protest against your right,orthatofanyothercreated worm, to formulate forthespecial behoof of Negroesanysortofartificial creed unbelieved in by yourself, havingthefunction and effectofdetective"shadowings"oftheir souls. Away with your criminal suggestionoftolerationofthe hideous orgiesofheathenism inHaytifor the benefitofour future morals intheWestIndies, when the political supremacy which you predictanddread and deprecate shallhavebecome an accomplished fact.Wereany special standardofspiritual excellence required,ourrace has, in JosiahHensonandSojournerTruth,sufficing models forourmen andourwomen respectively; TheiridealofChristian life, which we take tobethetrue one, is not to bejudgedofwith direct reference totheDeity whom we cannot

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.'221see, interrogate,orcomprehend,butto its prac tical bearing inandon man, whom we can see andhavecognizanceof,not only with our physical senses,butbytheintimationsofthedivinity which abides within us.! Wecan see, feel, and appreciatethevirtueofa fellow-mortal who consecrates himself totheDivine idea through untiring exertion forthebetteringoftheconditionoftheworld around him, whose agony he makes it his duty, only to satisfy his burning desire, to mitigate.Thefact in its ghastly reality lies before usthatthemajorityofmankind labour andarebeing crushedunderthe trinityofIgno rance, Vice,andPoverty.Itis mainly in the succouringofthose who thus sufferthatthevitalityoftheold creed is manifested inthepersonofits professors.Underthis aspect we behold it moulding men, of all nations, countries,andtongues, whose virtues have challengedandshould command on its behalfthe unquestioning faith and adhesionofevery rational observer. Evi dencesofChristianity,""Controversies,""ExegeticalCommentaries," have all provedI"Estdeus in nobis, agitante calescimus illo."-Ovza.

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222FROUDACITY.moreorlessfutile-asperhapstheyoughtwiththeScienceandModern Criticism which perverts religion into amatterofdialectics.Butthereisa hope for mankind inthefactthatScience itself shall have ultimately to admit the limitationsofhuman inquiry intothedetailsoftheInfinite. Meanwhile it requires no technical proficiency to recognizethecriminalityofthose who waste their brief threescoreandten years in abstract speculations, whilethetangible, visible, and hideous soul-destroying trinity of Vice, Ignorance,andPoverty, above men tioned, are desolatingtheworld in their very sight.Thereare ofpersonal virtue, enlightenment, and wealth, who dare stand neutral with regard to these dire exigencies among their fellows.Andyettheyarethe logical helpers, as holdersofthespecial antidote to eachofthosebanes!I nfinitely more de servingofexecrationaresuch folkthanthe callous ownerofsome specific, who allows a suffering neighbour to perish for wantofit.Wewho believe intheultimate develop. ment oftheChristian notionofduty towards God, as manifested in untiring beneficence to man,dingto thisfaith-startingfrom the

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.223beginningoftheNewTestamentdispensation-becauseSaulofTarsus, transformed into PaultheApostle through his whole-souled acceptanceofthis very creed with its prac tical responsibilities, has, in his ardent, inde fatigable labours fortheenlightenmentandelevationofhis fellows, left us a lesson whichisan enduring inspiration; because Augustine, BishopofHippo, benefited, in a manner which has borne,andeverwill bear, priceless fruit, enormous sectionsofthe human family, after his definite submission tothebenign yoke ofthesame oldcreed;because VincentdePaul has, throughtheidentical inspiration, endowedtheworld with his everlasting legacy of organized beneficence ; becauseitimpelled FrancisXavierwith yearningheartand'eagerfootsteps through thousandsofmiles of peril, to proclaim tothedarkling millionsofIndiawhat hehadexperienced to be tidingsofgreatjoyto himself; becauseMatthewHale, a lawyer,andoffirst prominence in a pursuit which materializesthemindandnips its native candour 'and tenderness, escaped un blighted, throughthesaving influenceofhis faith, approving himself inthesightofall

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224FROUDACfTY.an ideal judge, even according tothehighestconception;becauseJohnHoward, opulent and free to enjoy his opulenceandrepose, was drawn thereby throughoutthewhole continentofEuropein questofthehidden miseriesthattorture those whom the law hasshutout, in dungeons, from the light and sympathyofthe world; becauseThomasClarkson, animated by the spiritofits teachings, consecrated wealth, luxury,andthequietofan entire lifetime on the altarofvoluntary sacrifice for the salvationofan alien people ; because Samuel Johnson, shut out from mirthfulness by disease and suffer ing, and endowed with an intellectual pride intolerantoffroward ignorance, was, through..thechastening powerofthatbelief, transformed intothecheerful ministerandwilling slave oftheweaklings whomhegatheredinto his home, and around whomthetendrilsofhis heart had entwined themselves, waxing closer and stronger inthemoisture of his never-failingcharity;becauseHenryHavelock, a manofthe sword, whose duties haveneverbeen too propitious tothecultivationandfosteringofthegentler virtues, livedanddied a blameless hero, constrained bythatfaith tobeoneofits most illustrious ex-

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES.225emplars; because David Livingstone looms great and reverend in our mental sight in his devotion to a land and race embraced in his boundless fellow-feeling, and whose miseries he has commended to the sympathyofthe civilized world in words the pathos whereof has melted thousands of once obdurate hearts to crave a share in applying a balm tothe"open sore of Africa"-thatslave-trade whose number less beggar description; andfinally-onemore example outofthe countless varietiesoftypes.thatblend into a unique solidarity in the active manifestation of the Christianlife-webelieve because Charles Gordon, the martyr soldier of Khartoum, in trusting faith a_ very child, but in heroism more notable than any mere man of whom history contains a record, gathered around himself, through the sublime attractivenessbfhis faith-directedlife,the united suffrages of all nations, andnowenjoys, as the recompense and sealofhis life's labours, an apotheosis in _homage to which the heathen of Africa, the man-hunting Arab, the Egyptian, the Turk, all jostle each other to blend with the exulting childrenofBritainwhoare directly glorified by his life and history.15

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226FROUDACITY.Here, then, are speaking evidences of the believers' grounds. V eriIythey are of the kindthatare to be seen in our midst, touched, heard, listened to, respected,beloved-nay,honoured, too, with the glad worship our inward spirit springs forth to render to goodness so largely plenished from the Source of all Good. Can Modern -Science and Criticism explain them away, or persuade usoftheir insufficiency as incentives to the hearty acceptanceofthe religionthathas received such glorious, yet simply logiCal, incarnation in the persons of weak, erring men who welcomed its responsi bilities conjointly with its teachings, and raised themselves to the spiritual level picturedtoourselves in our conceptionofangels who have been given the Divine charge concern ing mankind. Religion for Negroes, indeed!Whitepriests, forsooth!Thissortofarrogance might, possibly, avail in quarters where the person and pretensions of Mr. Froude couldbeimpressive andinfluential-buthere, in the momentous concernofman withHimwho II is no of persons," his interference, mentally disposed as he tells usheis with reference to such a matter, is nothing less than profane intrusion.

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RELIGIONFORNEGROES. 227 Wewill conclude by stating in afewwords our notionoftheonly agency by which, not Blacks alone,butevery race of mankind, might be uplifted to the moral level which the thou sands of examples,ofwhich wehaveglanced atbutafew,prove so indubitablythecapa cityofman to attain each to a degree limited by the scopeofhis individual powers.Thepriesthood whereof the world stands in such dire need isnotatalltheconfederacy of augurs which Mr. Froude, perhaps in re collection of his former profession, so glibly suggests, with an esoteric creedoftheir own, "crystallized intoshape" for profession before the public.Thedayofpriestcraft being numbered withthethingsthatwere,theex ploitationofthose outsideofthe sacerdotal circle isnolonger possible.,Thereforethere ligionofmere talk, however metaphysical and profound;thereligion of scenic display, except such display be symbolic of livingandactive verities, has lost, whateverofefficacy it may once have possessed, through the very spirit and tendency of To-day.Thereason why thosefewwhomwehave mentioned,andthethou sands who cannot possibly be recalled, have, as

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FRO UDA CITY.typical Christians, impressed themselves on the moral senseandsympathyoftheages,issimplythatthey livedthefaith which they professed.Whateverwords they may have em ployed to express their serious thoughts were never otherwise than, incidentally, a spoken fragmentoftheir own interior biography.Infine, success must infallibly attend this special priesthood (whetherepiscopally"ordained"or not)ofall races, all colours, all tongues whatso ever, since their lives reflect their teachings and their teachings reflect their lives.Then,truly, they,"therighteous, shall inherittheearth," leading mankind along the highestandnoblest pathsoftemporal Then,ofcourse,theobeah,thecannibalism,thedevil-wor ship of the whole world, includingthatof Hayti, which Mr.Froudepredictswillbeadopted by us Blacks intheWestIndies, shall no more encumberandscandalize the earth. But Mr.Froudeshould,atthe same time, be remindedthat cannibalis!ll andthehideous concomitants whichhementions are, afterall,relatively minorandrestricted dangersto man's civilization and moral soundness.They can

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RELIGION FO:R NEGROES.229neither operate freely nor expand easily.Theparalysisofhorrified popular sentiment ob structs their propagation, andtheblightofthedeath-penalty which hangs over the heads of their votariesisan additional guarantee of theirbe-ingkept within bounds that minimize their perniciousness. But there are more fatal and further-reaching dangers .to public morality and happinessofwhichtheregenerated current opinion ofthefuturewill take proinpt and remedial cognizance. Foremost among these willbethecirculation of malevolent writings whereby the equilibriumofsym pathy between good menofdifferent racesissought to be destroyed, !hrough misleading appeals-tothe and prejudicesofreaders; writings in which the violationofactual truth cannot, s':lve by stark stupidity, be attri buted to innocenterror;writingsthatscoffathumanitarian feeling and belittletheimportance of achievements resulting therefrom; writings which strikeat the rootofnational manliness, by eulogizing brute force directed against weaker folk as a fitandlegitimate modeofsecuring the wishesofa mighty and enlightenedpeople;writings, infine,which ignore the divineprin.

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FROUDACITY.ciple in man, and implicitly deny the possibility of a Divine Power :;xisting outsideofand above man, thus materializing the mind, and tending to render the earth a. worse hell than it ever could have been with faith in the supremacy of a beneficent Power.

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BOOKIV.

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THUSfarwehave dealt with the main questions raised by Mr. Froude onthelines of his own choosing; lines which demonstrate to the fullest how unsuited his capacity is for appreciating-stillless grapplingwith-the political andsocial issues he has so confidently undertaken to determine.In have we sought throughout his bastard philosophizing for any phrase giving promise of an adequate treatmentofthis im portant subject.Wefind paraded ostenta tiously enoughthedoctrinethatin the mentofhuman affairs possessionofa white skin bethe recom mendation. Wondermight fairly be feltthat there isno suggestionofa corresponding ad vantage being accorded to the possessionofa long nose orofauburn hair. I ndeed, little

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234FROUDACITY.orno that can be deemed, seriousisgiven to the interestofthe Blacks, as a large and (out of Afdca) no longer despicable section ofthehuman family, in the great world-prob lems which are so visibly preparing and press for definitive solutions.Theintra-African Negro is clearly powerless to struggle successfully against personal enslavement, annexation, or volunteer forcible protection"ofhis territory. What, we ask,will ir:t thecoming ages be the opinion and attitudeoftheextra-Africanmillions-tenmillions in the Western Hemisphere-dispersedso widely overthesurface oftheglobe,apt in every conceivable departmentofcivilizedculture?Will these men remain forevertoo poor, too isolated from one another forgrandracial combinations?Orwill the naturally opulent cradle of their people, too long a prey to violence and unholy greed, becomeatlength the sacred watchword of a generation wi,lling and able to conquer or perish under its inspiration? Such large and interesting questions it was withintheprovince and dutyofa famous historian, laying confident claim to prophetic insight, not to propound alone, but also definitely to solve.Thesacred power

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RESUME. 235of forecast, however, has been confined to finical pronouncements regarding thoseforwhose special' benefit he has exercised it,andto childish insults oftheBlacks whose doom must be sealed to secure the precious result which is aimed at.Inviewofthis ill-inten tioned omission, we shall offer afewcursory remarksbearing'on,.but not attempting to answer, those concerningtheAfrican As in 'our humble 'opinion these are questions paramount to all the petty local issues finically dilated on by the confident prophet'of"TheBow of we will here briefly devote ourselves to its discussion. Acceptingthetheoryofhuman development propounded by our author, letusapply it tothethe African race. Except,ofcourse, to in telligences having a share in the CouncilsofEternity, there can be no attainable knowledge respecting the laws which regulate the growth and progressofcivilization amongtheraces of the earth.Thatintheexistenceofthe human family every age has been marked by its own essential characteristics with regard to manifestations of intellectual life, however circumscribed, is a proposition too self-evident

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FROUDACITY.to require morethanthestating.Butinvesti gation beyond such evidence as we possess concerningthepast-whetherrecorded by man himself inthewritten pagesofhistory,orbytheCreator onthetabletsofnature-would be worsethanfutile.We.seethatin the past differentraceshave successively come to the front, as prominent actors on theworld's stage.Theyearsofcivilized developmenthavedawned inturnon many sectionsofthehuman family, andtheAnglo-Saxons, who now enjoy pre eminence,gottheir turn only after Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Greece, Rome,andothers had successively heldthepalmofsupremacy.Andsince these mighty empires have all passed away, may we not then,ifthepast teaches aught, confidently expectthatotherracial hege monies will arise in the future to keep up the ceaseless progressionoftemporal existence towardstheexistencethatiseternal? What is it inthenatureof that 'will(;>ust the African race. fromtherighttoparticipate, in times to come, inthehigh destiniesthathave been 'assigned in timespastto so many racesthathavenotbeen in anywise superior to us in the qualifications, physical, moral, and intel-

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RESUME. lectual,thatmarkouta race for prommence amongst other races?Thenormal compositionofthetypicalNegrohasthetestimonyofages to its essential sound ness and nobility. Physically, as an active labourer, he is capableofthemost pro tracted exertion under climatic conditionsthemost exhausting. Bythemere, strainofhis brawn,and'sinewhehas converted waste tractsofearthinto fertile regionsofagri cultural bountifulness. ,Onthescenesofstrife he hasin;his savage state been known to be indomitable save bythestressofirresistible forces, ofmenorofcircumstances. Staunch in his friendshipandtendertowardstheweak directly under his protection,theun vitiated African furnishes in himself the combina tionofnative virtue which inthelandofhis exile was so' prolificofgoodresultsfor the wel fare ofthewhole slave-class.Butdistractedathome by the irruptionsofskulking foes,he hasbeen robbed,'bothintellectuallyandmorally,ofthe immense advantage ofPeace, which' isthemotherofProgress.Transplanted to alien climes, and through centuriesofdesolating trials, this irrepressible race has

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FROUDACITY.bated not one throb of its energy, nor onejotof itsheartorhope.Inmodern times, after his expatriation into dismal b.ondage, both Britain and Americahavehadoccasion to seethateven intheparalysing fettersofpolitical and social degradationtheright armoftheEthiopcan be a valuable auxiliary onthefield of battle. Britain, inherconflict withFrancefor supremacy in theWestIndies, did not disdaintheaidofthesable armsthatstruck together with thoseofBritons forthetrophiesthatfurnishedthemotives for those epic contests.Lateron,theunparalleled struggle betweentheNorthernandSouthernStatesoftheAmerican Unionputtothetestthe indestruc tible fibresoftheNegro'snature, moral as well as physical.TheNorthernStates, after months of hesitating repug-nance, and whentaughtat by dire defeatsthatcolour didnotinanyway.help to victory,atlength sullenly acquiesced inthecomradeship, hitherto. disdained,oftheeager African contingent;TherecordsofPortHudson, Vicksburg, Morris Island, and elsewhere, stand forth in able attestationofthefactthatthedistinctionofbeing laurelled during life as victor,orfilling

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RESUME. 239in death a hero's grave,isreserved for no colour,butfortheheartthatcan dareandthehandthatcan strike boldly in a righteous cause.TheexperienceoftheSouthern'slave-holders,, ,on.theother, hand, wasnoless strikingandworthyofadmiration.Everymanofthetwelve seceding States formingthe Souther-n Confed eracy, then fighting desperately fortheavow'ed purposeofperpetuating slavery, was called intothefield, as no available male arm could be spared fromtheconflictontheir side. Planta tion owner, overseer, and every one in authority, had tobedrafted away fromthesceneoftheir usual occupation to thestage whereon the bloody,dramaofinternecine strife was being enacted.Notonlytheplantation,butthehomeand'thehousehold, includingthemistress andherchildren,hadtobeleft, not unprotected,itis glorious to observe, but, with ,confident assurance in their loyaltyandgood faith, under the protectionof'thefour millionofbondsmen, who, throughthelawsandcustomsofthese very States, had been doomed to lifelong ignoranceandexclusion from all moralizing influences.Withwhat result?TheprotractionoftheconflictonthepartoftheSouthwould

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PROUDACITY.have been impossiblebutfortheadmirable management and realizationoftheir resources by those benighted slaves.Ontheother hand, not oneofthethousandsofNorthernprisoners escaping fromtheduranceofa Southern captivityeverappealed in vain fortheassistance and protectionofa Negro. Clearly the head and heartofthose bondsmen were each i'n its'properplace.Themoral effectofthese experiences. or theNegroes' sterling qualities was not lost on eitherNorthorSouth.IntheNorthit effaced from thou sandsofrepugnant heartstheadverse feelings which had devisedand,accomplished so much totheNegro's detriment.In the South-butfortheblundersoftheReconstructionists-itwould have considerably facilitatedthefinal readjustmentofaffairs betweentheerewhile masterandslave in their new-born relations of employerandemployed. Reverting to the Africans who were conveyed to places thantheStates,it wiIIb_eseenthatcircumstances amongst themandin their favour came into plC!-y, modifyingandlightening their unhappy condition. First, attention must be paid to the patriotic solidarity existing

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RESUME. amongstthebondsmen,.a solidarity which, it:l the caseofthose who had been deportedin'thesame had allthe of blood-rela tionship.Thosewho had thus travelled tothe"white'man's'country" addressedandcon sidered each other as brothers and sisters.Hencetheir for many generations upheld, asi(consanguineous,themodesof address andtreatment which became hereditary in familieswhoseoriginals had inthe same ship. .Theseadopted uncles, aunts, nephe'ws, nieces, so unitedbycommon sympathies,thatgoodor ill befallinganyoneof them intensely affectedthewhole' connection. Mutual support c?mmensurate withthe area oftheir location thus becamethe order' among these people.Atthetime of the'first deporta tion of AfricanstotheWestI ndies to replacetheaborigines who had been decimated in the mines at SantoDomingoandinthepearl fisheriesofthe South Caribbean,thecircum stances oftheSpanish settlers intheAntilles .were of singular, even romantic, interest.Theenthusias'm which overflowed fromthecrusades'andtheMoorish wars, uponthediscovery and conquestofAmerica, had occa16

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FROUDACITY.sioned the peoplingofthe. Western_ Archi-: pel agobya ofmen in whomthedaringoffreebooters was strangely -blended with a fierce sortofreligiousness.As ofslaves, these men recognized,andendeavoured to their best to give effect to,thehumane in junctionsofBishopLasCasas.TheNegroes, therefore, male and female, were promptly presented for admission by baptism into the Catholic Church, which alwayshadstood openandready to welcome them.'Therelationsofgod-fatherandgod-mother resulting from these baptismal functionshada most important bearing onthereciprocal stationsofmaster and slave.The were, according to ecclesiastical custom, considered ineverysense entitled to alltheprotection-andassistance which were withinthecompetence ?f thegod parents, who, intheirturn, received from the formerthemost absolute submission. It is easy to seethattheplanters, as well as those inti mately connected with them, in assuming such obligations with their concomitant responsibi lities, practically entered into bonds which they all regarded as,ifpossible, more solemn thanthenatural tiesofsecular parentage.Theduty

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RESUfrIE. 243 of providing for these usually tooktheshape. of their being apprenticed to, and trained in the various arts and vocations that constitutethelife of civilization:Inmany cases,atthe death of their patrons,the bo,ndsmen who were deemed most worthy were, according tothemeansof thetestator, provided forina manner lifting them above the necessityoffuture dependence. Manumission, too, either by favour or through purchase, was allowed the fullest operation.Herethen was the active influence of higher motives than mere greed of ortheprideofracial power mellowingthelotand gilding'the prospects:ofthe 4wellers inthetropical hou?e of bondage.Thenext, and even m.ore effectual agency in modifying and harmonizingtherelations be tw'een owner and bondspeople was the inevitable attractionofone race totheother bythesen timentofnatural ,affection..Outofthis sprang living ties far more intimate bindingonthemoralsense than obligations contracted in deference to ,the Church.Naturalimpulses have often diviner sourcesthan.ecclesiastical mandates. Obedience totheformer not seldom brings downthepenalties of theChurch;but

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244FROtJDACITY. the finds solace intheconsciousnessthatthe offence might in itselfbea proteCtion fromthethundersithas U rider these circumstances g.eneral bodyofplanters, who were in the main adventurersofthefreest type, were fain to establish connections with.suchofthe slave-women as attracted theirsympathy, through personal comelinessoraptitude in, .,.. "domestic affairs, or, usually, both combined. There ordinarily in this beginningoftheseventeenth century nb Vashtithatneeded expulsion from theabodeofa plantation Aha suenis to make room fortheAfricanEsthertobe admitted to the cnief pla<;:e withintheportals.One 'great natUl:al consequenceofthiswastheextension tothe-relativesor guardians ofthe bondswoman so bfan amountoffavour which, inthe ofthe more capable completesthe parallel we have been drawing by securing for eachofthemtheprecedence and responsibilitiesofa Mor decai. Theoffspring of these natural alliances came in therefore to cement more intimatelytheunionofinterests which previous relations hadgenerated. Beloved by their and in many cases destinedbythem to a lot superior

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RESUME. 245to that they were entitled by formal law and social prescrietion, these young procreations-,Mulattos, as they werecalled madetheobjects 9f special and cC!,reful' provisions on the fathers' part.Theywere, ,:!ccording to the means oftheir'fathers ,in themajority of cases; sent foreducation,and training to Europeanorother superior ,insti tutions. After this course' they'were either, formally acknowledged.by their fathers, or, {fthat was impracticable, amply C!,nd suitably provided for in a careeroutoftheir native colony.Toa reAecting mind there is some thingthatinterests, not to say fascinates, in studyingtheaction and reaction upon one another ofcirC1.unstancesintheexistenceofthe Mulatto.Asa matter of fact, ,he had much more to complainof under theslave system than his African relatiOns.Thelaw, by decreeingthatevery child of a freeman and a slave woman must follow the fortuneofthe womb, thus making himthepropertyofhis mother exclusively, practically robbed him before his very birth ofthenurture and protection, of a father. H is reputed father had no t'obe everi aware .of his procreation,andneverthe-

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FROUDACITY.less-soinscrutable arethewaysofProvidence!-theMulatto was the centre around which clustered the outraged instincts of nature in rebellion againstthedesecrating mandates that prescribed treason to herself Law and society may decree; but in our' normal humanity there throbs a sentiment which neutralizes every external impulse contrary to its promptings.. meditatingon'the varied history oftheNegro in theUnited States, since his first landing onthebanks of the James River in1619till the Emancipation Act of President Lincoln in1865,it is curious to observethattheelevation of the race, thoughina great measure secured, proceeded from circumstances almostthereverseofthosethatoperated so favourably inthesame direction elsewhere.Themenoftheslave-holding States, chiefly Puritansorinfluenced' by Puritanic surround ings, were notunder.theecclesiastical sway which rendered possible in theWestI ndies and other Catholic countriestheestablishment of thereciprocal bonds of god-'parents andgOdchildren.Theself-same causes operated to prevent any large blendingofthetwo races, inasmuch astheimmigrant from Britain who

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RESUME. hadgoneforth from his country tobetter fortune had not left behind him his attachmentto,the institutionsofthemother-land, among which marrying, whenever practicable, was oneofthe-most cherished. Above all, too, as another powerful checkatfirst to such alliances betweentheruling and servile racesoftheStates,thereexistedthenative idiosyncracy'oftheAnglo Saxon. That classofthem who had left Britain were likelierthanthemore -refinedoftheir nation to exhibit in its crudestandcruellest form' theinnate, jealousyandcontemptofotherracesthatpervades the Anglo-Saxon bosom.Itisbuta simple fact that, wheneverheconde scended thereto, familiarity witheventhelove liest'ofthesubject people was regarded as a mighty self-unbending for which the object should be correspo.ndingly grateful.Sotherecould, in -the beginning,beno-frequent instancesoftheromantic chivalrythatgildedthequasi marital relationsofthe more fervidandhumane membersoftheLatinstock.Butthis kindofintercourse, which intheearlier generation was undoubtedly restricted inNorthAmerica bythechecks above adverted to, and, presumably, also by the mutual unin-

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FROUDACITY.telligibility in speech, gradually expanded withthenatural increase ?f the slave population.TheAmerican-born, English-speakingNegrogirl, who hadin many cases beentheplay mateofherowner, was naturally more in telligible, more accessible, moreattractive-andtheinevitable consequence was theex tension apaceof thatintercourse,theoffspring whereof became at length so visibly numerous.AmongtheRomans,thegrandestof all colonizers, the individual's Cvs Romanus sum-Iam a Romancitizen-wassomething morethanverbal vapouring; it was a protective talisman-abuckler no lessthana sword.Yetwas thepossessionofthis and singulq.r privilege no barrier to Roman dtizens meeting onabroadhumanitarian'-levelany alien race, either allied toorunderthepro tectionofthat world-famous commonwealth.Inthe-sp'eechesofthe, foremost oratorsandstatesmen among theconquerorsofthethen known> world, tIle to subjectorallied allens are distinguished by a decorous observ anceoftheproprieties which should markanyreference to those whohadthedignity or Rome's

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RESUME. 249friendship, or the privilegeofheraugust pro tection. Observations, therefore, regarding in dividualsofrankinthese alien countries had the same sobriety and deference which marked allusions to born Romansofanalogous degree. Such magnanimity, we grieve to say, is not cha racteristicoftherace which now replacestheRomansinthecolonizing leadershipoftheworld.Weread with feelings akin to despairofthecheap,nQtto say derogatory, manner in which, in bothHouses of native poten-tates, especiallyofnon-Europeancountries,arefre quently spokenofby the her:editary aristocracyandthefirst gentlemen oftheBritish Empire.Theinborn racial contempt thus manifested in quarters wllere -rigid self-controlanddecorumshould formthe very essence of normal deport ment, was not likely, as we have before hinted, to find any mollifying ingredient inthesettlersonthebanksoftheMississippi. Therefore should we not be surprised to find, with regard to manyanillicit issueof"down_ South,"thearrogance of raceso overma!?tering thepromptingsofnatureas to render not unfrequentattheauction-blockthesightofmany a chattelofmixed blood,theoffspring

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FROUDACITY.ofsome planter whom business exigency had forced to this commercial transaction as the readiest modeofself-release.Yetwere the exceptions to this ru1e enough to contribute appreciably totheweightandinfluenceofthemixed race intheNorth,whereeducation and a fair standinghadbeen secured for their childrenbyparentsto whom lawand soCiety had made it impossibleto do more,andwhom conscience rendered in capableofstoppingatless.Fromthis comparative sketchofthehistoryoftheslaves intheStates, inthe\iVest Indiesandcountries adjacent, it will be perceivedthatinthelatter scenesofbondage everythinghadconspired torendera fusionofinterests betweentherulingandtheservile classesnotonly easy, but inevitable.Inthevery first generation 'after their introduction,theAfricans began to press upward, a movement which every decade has accelerated, in spiteof changes which supervened as eachoftheColonies fell under British sway.Nearlytwo centuries hadbythis time elapsed,andthecoloured influence, which had grown with their wealth, education, numbers, anq unity, thougli

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RESUME. circumscribed bytheemancipationoftheslaves, andtheconsequent depression in fortuneofall slave-owners, never wasorcould be annihilated. IntheGovernmen t service there were many for whom the patronageofgod-parentsorthesheer influenceoftheir familyhadeffected an entrance.Thepre valence and-potencyoftheinfluences wehavebeen dilating upon may be gauged bythefactthatpersonages no less exaltedthanGovernorsofvariousColonies-ofTrinidadinthreeau thenticcases-havebeen sharers intheprevail ing usages, inthematterofstanding sponsors (by proxy),andalsoof,relaxing inthesocietyofsome fascinatingdaughterofthesun from the tension and wearofofficial duty.Inthethree casesjustreferred to,themost careful provision was made forthesuitable education and starting in lifeoftheissues. Forthegod-childrenofGovernors there were places inthepublic service, and so fromthehighest tothelowestthehumanitarian intercourseoftheclasses was confirmed. Consequent onthefrequent abandonmentoftheir plantations by many owners who de spairedofbeing able togetalong by paying

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FROUDACITY.their way, an opening was made forthein sinuationofAbsenteeism into our agricul tural, in short,oureconomic existence.Thepowerful sugar lords, who had invested largely in the cane plantations, were fain to take overandcultivatetheproperties which their debtors doggedly refusedtocontinue working, under ofthe entire absence,oratanyrateunreliability,oflabour.Therepresenta tivesofthose new transatlantic estate proprietors displaced,butnever could replace,theoriginal cultivators, who were mostly gentlemen as wen as agriculturists. It was from this overseer classthatthevituperationsandslanders went forththat soon became stereotyped, coricerningtheNegro's incorrigible lazinessandwantofambition-thosegentry adjustingthescaleofwages, nqt accordingtQthe importanceandvalueofthelabour done; blit accordingtothescornful estimate which theyhadformedoftheNegropersonally .. And when thewages were fixed fairly, they almost invariably sought to in demnify themselves for their enforced justice bytheinsulting licenseoftheir tongues, addressed to males and females alike.Theinfluenceofsuch men on local legislation, in which tney

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RESUME. had a preponderating share, either as actual proprietors or as the attorneysofabsentees, was not inthedirectionofrefinementorliberality., Indeed, ,the kind of 'laws which theyenacted, especially duringthe' apprentice-: ship (1834-8), is thus summarized by oIfe, andhimanEnglish officer, who was a 'visitor' in those agitated daysofthe Colonies:-"Itis demonstratedthatthelaws which were to come into operation. immediately on expira tion oftheapprenticeship areofthemost objec tionable character,andfully established thefact not only of a future, intention to infringe therights'oftheemancipated classes,butoftheactual andextensive progressofa Colonial system forthatpurpose. Theobjectofthelaws is to circumscribethemarket for freelabour--toprohibitthepossessionor ?ale ofordinary articles'ofproduceonsale,theobvious intentionofwhich to theemancipated classes to a courseofagriculturalservitude-togivetheemployers a monopolyoflabour,andto keep down a free competition forwages-tocreate newandvarious modesofap,prentice'ship forthepurposeofprolonging predial service, -together with many evilsof the

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FROUDACITY.latesystem-tointroduce unnecessary restraintandcoercion, the designofwhichisto create a perpetual surveillance overtheliberated negroes,andto establish a legislative despotism.Theseveral laws passed are based upon the most vicious principles 01 legislation, and in their operation will be found intolerably oppressiveandentirely subversiveofthejustintentionsoftheBritish Legislature." Theseliberal-souledgentrywere, in s00th, Mr. Froude's "representatives'"ofBritain, whose traditions steadily followed in their fami lies, he has so wellandsympathetically set forth.Wethus see that the irritation and rancour seethinK in -the breastofthenew plantocracy, of whomthemajority wasofthetypethatthenalso flourished in Barbados, Jamaica,andDeme rara, were nourished andkeptacute inorderto theAfrican element.Harm done, certainly;butnot totheruinousextentsometimes declared. 1 t was too late for perfect success, as, accordingto' the N egrQes'own phrase, people of colour hadby tim-ealready"passedthe10ck-jaw".1 stage (at which trifling misadven-I"Yo tC'fapassellIalmachoe "-inmetaphorical allusion to new-born infantswhohave lived beyond a certain ofdays.

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RESUME tures might have nipped thegermof their pro gress inthebud.) In spiteofadverse legisla tion, and in spite ofthescandalous subservienceofcertain Governors totheColonial Legisla tures,theRace can point with thankfulnessandpride tothevisible recordsoftheir success wherevertheyhave permanently sojourned. Primary educationofa more generalandundiscriminating character, especially as to raceandcolour, was securedfor.thebulkoftheWestIndies by voluntary undertakings,andnotably throughthemunificent provisionofLadyMico, which extended tothewholeoftheprincipal islands.ThankstoLordHarrisfor introducing, and toSirArthurGordon forextending.tothesecondary stage,thepublic educationofTrini dad,therehas been since Emancipation,thatis, duringthelast thirty-seven years, a more effective bringingtogether in public schools of various grades,ofchildrenofall races arid ranks. Rivalsathome,atschoolandcollege, in books as well as ontheplayground,theyhavevery frequently gone abroad together to Jearntheprofessionsthey have selected.Inthis way there is an intercommunion between allthe

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FROUDACITY.intelligent sectionsoftheinhabitants, based on a .common training andthesubtle sym pathies usually generated in enlightened breastsbyintimate personal knowledge.Inmixed communities thus circumstanced, there. is no possibilityof-maintaining distinctions based on mere colour, as advocatedbyMr. Froude.Thefollowing brief summary by theRev. P.H.Doughlin, RectorofSt. Clement's, Trinidad, a brilliantstaramongthesonsofHam,embodies this fact in language which, so far asitgoes, is as comprehensive as it isweighty:-."Whocould, without seeming to insulttheintelligenceofmen, have predicted onthedayofEmancipationthattheNegroesthenre leased from theblightandwithering influenceoftengenerations'ofcruel bondage, so weak ened andhalf-destroyed-sodenationalized anddemoralized-sodespoiledandnaked, would be inthepositiontheyare Inspiteoftheproud, supercilious,anddictatorial bearingoftheir teachers, in spiteofthehamperingofun sympethetic, alien oversight, in spite of the spiritofdependence and servility engendered by slavery, not onlyhaveindividual members oftherace entered into all the offices of dignity in

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RESUME.ChurchandState, assubalterns-ashewersofwood and drawersofwater-butthey have at tained to the highest places.Herein theWestI tidies, and on theWestCoastofAfrica,. .are to be found Surgeons of the Negro Race, S?licitors, Barristers, Mayors, Councillors, Prin cipals and Founders of High.Schools and Col leges, Editors and Proprietors ofNewspapers, Archdeacons, Bishops, Judges, and Authors-menwhonotonly teachthoseimmedi ately around them, but also teachtheworld. Members .of the race have evenbeenentrusted with the administration of Governments. And it is not mere commonplace men that the Negro Race has produced.Notonly have the British Universities thought them worthy of their honorary degrees and conferred them on them, but membersofthe race have won these U ni versity degrees. Afewyears back.afull-blooded Negro took the highest degree Oxford has to give to a young man.TheEuropean world is looking with wonder and admirationatthe progress made by the NegroRace-aprogressunparalleled in the annalsofthe historyofany race."Tothis 'We may addthatin the domain17

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FROUDACITY.ofhigh literature the Blacksofthe United States, for the twenty-five yearsofsocial eman cipation, and despite the lingering obstructionsofcaste prejudice, have positively achieved wonders. Leaving aside the writingsofmen of such. high calibre as F. Douglass, Dr. Hyland Prof. Crummell, Prof.E.BIyden, Dr. and others, it is gratifying tobe able to chronicle the Ethiopic women North America as moving shoulder to shoulder with the men in thehighest.spheresof activity. Among a brilliant band of these our sisters, conspicuous. noless in poetry than in prose, we single outbuta solitary name forth.edouble purposeofpreserving brevity. andofgiving in one embodiment ideal Afro American womanofletters.Theallusion here can scarcely fail to point to Mrs. S. Harper,Thislady's philosophical reasoning on grave questions finds effective expression in a prose of singular precision and vigour. But it is as a poetthatposteritywillhail her in the agesofour Race. F or pathos, depth of spiritual insight, and magical exercise of a rare power'ofself-utterance, it will hardly be questionedthatshe has surpassed every com-

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RESUME. petitor among orblack-saveand except Elizabeth Barrett Browning, with whom the gifted African stands on much the same plane of poetic excellence. .Thea]:>ovesummary of our past vicissitudes and actual position showsthatthere is nothing in our poll tical circumstances tooccasion:un easiness. Themiserable skin and race doc trine we have been discussing does not at all prefigure the destiniesatall events of the Wes.t Indies, or the motivesthatwill affect them. With the exceptionofthose belonging to the. Southern ?tates of Union, the vast body of African descendants now dispersed in various countries of the Western HeJ;l1isphere areatsufficient peace to begin occupying themselves, according' to some fixed programme, about mattersofracial importance. More than ten millions of Africans are scattered over the wide area indicated, and possess amongst them instances of mental and other qualifications which. render them remarkable among their fellow-men. But like the essential partsofa complicated albeit perfect machine, these attainments and qualifications so widely dispersed await, it is evident, some potential

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260 FROU.DACIT}: agency to collect and adjust them into the vast engine essential for executing the true purposesofthe civilized African Race. Already, espe cially since the late Emancipation Jubilee, are signs manifestofa desire for intercommunion and intercomprehension amongst the more distinguishedofour people.Withintercourse and unityofpurposewillbe secured the means to carry out the obvious duties which are sure devolve upon us, especially with reference to the cradleofour Race, whichismost probably destined. to be the ultimate resting-place and headquartersofmillions. of our posterity. Withintheshort time thatwehad to compass all thatwe achieved, there could not have arisen opportunities for doing more than we have effecte4. Meanwhile our present deviceis:"Work,Hope, andWait!"Finally, it must be borne in mind that the abolitionofphysical bondage not byan'ymeans secure all the requisite conditionsof"afair field and no favour"forthefuture career ofthefreedmen.Theremnant of Jacob, ont_heir from' the Captivity, were com pelled, whilst rebuilding their Temple, literally to with the working tool in one hand

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RESUME. and the sword for personal defence in the other.Evenso have the conditions, figuratively, presented themselves under whichtheBlacks have been obliged to rear the fabricofself elevation since1838,whilst combating cease lessly the obstacles opposed totherealizingoftheir legitimate aspirations. Mental and, in many cases, materia,l success has been gained, but the machinery for accumulating and apply ing the means required for comprehensive racial enterprises is waiting on Providence, time, and circumstances for its establishment andsuccessful UNWIN BROTHERS.THEGRESHAM PRESS, CHILWORTHANDLONDON.